Mid-term: 8th grade world history

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Study Guide

The Middle Ages In Europe (Part 1)




The lord’s estate which includes the house and the village, it’s self-sufficient and the heart of the medieval economy


the court where Muslims and Jews would go on trial


set of rules for the knights, it’s a code of conduct for the knights which stressed ideals such as courage, loyalty and devotion

Papal Supremacy

The pope has supreme authority over all the kings and emperors

It’s the idea of the pope having more power than the king

Lay Investiture

Appointment or religious officials by kings or nobles or when kings hand pick religious officials that can benefit them

King picks (appoints) religious officials “hand picks them” to benefit himself


a group of people who do the same job and form an organization

its purpose is to protect the workers and their rights

it’s like a union today


the law making branch of the English government


the plan to get Muslims and Jews out of Spain

  1. What signaled the beginning of the Middle Ages?

  1. Why did Germanic peoples invade the Roman Empire?

  • A desire to gain all the power and wealth that Rome had

  1. How would you best summarize the legacy of the Roman Empire?

  • Architecture, engineering, law (government), and language

  1. What regions of the world today are still strongly influenced by the achievements of Rome?

  • Europe and the United States

  1. What is the feudal system based on?

  • Mutual obligations

  1. Who was the feudal contract between?

  • A greater lord and his less powerful noble

  1. How would you describe a medieval serf?

  • They were bound to the land but were not slaves as they could not be bought or sold

  1. How were feudalism and the manor system related?

  • Feudalism was a social order, and the manor system was the economic arrangement that supported it

  1. What was the most powerful institution of the Middle Ages?

  • The Church

  1. According to the code of chivalry, who were the three people a knight fought for?

  • His lady,

  • His feudal lord

  • His heavenly Lord

  1. What was the status of women in the Middle Ages?

  • Women’s role remained limited to the home and church

  1. What was the chief goal of the Crusades?

  • To recover (or take back) Jerusalem( or the Holy Land) from the Muslim (Turks)

  1. What did the Magna Carta grant to the nobles?

  • Basic legal rights

  1. What was the major cause of the Great Schism?

  • Arguments about which man holding the position of pope was the true pope

  1. What was the central issue of the Hundred Years War?

  • The throne of France

  1. What was the most important effect of the Hundred Years War?

  • It developed national identities for England and France as they were now seen as two separate places with two separate leaders

  • It ended the Middle Ages

  1. Why did Science make little real progress in Europe during the Middle Ages?

  • Most scholars thought that all knowledge must fit with church teachings

  1. Describe Gothic cathedral architecture.

  • Stained glass – usually more decorative such as the Rose Glass

  • Light and open

  • High ceilings

  • Fancy and decorative

  • Rib vaults – arched or pointed

  • Flying buttresses are actually used to hold up the walls

  • More open / less wall space

  • Sculpture and statues

  1. What did the devastation caused by the bubonic plague lead to?

  • The disruption and collapse of medieval society

  1. What city were they looking to recapture during the Crusades?

  • Jerusalem

  1. What caused the decline of the middle ages?

  • A middle class formed bringing an end to feudalism

  • The Crusades and the Black Death

  • Education was valued again and the corruption of the Catholic Church

The Byzantine Empire, Russia and Eastern Europe ( Part 2)



Justinian’s Code

a single set of unified laws based on old Roman laws


means emperor, Russian version of Caesar

  1. What was the capital of New Rome, or the Byzantine Empire?

  • Constantinople

  1. Describe the city of Constantinople.

  • Center of trade

  • It was fortified or surrounded by strong walls

  • It was built on a peninsula which was protected by a natural harbor

  • Crossroads between Europe and Asia

  • Its central location made it great for trade

  1. What caused the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church?

  • The use of icons

  1. What was one of the most important contribution of the Byzantine Empire ?

  • The preservation of Christianity and Greek culture

  1. What helped cause the decline of the Byzantine empire?

  • The Mongols and Turks invaded and conquered Constantinople

  • The disruption and the control of Byzantine trade

  • Bubonic Plague

  1. Describe the Mongol rule of medieval Russia

  • The Mongols allowed Russians to follow their usual customs as long as they didn’t rebel and they paid tribute or taxes

  1. After the Great Schism, what was the new name given to the Byzantine church?

  • Eastern Orthodox Church

  1. What civilizations most influenced the development of Russia?

  • Byzantines and Mongols

  1. The Abbasids were rulers of what empire?

  • Muslim Empire

The Rise of Islam ( Part 3)




one who has submitted to the will of God, monotheistic religion based on the teachings of Muhammad


The best Muslim male should be the next ruler, who is the best “fit” for the job and not necessarily someone who is a descendant of Muhammad


Or Shi’a - branch of Islam whose members believe that the blood line or descendants or Muhammad should rule

  1. What was the academic subject developed by al-Khwarizmi and originally called al-jabr ?

  • Algebra

  1. What are two important teachings that are common to all three faiths?

  • One God

  • Life After Death

  1. Why was the Hijrah important?

  • It enabled Muhammad to be accepted as a leader, gain followers, and gain power

Short Answer Section ( Part 4) Remember that you’ll only be answering 4 of these

  1. Explain how the church shaped medieval life and society? Provide two examples.

Remember to introduce the feudal system as a time where there was a weak central government, which gave the church more power

Points that you can include as examples:

  • The church was seen as the social center or “town hall” since their entire social life revolved around the church which was usually in the center of the village

  • Excommunication as the worst punishment of their life as you’re kicked out of the church

  • Canon law – the church had its own laws and its own court

  • Papal Supremacy where the church had power over the kings and the constant fighting back and forth over who was more powerful.

  • Church tax – they took the people’s money especially the poor peasants

  • They built these large gothic cathedrals where they were putting time and money into God as these took a lot of time and money to build

  1. Define feudalism and explain how it helped to create the manor economy.

The Development of Feudalism

Rome fell in A.D. 476 as a result of invasion by the Germanic tribes

Central government broke down and trade was disrupted

Cities were abandoned and population centers shifted to rural areas

Ties of personal loyalty and family bound Germanic peoples together

The lack of centralized government created the need for a new social order.

Christianity remained a major unifying force throughout most of western Europe.

Common needs for economic self-sufficiency and local protection led to a new pattern based on land ownership

The manor became the main economic unit. Church leaders helped to integrate community life.

The feudal system developed with a king at the top and

Mutual duties linking local lords, vassals, and peasants

Explanation of the Chart

  1. The fall of Rome

  2. As a result of the fall of Rome, there is no longer any central government so there is no leadership which causes the cities to fall apart of decline

  3. Due to invasions the people bail from the cities to the safety of the rural areas

  4. In the rural areas, the people need some protection and a new government structure is formed

  5. Groups formed and joined up with a wealthy landlord

  6. The manor system grew out of this as a “give and take” type of society where you give me in service and I’ll give you land

Remember to define feudalism, and then explain how it enabled the creation of the manor system
Points to include:

  • Feudalism is the government or social structure in the medieval society that works on a system of mutual obligations

  • Feudalism began because people were looking for protection.

  • People lost government and needed protection and began to form groups.

  • These groups joined with up with wealthy land owners and began a give and take partnership (feudal contract)

  • The lord needed protection and so he needs knight to fight for him (feudal contract)

  • Thus creating the Manor system which is based on “I got your back you’ve got mine”

  1. Explain the three issues that to the mistrust and desire to reform the Medieval Church.

  • Wealthy church tax of 10% was difficult for the poor who had no money

  • Lay investiture – the king pick church people which can lead to corruption

  • The buying and selling of forgiveness or indulgences for the your sins

  • Papal supremacy or the idea of the pope having more power than the king

  • Religious officials had questionable morals - gambling, drinking marrying

  • The Plague – the church wouldn’t help the people in fear of getting sick so the people lost faith in the church

  • Simony the buying and selling of church jobs or positions

  1. Define the Reconquista and Spanish Inquisition? Explain how the two are connected.

  • The Reconquista was the organized effort or plan to rid Spain of all the non-Christians (the Jews and Muslims).

  • The Spanish Inquisition was the court that let them put non-Christians on trial to get rid of them

  1. What were three effects of the Black Death?

Remember to tell what the Black Death was and how it came about before you talk about the effects
Points to include:

  • Population declines due to a lot of people dying

  • People lost faith in the church since they wouldn’t help them

  • Trade declined so prices increased in an attempt to make up the loss of money

  • People left the cities to flee the plague and moved to the country which will lead to the end of the manor system

  • Decline in the education with all the people now living in the country

  • Church lost power due to people losing faith in the church

  1. What were two main causes of the Crusades? What were two results of the Crusades?

Remember when you start this answer to say what the Crusades were before listing the causes and effects

  • Causes

  • Fighting over the Holy Land to gain control of it

  • The knights were bored since they had nothing to do so they were willing to fight when the Pope asked them since they were looking for an adventure

  • The Church was so important and had so much power that they’d do anything for it

  • Effects

  • Loss of life

  • Decline in trade

  • Increase in education as the Christians learned a lot from the Muslims

  • The blending of cultures

  • A lasting hatred between the Christians and Muslims which still exists today

  1. Describe three things that Justinian accomplished that improved the Byzantine Empire. Explain why

  1. Explain/ Describe the Five Pillars of Islam.

Remember to start this answer by defining what the Five Pillars of Islam are and then describe each one.

  • The Five Pillars of Islam are the major rules by which all Muslims of the Islamic faith live

  • The Five Pillars of Islam

  • Declaration of Faith – “There is no god but God and Muhammad is His Prophet”. By reciting this one enters the Islamic faith.

  • Prayer – Muslims are required to pray five times a day, washing themselves before prayers and facing in the direction of Mecca while praying

  • Giving Alms or Charity – Muslims are required to give away a percentage of their earnings to those less fortunate, regardless of their religion

  • Fasting During the Month of Ramadan – Muslims fast for one lunar month each year, a period called Ramadan. During this time, Muslims reflect on their behavior and strive to purify their thoughts. They are required to fast during this time from sun-rise to sun-set

  • Pilgrimage or Journey to Mecca – If it is physically or financially possible, Muslins are required to travel to Mecca once in their lifetime

Essay Section ( Part 5) Remember that you’ll only be answering 1 of these

1. Explain how Feudalism developed in Europe starting with the fall of Rome.

 Feudalism was the social and government structure that developed after the fall of Rome. After Rome fell a series of events occurred that led to the rise of the new social order
Once Rome fell

  • No central government

  • No leadership and cities fell apart

  • Invasion led people to move from the cities to the rural country

  • People needed protections and a new government

  • Groups forced to work together

  • Developed their own roles and a partnership from which the feudal society and manor system grew

Concluding paragraph can be based on the last bullet
2. Discuss the main beliefs and concepts connected to the three monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Explain three similarities and three differences between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
In the world today there are three major religions, Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Although all three religions has the same origin each one will develop differently

 Mention the three similarities one at a time and then make it a difference for how it religion uses/names it

 Concluding paragraph example: As you can see though these three religions are very similar they also have many differences
3. Evaluate what caused the decline of the Middle Ages. Explain/ describe two reasons.

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