Name Date Individuals and Societies – 7 Vocabulary



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Individuals and Societies – 7 Vocabulary


The Seeds of Culture - Unit 1 Vocabulary


  1. Land bridge – Land that connects two regions




  1. MesoamericaA region that stretches from modern day Mexico to Nicaragua where several pre-Columbian civilizations lived including the Olmec, Maya, and Aztecs.




  1. The Three Sisters – Corn, Beans and Squash; the food staples for the Native American people




  1. Maya - A Mesoamerican civilization of southern Mexico (Yucatan Peninsula) and Central America. They established a vast empire that had many achievements including: monumental architecture, the concept of zero, a written language and a calendar




  1. Slash and Burn FarmingMethod of farming used by people who live in dense forests. People would cut the trees and burn to provide rich soil, however, does not sustain farming for long period of time




  1. Aztec - A Mesoamerican civilization of (Central) Mexico who created a strong empire that had many cultural achievements, including architecture, aqueducts, chinampas and causeways.




  1. ChinampasArtificial floating islands anchored to the lake bottom and were used for agriculture. This technique was used by the Aztecs.




  1. Inca - A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru. The Inca ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, monumental architecture, and terrace farming.




  1. Terrace Farming – Farming method that cuts steps into the sides of mountains and hillsides.




  1. Inuit A tribe of Native American people that live near present day Alaska and built homes made of ice




  1. Anasazi (Pueblo) –Native Americans tribes that lived near modern day Arizona and New Mexico who made their homes from sun dried brick made from mud.




  1. Iroquois – Native American Tribes that lived in the Northeast between the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean or the eastern woodlands




  1. Haudenosaunee – Term that means “People of the Long house”




  1. League of Iroquois – Confederation or alliance of Iroquoian speakers that consisted of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida and Mohawk people. The League kept peace among tribes, unified warfare against outsiders and were successful in dealing with the English and French colonists




  1. Algonquians – People that lived to the north and east of the Iroquois and allied themselves with the French to control the fur trade




  1. People of the Great Plains – Nomadic people that migrated seasonally to hunt buffalo from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi River; There were over three dozen or more Tribes including the Cheyenne, Crow, Iowa, Pawnee, Sioux and Apache




  1. AnimismThe oldest known type of belief system in the world. Animists believe that all living and nonliving objects in the universe has a spirit and also practice ancestor worship




  1. Sahara Desert – Largest desert in world, located in North Africa




  1. Islam - A monotheistic religion in the world; founded by the Prophet Muhammad, in Mecca; Beliefs include the Five Pillars of Islam, and readings from the Qur’an




  1. Muslim – A follower of the Islamic faith




  1. Ghana Empire – West African Trading Kingdom from AD 700 - 1000. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert.




  1. Mali Empire – West African Trading Kingdom from AD 1200 - 1400. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert.




  1. Renaissance – The “rebirth” of European society that led to an increased interest in art and learning




  1. Reformation – Movement in Christianity that led to the split between the Catholic Church and Protestants




  1. Christianity - A monotheistic religion; It was founded by Jesus; Main beliefs include the 10 Commandments, atonement of sins, and readings from the Old and New Testaments (Bible)




  1. Roman Catholics – Christians that follow the Roman Catholic Church that is led by the Pope




  1. Protestants – Christians who “protested” the practices of the Catholic Church and formed their own Christian Churches




  1. Printing Press – printing devise invented by Johannes Gutenberg that mechanically inked paper; this invention led to an increase in literacy rates




  1. Age of Exploration Time period where Europeans looked for alternative trade routes to Asia in search of spices. This period led to the “discovery” and conquest of the Americas




  1. Spices – valuable resources that were used to flavor food, as medicines and perfumes




  1. Mercantilism - The policy of building a nation's wealth by exporting more goods than it imports; Wealth=Power; Mother country benefits ($$) from colonies




  1. Colonization - A group of people moving from their homeland to a new area in large numbers.




  1. Conquistadors - Spanish conqueror or soldier in the Americas




  1. Hernan Cortez – Spanish Conquistador that conquered the Aztecs




  1. Francisco Pizarro – Spanish conquistador that conquered the Inca




  1. Henry Hudson – English Explorer who sailed for the Dutch and landed at the coast of present day New York




  1. Jacques Carter – French Sailor who sailed up the St. Lawrence River to present-day Montreal.




  1. Samuel de Champlain – founder of the fur-trading post in Quebec




  1. New France – first permanent French settlement in North America that stretched from present day Canada along the great Lakes and in present day USA along the Mississippi River.




  1. New Netherland – Dutch settlements that were located in Present day New York




  1. Smallpox - A highly contagious disease whose origins are from the Eastern hemisphere; Native Americans had no immune system for this disease which caused millions to die (up to 90% of their population)




  1. Missionaries – People who went to the New World to convert Native Americans to Christianity




  1. Triangular Trade – Trading system that occurred between Europe, Africa, and the Americas; Raw materials from the Americas, manufactured goods from Europe, and slaves from Africa.




  1. Columbian Exchange – The vast trading system that resulted from Columbus’ voyages to the new world; the exchange of goods, ideas, people, animals, plants, and disease from the Old World to the New World and vice versa.




  1. Bartolome de Las Casa – Spaniard who fought for Native American rights but subsequently led to the African slave trade




  1. Plantation – Large farm that raises cash crops




  1. Middle Passage – The forced voyage of slaves from Africa to the Americas over the Atlantic Ocean; It is believed that millions perished during the voyages




  1. Slave – someone who is captured or bought and used in forced, unpaid labor




  1. Slave Codes – Law passed to regulate the treatment of Slaves




  1. Racism – Belief that people are inferior because of their race


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