Moderate reconstruction radical reconstruction

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Advocated by Pres. Lincoln

Andrew Johnson

Advocated by Radical Republicans (the most powerful political body after Lincoln’s assassination)

Charles Sumner

Thaddeus Stevens

Basic Tenets

  • Heal the United States as quickly as possible

  • Provide legal and social recourse for emancipated slaves

  • Reconstruct Southern society and infrastructure

  • Punish the South for the 5 years of horror

  • Feared that any “moderate” plan would re-enslave blacks


“Ten Percent Plan”

  • South never legally withdrew from Union (a constitutional impossibility), should be integrated as quickly as possible

  • 10% of Southern voters pledge loyalty oath

  • South recognized full emancipation of slaves

  • Speed up Reconstruction

Wade—Davis Bill

  • Required 50% of Southern voters pledge loyalty oath

  • Enforce legal safeguards to protect slaves

  • Push for passage of 14th and 15th Amendments

  • Delay reincorporation of South into the Union

  1. Freedmen

    1. The Problem

      1. Emancipated blacks were repeatedly re-enslaved after the departure of the Union army

      2. Planters appealed to local property laws and state constitutions to retain their property rights

      3. Blacks were very, very angry about their treatment and years of bitter enslavement

      4. Blacks were confused about alternatives to slavery

        1. Employment?

        2. Family?

        3. Housing?

        4. Livelihood?

      5. Black Codes—The institution of Jim Crow Laws

        1. Consisted of local laws aimed at preventing blacks their constitutional privileges

  1. Scared from voting

  2. Punished for job idleness

        1. Forbade blacks from serving on juries, renting/leasing land

      1. The Ku Klux Klan

        1. Founded 1866 in Tennessee

        2. Self-proclaimed protectors of Americanism

        3. Used terrorist tactics to prevent blacks from civil and human rights

    1. The Solution

      1. Federal government set up Freedmen’s Bureau

      2. Intended to provide freedmen with literacy and job skills

      3. Ensure democratic process: the ability to vote, equal access to courts

    2. Constitutional Amendments—“The Civil Rights Amendments”

      1. 13th Amendment—Abolished slavery

      2. 14th Amendment—Ensured civil rights to blacks

        1. All blacks were guaranteed American citizenship

        2. State penalties if citizenship were prevented

        3. Former Confederate prevented from holding ANY political office

        4. Confederate debt re-enforced

      3. 15th Amendment—Guaranteed all blacks the right to vote

  1. Andrew Johnson, ‘the impeachment President”

    1. A poor Moderate

      1. Johnson continued Lincoln’s moderate policies

      2. As a southerner, Johnson was torn between his affection and loyalty to the South and his ideology

      3. Considered weak and ineffectual by his opponents, the “radical Republicans”

      4. Was the only Confederate congressman not to leave Congress with the Civil War

      5. Vetoed many Republican bills, particularly ones which conferred civil rights to blacks or struck at black codes.

    2. Impeachment

      1. Reason: The Tenure of Office Act

        1. Johnson attempted to remove political appointee from office, Edward Stanton

        2. Since Congress confirmed cabinet positions, it passed a law requiring Senate consent of removal

        3. Johnson removed Stanton, claiming the Constitution, not law, was more important.

        4. Was acquitted, not-guilty, by margin of one vote.

      2. Excuse: Anti-Radical Reconstruction

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