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Chapter 15 – Regents Questions

1 One reason the Renaissance began in Italy was that Italian city-states
(1) defeated the Spanish Armada

(2) were unified as a nation under the Pope

(3) were unaffected by the Commercial Revolution

(4) dominated key Mediterranean trade routes

2 In The Prince, Machiavelli advises rulers to
(1) seek the approval of the people

(2) establish and maintain power

(3) promote openness in government

(4) learn and follow the commandments of the church

3 What was one ideal of Renaissance humanism?
(1) training as a knight and practicing chivalry

(2) obeying divine right monarchs and the church

(3) living apart from the world and taking monastic vows

(4) investigating areas of interest and fulfilling one’s potential

4 • Stained glass windows assist people in understanding Biblical stories.

• Taller and larger cathedrals emphasize the grandeur and glory of God.

These statements best describe elements of

(1) the Four Noble Truths

(2) Chinese pagodas

(3) Gothic architecture

(4) Greek ideas
5 Which geographic factor contributed to the rise of the Renaissance in Italian city-states?
(1) mountainous terrain of the Alps

(2) location near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea

(3) navigable waters of the Danube River

(4) ease of travel on the Northern European Plain

6 Which change to Christian church practice was suggested by Martin Luther?

(1) increasing the sale of indulgences

(2) installing statues of saints in churches

(3) saying the mass in Latin so the faithful would learn it

(4) printing the Bible in the vernacular so all could read it
7 The Pattern of Urbanization: The Primate [First] and Secondary Cities, 650–1500

7 Based on the information provided by this map, which statement about urban areas between 650 and 1500 is


(1) Most urbanization occurred in the Southern Hemisphere.

(2) Most urbanization is associated with a tropical climate.

(3) Most urban areas were located in Europe.

(4) Most urban areas developed near waterways.

8 Humanism during the Italian Renaissance was focused on
(1) the affairs of the church

(2) self-sufficiency

(3) the importance of the individual

(4) political theories

9 Which individual’s work had the greatest impact on the spread of Martin Luther’s ideas?
(1) Galileo Galilei (3) William Shakespeare

(2) Niccolò Machiavelli (4) Johannes Gutenberg

*** “. . . I conclude, therefore, with regard to being feared and loved, that men love at their own free will, but fear at the will of the prince, and that a wise prince must rely on what is in his power and

not on what is in the power of others, and he must only contrive to avoid incurring hatred, as has been explained. . . “
10 This passage is most closely associated with the ideas of
(1) Pope Urban II (3) John Calvin

(2) Niccolò Machiavelli (4) Thomas Malthus

11 What was one cause of the Protestant Reformation?
(1) revolt by the Moors in Spain

(2) passage of the Act of Supremacy in England

(3) call for the Council of Trent by Pope Paul III

(4) corruption among high officials of the Catholic Church

12 What was a major characteristic of the Renaissance in Europe?
(1) Secular achievements were emphasized.

(2) Suffrage was granted to men and women.

(3) Most literature was written in Arabic.

(4) Most ancient Greek and Roman ideas were rejected.

13 What was one result of the travels of Marco Polo?
(1) Africa remained isolated.

(2) Ottoman power decreased.

(3) Colonies were established in Japan.

(4) Interest in Asian cultures increased.

14 Which advancement in technology revolutionized the way ideas were spread throughout western

Europe in the 15th century?

(1) development of the astrolabe

(2) introduction of the telegraph

(3) improvements to the printing press

(4) creation of the telescope

15 Martin Luther was primarily dissatisfied with the Roman Catholic Church because he
(1) thought the church lacked structure

(2) disagreed with the sale of indulgences

(3) blamed the church for not curing people who had the plague

(4) believed that kings should have more power to appoint clergy

16 • The introduction of gunpowder helped bring an end to feudalism.

The printing press played an important role in causing the Reformation.
These statements best reflect the idea that
(1) environmental changes can affect human society

(2) contact with other societies can lead to conflict and war

(3) economic change can be slow and almost unnoticed

(4) technological advances can lead to major change

17 Which period in European history is most closely associated with Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo,

William Shakespeare, and Nicolaus Copernicus?

(1) Early Middle Ages (3) Age of Absolutism

(2) Renaissance (4) Enlightenment

18 Which situation is considered a cause of the other three?
(1) Religious unity declines throughout Europe.

(2) The Catholic Counter-Reformation begins.

(3) The power of the Roman Catholic Church decreases.

(4) Martin Luther posts the Ninety-five Theses.

19 One similarity between Martin Luther and Henry VIII is that they
(1) argued against the establishment of a theocratic state

(2) protested against the ideas of the Enlightenment

(3) died during the Reign of Terror

(4) challenged the teachings of the Catholic Church

20 • Literacy rates rise.

• Shakespeare’s sonnets circulated.

• Secular ideas spread.
Which innovation led directly to these developments?
(1) printing press (3) paper currency

(2) astrolabe (4) caravel

21 “. . . Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope’s indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved; . . .” — Martin Luther
Which period in European history is most directly related to this statement?
(1) Age of Exploration (2) Scientific Revolution (3) Crusades (4) Protestant Reformation

22 One major characteristic of the Renaissance period is that the

(1) Catholic Church no longer had any influence in Europe

(2) The manor became the center of economic activity

(3) The classical cultures of Greece and Rome were revived and imitated

(4) The major language of the people became Latin

23 • Pope Leo authorizes the sale of indulgences, 1515

Martin Luther posts the Ninety-five Theses, 1517
These events are most closely associated with the
(1) Protestant Reformation

(2) Crusades

(3) Age of Reason

(4) Puritan Revolution

24 • Martin Luther stresses the central role of faith.

The belief of predestination spreads throughout Switzerland.

The Council of Trent clarifies the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.

These statements describe ideas and events that

(1) brought religious unity to Europe

(2) shaped the Reformation and the Counter Reformation

(3) ended the Glorious Revolution

(4) expanded the importance of the Orthodox Church

25 Which statement best expresses an idea held by many Renaissance humanist philosophers?

(1) People should study worldly subjects as well as sacred matters.

(2) Governments should establish overseas empires.

(3) Individuals should withdraw from the world and study religion.

(4) Scholars should dedicate themselves to the study of life after death.

26 A direct impact that the printing press had on 16th-century Europe was that it encouraged the
(1) spread of ideas

(2) beginnings of communism

(3) establishment of democracy

(4) development of industrialization

27 In Western Europe, Martin Luther’s Ninety-five Theses and Henry VIII’s Act of Supremacy led to
(1) an end to Christian unity

(2) a strengthening of economic unity

(3) better relations between peasants and merchants

(4) fewer violent outbreaks between ethnic groups

28 • Leonardo DaVinci used movement and perspective in his work.

Machiavelli’s The Prince advised rulers on how to gain and maintain power.

Humanist scholars examined worldly subjects and classical culture.
Which period is associated with these statements?
(1) French Revolution (3) Early Middle Ages

(2) Renaissance (4) Enlightenment

29 Which factor contributed to the beginning of the Renaissance in Italian cities?

(1) occupation by foreign powers

(2) interaction with Latin America

(3) surplus of porcelain from Japan

(4) access to important trade routes

30 What is meant by Machiavelli’s belief that “the end justifies the means”?

(1) Leaders may use any method to achieve what is best for the state.

(2) The general public always acts in its own best interest.

(3) Pleasing all of the people at any given time is possible.

(4) Leaders must always act for the common good.

31 In the early 1500s, Martin Luther’s “Ninety-five Theses,” Henry VIII’s “Act of Supremacy,” and John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion contributed to
(1) a decline in the power of the Catholic Church

(2) an increased sense of nationalism in Tudor England

(3) the growing power of the feudal nobility in Europe

(4) a major conflict among Eastern Orthodox Christians

32 The feudal systems in both medieval Europe and early Japan were characterized by

(1) a decentralized political system

(2) religious diversity

(3) an increased emphasis on education

(4) the development of a wealthy middle class

33 Prior to the Protestant Reformation, the medieval church in western Europe was criticized for
(1) sponsoring explorations to the Middle East

(2) allowing the Bible to be printed and distributed to the people

(3) being too concerned with worldly power and riches

(4) refusing to sell indulgences to peasants

34 In his book The Prince, Niccolò Machiavelli advises that a wise ruler is one who

(1) keeps taxes and food prices low

(2) encourages education and the arts

(3) allows advisors to speak their minds

(4) does what is necessary to stay in power

35 A major reason that the Renaissance began in Italy was that

(1) Italian city-states had grown wealthy from trade between Europe and Asia

(2) farmers produced great agricultural surpluses on vast plains

(3) merchants supported the Green Revolution

(4) many European scholars had migrated to this area

36 An important effect of the Protestant Reformation in Europe was that it strengthened the

(1) power of monarchies

(2) power of the pope

(3) belief in polytheism

(4) unity of Europe

37 The Renaissance in Western Europe is best described as a period marked by

(1) unquestioned reliance on the teachings of Aristotle

(2) an advance of Muslim culture

(3) Christian unity throughout the region

(4) great intellectual and artistic creativity

38 One way in which the code of chivalry in Europe and the code of Bushido in Japan were similar is that both codes were intended to

(1) help the ruler control his people

(2) guide the behavior of a warrior class

(3) benefit all the social classes

(4) support revolutionary ideas

39 The revival of Greek and Roman culture, the economic growth of Italian city-states in the 1400s, and the development of humanism were aspects of the

(1) Age of Revolutions

(2) Protestant Reformation

(3) Spread of Islam

(4) European Renaissance


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Base your answer to question 43 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.

Europe (1280 – 1500)

43 Which conclusion can be drawn from the information provided by the map?
(1) Africa was Europe’s most active trading partner.

(2) The Hanseatic League controlled trade in the Black Sea.

(3) Asians and Europeans traded primarily by water routes.

(4) A vast network of trade routes connected the centers of trade in Europe.


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