Nazi germany

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Module Code:


Module Title:

Nazi Germany

Staff Contact Details:

Name: Tim Kirk

Role: Professor of European History


Tel: 0191 222 5078

Office Hours: Weds 10-12 Armstrong 1.40G

Aims and objectives can be found in the module catalogue

Schedule of Teaching:

12 3-hour seminars


Students are required to attend ALL lectures, seminars and tutorials.

Reading List:

Reading lists can be found using the link below

Assessment Weighting:
Assessment Weighting: The module is assessed by course work (four documentary commentaries, each of 500 words) and one three-hour examination.

The course work is worth 25% (equally divided between the four exercises) and the exam 75%

Assessed Work
Seminar introduction:

Each student is expected to introduce at least one seminar discussion with a power point presentation.

Training for power point will be provided outside the normal seminar slot in the first week of term, and further help sessions will be available for those who need them.

Deadline for Assessed Work:

Documentary commentary 1: 17 October

Documentary commentary 2: 7 November

Documentary commentary 3: 28 November

Documentary commentary 4: 9 January
Assessed Work
Un-assessed Work: If you would like to write further documentary commentaries or practice essays for the exam, please let me know and I can help you choose suitable examples from past papers.
Deadline for assessed work:

The deadline for submitting work is 12pm on the date stated above. Please complete an assignment submission form, attach it to your work and place it in the drop box outside of the School Office. You must also submit your assignment through Turnitin by 12pm.

Assignments must be submitted in hard copy and through Turnitin to be deemed as fully submitted. Assignments are not given to the marker if they have not been submitted through Turnitin.
Any work submitted after 12pm will be recorded as late.
If you wish to request an extension to the deadline for your submitted work, or to request any other adjustment to the assessment for the module, complete a PEC form. PEC stands for Personal and Extenuating Circumstances. Please note that extensions will only normally be granted in the following situations:

  • Debilitating personal illness supported by a medical certificate

  • Serious illness or death of a close relative

  • Participation in a University-approved scheme for which strict guidelines for extensions/extra time will be issued

  • In the case of part-time or work-based students, unplanned and unavoidable work commitments

PEC forms can be collected from the School Office. For further information please contact the School Office Manager, Mrs Pippa Milburn (


The exam consists of a compulsory documentary commentary (gobbet) question and two essay questions.

For the gobbet question you will be expected to write on two gobbets from a choice of six.
You will be able to choose two from about eight essay questions.
Look at past exam papers to get a feel for the structure of the exam.

Past Exam Papers

Past exam papers can be found at

Marking Criteria

For details of the criteria that module leaders take into consideration when assessing your work, please refer to the Degree Programme Handbook.

Modifications in response to module feedback

Student feedback is collected via questionnaires and during Board of Studies and Staff Student Committees. Feedback is taken into consideration when reviewing module content and structure.


The purpose of a special subject in history is to look closely at a specific historical event, development or narrowly defined period through the available primary sources; to establish what kinds and what quality of historical evidence exists; and to examine the ways in which it has been used by historians. This means that we will be using a combination of primary, secondary, and historiographical material.

The main focus of this course is the relationship between state and society in Nazi Germany, but we shall also be looking at the regime’s racial policy, its foreign policy, the war, and the occupation of Europe. One of the central questions in this area is the tension between the dramatic consequences of Nazi rule and the everyday experience of ordinary Germans. The corpus of secondary literature on Nazi policy in the fields of social control, anti-Semitism, and foreign policy is already vast, and there is a growing literature on popular morale, dissent and resistance, accommodation and consent. The course will conclude with larger interpretative questions: Did the Nazis bring about a social revolution and modernise Germany? Was Nazism part of a broader fascist project to impose an authoritarian version of modernity on Europe as a whole? Did the Nazis articulate popular prejudices and aspirations or impose a radical programme on a reluctant Germany? Other questions, whether general or specific to the various topics for seminar discussion, may be suggested by members of the group.
Attendance and preparation

You are expected to attend all twelve meetings unless there are good reasons (illness or compelling personal circumstances) for not doing so. You will need to prepare for the seminar by reading both from the primary sources for that week, and from the secondary sources listed in recommended reading for each particular theme.

There is also a comprehensive reading list at the end of this booklet), for further reading. Additional material may be suggested during the course.

Seminar presentations
Each member of the group will present at least one seminar introduction during the course of the module.
The presentation should be a PowerPoint presentation, and the plan is to make these presentations available to the whole group, either by posting them on Blackboard or by using ReCap. We will be discussing this in the first meeting. There will be a PowerPoint training session organised in the first or second week of term, outside the normal seminar slot. Everybody should attend this session, which will involve designing a practice PowerPoint presentation on the Weimar Republic, based on the content of the first seminar. There will also be refresher sessions for those who want them. Presenting with PowerPoint should help you develop a range of transferable skills.
The presentation should contain brief pointers to the main issues raised by the topic, along with an indication of useful reading (the sources you have used and found useful), and should end with some questions to start off a discussion of the subject.
The presentation itself should last no longer than five to ten minutes, and its purpose should be to draw the group’s attention to issues and to raise questions of discussion (rather than to communicate information). You should not be reading out a narrative summary from the sheet as a mini-lecture.
The content of the papers should not be a substitute for preparation for the rest of the class, but a starting point for a more general discussion. In the course of the discussion we should move from general questions to a consideration of the documentary evidence.
You will be provided with a set of documents for this module. They will also be posted on Blackboard, along with this guide.
Required and Suggested Reading

You will also find it useful, each week in addition to reading from the recommended secondary literature, to read the appropriate sections of the documents in Jeremy Noakes and Geoffrey Pridham, Nazism. A Documentary Reader, which is published in four volumes by Exeter University Press (and where suggested, documents from other, similar, selective editions of sources). There are several copies of all four volumes in the library. All four volumes will be useful for the course, but if you are thinking of buying them it’s worth considering which volume you will find most useful for your own work, and sharing the cost with a friend. It is also possible to buy second-hand copies for considerably less than the published price. generally has some copies of each of the volumes for substantially less. Documents from other collections are also occasionally recommended in the seminar, and there is a list of further documentary collections and other primary sources in the comprehensive bibliography.

The final part of each meeting will be based on class discussion of specific documents.
Although there is no particular ‘set text’ for the module, you will find Jane Caplan’s book Nazi Germany (Oxford 2007) extremely useful. My book Nazi Germany (Palgrave 2007) is based on the course. But you should read as widely and critically as possible rather than relying on any one account.
As a starting point Neil Gregor, Nazism, is a useful collection of excerpts from secondary literature on a number of themes, with a strong emphasis on work with an interpretative character.
Many of the extracts in Gregor serve to illustrate points made in Ian Kershaw, The Nazi Dictatorship. This book is essentially an historiographical survey of important debates about nature of the Nazi state and its policies.
There should be no problem with finding reading material: More has been written in English about the Nazi dictatorship than virtually any other single episode in European history, and the university library is exceptionally well-stocked with books on Nazism, fascism and German history. You will, of course, have to look beyond German history (943). Books on the war and the holocaust are often classified under general European history, and books on fascism (including the history of the Nazi Party) are often on the Politics or Sociology shelves in the library. Some of these will be reserved for use in the library only.
In addition the library now has a very large collection of e-books. Tread carefully: as these come in publishers’ packages the Library’s acquisition of e-books has sometimes been random, and the fact that it is in the library does not necessarily mean that an e-book is recommended reading. Nevertheless this is an increasingly valuable resource. When you call up some electronic books there will be reference to a charge. You will never have to pay for an e-book found through the library catalogue. Similarly, you not worry about the library bearing the cost. Demand is an efficient way for the library to find out what e-books it needs to buy.
If you are unable to get hold of a copy of a particular book, which you need for a specific purpose, you should reserve it. If it is missing you should report it to a librarian. In the meantime, you may be able to find another copy in another library in the north-east (e.g. Northumbria, Durham, the Lit and Phil., or a public library).
Finally, some books containcollections of essays which you will find it useful for different themes. Richard Bessel (ed.), Life in the Third Reich; Michael Burleigh (ed.), Confronting the Nazi Past; Jane Caplan (ed.), Inside Nazi Germany; Childers and Caplan (eds), Reevaluating the Third Reich; David Crew (ed.), Nazism and German Society.
In addition the library now has a very wide range of journals, now almost exclusively E-Journals. Back-runs are available through JStor, but for the most recent work you will need to go through the separate journal titles. Many journals frequently publish new work on Nazism, among them German History, Central European History, Journal of Contemporary History, Journal of Modern History, European History Quarterly.
The Journal of Contemporary History frequently has special issues, starting with the very first issue in 1966, which was a special issue on fascism. The most recent is July 2010; 45 (3), a special issue on concentration camps edited by Christian Goeschel and Nikolaus Wachsmann. You should check these journals, and others, for material on specific themes or topics; and it is particularly important to check the new journals as they come out, to make sure your work incorporates the latest research findings.

Assessment is by course work (25%) and examination (75%).
Each member of the group will be expected to deliver at least one seminar introduction using PowerPoint. As a pilot this year the presentation will be assessed and the mark can be substituted for that of one of the documentary commentaries if appropriate.
The presentation should last no longer than ten minutes. The purpose of this exercise is to stimulate a discussion among the group, but it is also to ensure that you have had the opportunity to develop the kind of communication skills you will need in a graduate profession.
The four documentary commentaries should be chosen from the source reader which will be distributed to all students at the beginning of the module. You should work on documents related to a theme you have already covered in the module, and try to spread your work across a range of themes (rather than concentrating everything on one or two themes, e.g. youth, propaganda, anti-Semitism. The deadlines are chosen with this in mind. The purpose of these exercises is for you to practise writing documentary commentaries before the exam, but also to ensure that you get some feedback on your written work that enables you to progress. So please take our feedback into account when writing the next commentary.

Documentary commentary 1: 17 October

Documentary commentary 2: 7 November

Documentary commentary 3: 28 November

Documentary commentary 4: 9 January
The exam paper consists of a compulsory document section where you will be asked to comment on two documents from a choice of about eight. You will then be asked to answer two essay questions from a choice of eight. There are several years of past papers for the module, but remember that the content and approach of modules changes, and there are no guarantees of questions on any particular theme. When preparing for the exam you should start from the broadest possible basis of understanding and knowledge of the period, not pick a limited number of ‘topics’.

NB: You may not write on a source in the exam if you have already written a documentary commentary on that same source.

Writing about documents: Who, what, why, when, where, and how?
Primary evidence is the basis of historical research and writing. This kind take all kinds of forms – archival documents, private papers, published sources, visual and oral evidence, the built environment and material culture. Most of the evidence that will be used here will be text, and the following are some questions to bear in mind when reading the documents.

  1. Who?

What is the provenance or authorship of the document? Was it produced by a public servant or a bureaucrat, by a party or organisation, or by a private individual? Is it personal (a memoir, letter or diary)?
What do you know about the type of organisation or person generally, or the particular organisation or person? How reliable is the author? Is she aspiring for objectivity or making a partisan point? (Don’t make assumptions about gender, social class etc.)

  1. What?

What kind of document is it? (Act of Parliament, manifesto, memoir, diary, letter, statistical table, visual image, building etc. etc.) What can we say about the nature of such documents? Is a manifesto written to persuade, boast, manipulate? Is a memoir written to inform, record, entertain, justify?
3. Why?

What was the reason for the document? Was it specifically written to persuade, deceive, inform, mislead etc? Is it a routine record or a response to a specific problem, development, request, incident? Who is being addressed?

4. When/where?
Establish the immediate context of the document. When was it written? Where? Is the date, time or place important? (Was it written in ignorance of important simultaneous events, for instance?) How does it relate to other documents and other kinds of document? If it is legislation, for example, what was the response of the press / public opinion. If it is an event reported in the press, are there other contemporary accounts (police reports, descriptions in diaries or letters)? What was the impact or effect of the document?
5. How?

What can you say about the form of the document? Is the language formal, informal, patronising, deferential, serious, gossipy, persuasive, clearly nonsense etc. etc.? Are there contemporary political or cultural references which need to be explained? Is it metaphorical, or allegorical? Does it address different readerships in different ways?


1. Introduction

The first part of the seminar will be used to work through arrangements for the module, including the allocation of seminar presentations.

Nazism was not something that came as a bolt from the blue in 1933 and disappeared just as quickly in 1945. Its long-term roots lay in the nineteenth century and its consequences have persisted long after the end of the Second World War. The purpose of this seminar is to locate the history of Nazism in its broader historical context without suggesting that the whole of German history (and particularly the Weimar Republic) was a rehearsal for the Third Reich.
There are a number of historiographical positions to be aware of here. One of the extreme poles of the discussion are characterised by the strong feeling expressed during and after the war that there was some flaw in German history or in the German character. This view is reflected in the thrust of A.J.P. Taylor’s The Course of German History. At the other extreme many commentators in Germany itself, particularly those close to the post-war political establishment have been keen to emphasise the exceptional nature of Nazism, play down its connections with the pre-war conservative parties and misleadingly characterise 1945 as a ‘year zero’ in German history.
The following selection of reading covers the ‘pre-history’ of Nazism. Some of them (Eley, Evans) address the problem of writing about Germany before 1930 without dwelling on what was to come.
Seminar Reading:
Neil Gregor, Nazism B: The Emergence of National Socialism. Section i (Wehler, Kocka, Eley, Groh)
K. D. Bracher, The German Dictatorship Ch.1

Richard Evans, ‘The Emergence of Nazi Ideology’ in Caplan (ed.), Nazi Germany

Peter Fritzsche, ‘The NSDAP 1919-1934: from fringe politics to seizure of power’, in Caplan (ed.), Nazi Germany

Michael Kellogg, The Russian Roots of Nazism. White Émigrés and the Making of National Socialism 1917-1945

G. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology

G. Mosse, The Nationalization of the Masses

J. Noakes, The Nazi Party in Lower Saxony

G. Pridham, Hitler’s Rise to Power: The Nazi Movement in Bavaria

F. Stern, The Politics of Cultural Despair: A Study in the Rise of Germanic Ideology

H-J Puhle, ‘Conservatism in modern German history’. JCH 13 (1978)

P. Pulzer, The Rise of Political Anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria

P. Pulzer, Germany 1870-1945

Richard Evans, Rethinking German History chs 2 &3.

Gordon Martel, Modern German History Reconsidered, esp. 1-6

2. The Nazi ‘Seizure of Power’
The social constituency of Nazism is only one part of the story of the Nazis’ route to power, and analyses of both party membership and electoral support need to be treated with caution, not least because historians always have axes to grind. Although the party expanded dramatically between 1919 and 1933, and won the largest share of the vote in 1932, this does not mean that its membership was either stable or representative of its supporters, that it ‘seized’ power as a popular movement, or that it ever won an election (despite terrorising the country and especially the opposition during the campaign of February 1933). Nevertheless a social profile of the party and its supporters helps us to understand the political situation that Hitler’s government inherited, and is a useful basis for understanding the regime’s basis of support after 1933.
The establishment of the Nazi dictatorship has been obscured by the Nazis’ own revolutionary rhetoric, which propagated the image of a ‘seizure of power’, and this has been reinforced by the demagogic Führer and docile masses of popular history. In reality, the erosion of parliamentary democracy and constitutional government began in 1930, and many of the Nazis’ objectives were shared by a broader constituency on the nationalist right (both within and outside other parties), which was reflected in the largely unchanged composition of the cabinet after Hitler’s appointment in 1933.
Paper 1: The Nazi Constituency

Paper 2: The National Revolution

Seminar Reading:

Gregor, Nazism B: The Emergence of National Socialism. Sections, ii and iii extracts 17-31

W S Allen, The Nazi Seizure of Power: The Experience of a Single German Town 1930-1935

Helen Boak, ‘Mobilising Women for Hitler: the Female Nazi Voter’ in McElligott and Kirk, Working towards the Führer

M. Broszat, Hitler and the Collapse of Weimar Democracy

R. Bessel, ‘Political Violence and the Nazi Seizure of Power’, in Bessel, Life in the Third Reich

R. Bessel,The Nazi Capture of Power’, JCH 39 (2004)

T. Childers, The Nazi Voter. The Social Foundations of Fascism in Germany 1919-1933

T. Childers (ed.), The Formation of the Nazi Constituency 1918-1933

T. Childers, 'The Social Bases of the National Socialist Vote' JCH, xi (1976), pp. 17-42

T. Childers, ‘Who, indeed, did vote for Hitler?' CEH xvii/1 (1983), pp. 45-53.

C. Fischer, Stormtroopers

C. Fischer, The Rise of the Nazis

Peter Fritzsche, ‘The NSDAP 1919-1934: from fringe politics to seizure of power’, in Caplan (ed.), Nazi Germany

A. von der Goltz, Hindenburg. Power, Myth and the Rise of the Nazis

R. F. Hamilton, Who Voted for Hitler ?

Ian Kershaw (ed.) Weimar: Why did German Democracy fail?

L. Kettenacker, ‘Hitler’s Impact on the Lower Middle Classes’ in Welch (ed.), Nazi Propaganda

M. Mann, Fascists ch.5 ‘German Sympathisers’

A. J. Nicholls, Weimar and the Rise of Hitler

J. Sneeringer, Winning Women’s Votes: Propaganda and Politics in Weimar Germany

P. D. Stachura (ed.) The Nazi Machtergreifung

H. A. Turner, 'Big business and the rise of Hitler.' AHR (1969)

H. A. Turner (ed.) Nazism and the Third Reich esp.

D. Welch (ed.), Nazi Propaganda

H. A. Winkler, ‘German Society, Hitler and the Illusion of Restoration, 1930-1933’ JCH 11

3. The Nazi State

The nature of the Nazi state is a big subject for one seminar discussion, but we can make some sense of the problem by isolating a number of important themes for particular focus: the role of the party in a one-party state; the nature of dictatorship (personal or party); the disparity between monolithic order and ‘polycratic’ disorder. In particular the figure of Hitler dominates not only the history of the Third Reich, but that of modern Germany, and indeed of Europe and the twentieth-century world. He was comprehensively mythologised by Nazi propaganda in his own time, but historians, film-makers, popular commentators and fantasists in general have added subsequent layers of mythology since 1945.

Paper 1. State and Party in the Third Reich

Paper 2. The Role of Hitler.
Seminar Reading:

Gregor, Nazism, ‘C: The National Socialist Regime i-iv

K. D. Bracher, The German Dictatorship and 'The Role of Hitler: Perspectives of Interpretation' in Laqueur Fascism. A Reader's Guide

Broszat, The Hitler State

Alan Bullock, Hitler. A Study in Tyranny

Jane Caplan (ed.), ‘Recreating the Civil Service: Issues and Ideas in the Nazi Regime’ in Noakes Government, Party and People; also: ‘National Socialism and the Theory of the State’ in Childers and Caplan (eds.), Reevaluating, and ‘The politics of administration’ HJ 20 (1977)

William Carr, Hitler a Study in Personality and Politics

Ernst Fraenkl, The Dual State

M. Geyer, ‘The Nazi State Reconsidered’ in Bessel, Life in the Third Reich

Klaus Hildebrand, The Third Reich

I. Kershaw, The Hitler Myth. Image and Reality in the Third Reich

Ian Kershaw, Hitler (Longman Profiles in Power)

Ian Kershaw, The Nazi Dictatorship (ch. 4‘Weak dictator…’)

Ian Kershaw, ‘Hitler and the Uniqueness of Nazism’ JCH, 39 (2004)

H. Mommsen, 'National Socialism: Continuity and Change', in Laqueur, Fascism. A Reader's Guide (also in Mommsen, Weimar to Auschwitz); and ‘Reflections on the Position of Hitler and Göring in the Third Reich’ & ‘Hitler’s Position in the Nazi System’ in Mommsen, Weimar to Auschwitz [also in Childers and Caplan (ed.), Reevaluating the Third Reich].

J. Noakes, ‘The Nazi Party and the Third Reich: The Myth and Reality of the One-Party State’ in Noakes, Government, Party and People in Nazi Germany

J. Noakes, ‘”Viceroys of the Reich”? Gauleiters 1925-1945’ in McElligott and Kirk (eds), Working towards the Führer

J Noakes, ‘Hitler and the Nazi State: leadership, hierarchy and power’ in Caplan (ed.), Nazi Germany

E. N. Peterson, The Limits of Hitler's Power

D. Welch, ‘Working towards the Führer’: charismatic leadership and the image of Adolf Hitler in Nazi Propaganda’ in McElligott and Kirk (eds), Working towards the Führer

4. Nazism and the Economy
Here, as with other aspects of the history of the Third Reich, we are confronted with a collection of popular clichés and simplifications (the Nazis got rid of unemployment, Hitler built the autobahns) and often rather abstruse disagreements among historians. What was the role of big business in the rise of Nazism and in the policies of Hitler. What was the role of the Nazis’ ideological critique of liberalism in the formulation and implementation of economic policy. Was there a primacy of politics or economics in the Third Reich. Was Germany, despite everything, economically unprepared for war?
Paper 1. Reconstruction and Economic Crisis

Paper 2. Four Year Plan

Paper 3. The War Economy
Seminar Reading:

W. Carr, Arms, Autarky and Aggression. A Study in German Foreign Policy 1933-1939

B. Carroll, Design for Total War. Arms and Economics in the Third Reich

Gustavo Corni, Hitler and the Peasants. Agrarian Policy in the Third Reich

E. Farquharson, The Plough and the Swastika

D. Guerin, Fascism and Big Business

P. Hayes, Industry and Ideology IG Farben in the Nazi Era

P. Hayes, ‘Polyocracy and Policy in the Third Reich: The Case of the Economy’ in Thomas Childers and Jane Caplan (eds.), Reevaluating the Third Reich

H. James ‘Innovation and Conservatism in Economic Recovery: The Alleged “Nazi Recovery” of the 1930s’ in Thomas Childers and Jane Caplan (eds.), Reevaluating the Third Reich

T. Mason, 'Hitler's War and the German Economy. A Re-interpretation.' EcHistR 35 (1982),

Alan Milward, 'Fascism and the Economy' in W Laqueuer (ed.) Fascism. A Reader's Guide

F. Neumann, Behemoth. The Structure and Practice of National Socialism

R. J. Overy, The Nazi Economic Recovery 1932-1938

R J Overy, Goering. The Iron Man

R. J. Overy, ‘Germany, “Domestic Crisis”, and War in 1939’, PP 116 (1987)

R.J. Overy, ‘State and Industry in Germany in the Twentieth Century’ GH (1994)

J.D. Shand ‘The Reichsautobahnen: Symbol for the Third Reich’, JCH 19 (1984)

Alfred Sohn-Rethel, The Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism

F. B. Tipton, ‘The Economic Dimension in German History’ in G. Martel, Modern Germany Reconsidered 1870-1945

Adam Tooze, The Wages of Destruction;

Adam Tooze, ‘The Economic history of the Nazi regime’ in Caplan (ed.), Nazi Germany
5. Nazism and Society

Nazi ideology and propaganda envisaged a new order in Germany. The class conflict of the early twentieth century would be replaced by a Volksgemeinschaft (‘national community’) which transcended sectional interest, and rewarded talent on the basis of merit. The only condition for inclusion in this new society was membership of the German ‘race’. Although no serious historians suggest that there was a real social revolution in Germany sufficient to overturn old class, confessional and regional allegiances, it has been suggested that the regime did have some success in altering perceptions, creating the impression of new opportunities. Real social change did take place on a massive scale, of course, throughout Europe and the industrialising world during the first half of the twentieth century, and - not least in Germany – as a consequence of the two world wars.

This seminar will examine the experiences of industrial workers and young people in order to establish the extent of the Nazis’ impact on society. Class conflict had to be overcome (or suppressed) and industrial workers successfully integrated (or their opposition contained) if the national community was to make any sense, and to that extent the regime’s relationship with the working class was a pivotal one. Similarly, youth policy, and the response of young people was important to a movement which invested a great deal in the ideas of youth, rejuvenation and regeneration. If the older generation persisted in its allegiance to outdated ideologies and institutions, the Nazis were confident that they could shape new generations in their own image.
Paper 1. Workers

Paper 2. Youth

Seminar Reading:

Götz Aly, Hitler’s Beneficiaries: How the Nazis Bought the German People

P. Ayçoberry, The Social History of the Third Reich

R. Bessel 'Living with the Nazis: Some Recent Writing on the Social History of the Third Reich', EHQ 14 (1984) pp. 211-20.

R. Bessel (ed.), Life in the Third Reich

David Crew (ed.), Nazism and German Society 1933-1945

Martin Kitchen, Nazi Germany at War

Jeremy Noakes, ‘Leaders of the People? The Nazi Party and German Society’, JCH 39 (2004)

Detlev Peukert. Inside Nazi Germany. Conformity and Opposition in Everyday Life

Lisa Pine, Hitler’s National Community. Society and Culture in Nazi Germany (Part One)

T. Saunders, ‘Nazism and Social Revolution’ in G. Martel, Modern Germany Reconsidered 1870-1945

D. Schoenbaum, Hitler's Social Revolution

Jill Stephenson, ‘Inclusion: building the national community in propaganda and practice’, in Caplan (ed.), Nazi Germany

Burleigh, Confronting, 1 (Herbert) and 2 (Siegfried).

F. L. Carsten, The German Workers and the Nazis

Crew, Society, 1 (Bartov), 2 (Lüdtke) and 7 (Herbert).

D. Geary, ‘Working-Class Identities in the Third Reich’ in Gregor (ed.) Nazism, War and Genocide

J. Gillingham, ‘Ruhr Coal Miners and Hitler’s War’ in JSH, 15 (1981-1982)

Alf Lüdtke, ‘The “Honor of Labor”: Industrial Workers and the Power of Symbols under National Socialism’ in David Crew (ed.), Nazism and German Society 1933-1945

T. Mason, Social Policy in the Third Reich

T. Mason, 'Labour in the Third Reich 1933-1939', PP XXXIII 1966

T. Mason, 'The Workers' Opposition in Nazi Germany' HWJ 11 1981

T. Mason, Nazism, Fascism and the Working Class

S. Salter, 'Structures of Consensus and Coercion: Workers' Morale and the Maintenance of Work Discipline 1939-1945' in David Welch, Nazi Propaganda. The Power and the Limitations

Stephen Salter, ‘Class Harmony or Class Conflict? The Industrial Working Class and the National Socialist Regime’ in J. Noakes (ed.) Government, Party and People in Nazi Germany

Stephen Salter, ‘Germany’ in Stephen Salter and John Stevenson, The Working Class and Politics in Europe and America 1929-1945

Tilla Siegel, ‘Renationalizing Industrial Relations: A Debate on the Control of Labor in German Shipyards in 1941’ in Thomas Childers and Jane Caplan (eds.), Reevaluating the Third Reich

Gregor, Nazism, E: The ‘Seductive Surface’ of National Socialism

Noakes and Pridham II, 223-224 (Trustees of Labour); 226 (DAF); 244 (work creation); 249 (shortage of skilled workers); 260-263 (Sopade reports)

Noakes and Pridham IV Ch. 43, (v).

H. W. Koch, The Hitler Youth

H. Mommsen, ‘Generational Conflict and Youth Rebellion in the Weimar Republic’ in Hans Mommsen, From Weimar to Auschwitz

Detlev Peukert ‘Youth in the Third Reich’ in R. Bessel, Life in the Third Reich

(D. Peukert, ‘Young people: for or against the Nazis?’ History Today, 1985)

Detlev Peukert, Inside the Third Reich

P. Stachura, ‘The ideology of the Hitler Youth in the Kampfzeit’, JCH 8 (1973)

David Welch ‘Educational Film Propaganda and the Nazi Youth’ in Welch, Nazi Propaganda

6. Coercion, Conformity, Opposition and Resistance
Images of the ubiquitous Gestapo and sinister SS dominate the popular representation of Nazi Germany. In practice the police forces of the Reich were re-organised, and brought under central control (albeit not without something of a power struggle). In practice the Gestapo was a smaller organisation than is often imagined, reliant on denunciation as much as on detection.
Before 1933 some people were enthusiastic supporters and others opponents. Who was persecuted by the Nazi police state (individuals, groups, organisations) and why? How widespread was support for the regime after 1933? Did it increase or diminish (during the war, after Stalingrad)? What appealed to people about Nazism, and what did they reject? Were some groups more ‘immune’ (‘resistent’) to Nazism than others. To what extent did the regime use coercion, and how far was it able to win consent and even enthusiastic approval for its policies?

Paper 1. The police state

Paper 2. Insiders and outsiders

Paper 3. Resistance, opposition and compliance

G C Browder, Foundations of the Nazi Police State. The Formation of Sipo and SD

David Clay Large (ed.) Contending with Hitler. Varieties of German Resistance in the Third Reich.

J. S. Conway, The Nazi Persecution of the Churches

D.J. Dietrich, ‘German Catholics in the Third Reich: nationalism and religion’ in HEI, 16 (1993).

R Gellately, The Gestapo and German Society. Enforcing Racial Policy 1933-1945

Robert Gellately Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany

M. Geyer and J. Boyer (eds.) Resistance against the Third Reich 1933-1990

G. Graf, ‘The Genesis of the Gestapo’, JCH (1987)

C. Hall, ‘An Army of Spies? The Gestapo Spy Network 1933—45’ JCH (2009)

R. Koehl, ‘The Character of the Nazi SS’, JMH (1962)

R.L. Koehl, The Black Order. The Structure and Power Struggles of the Nazi SS

H Krausnick and M Broszat, Anatomy of the SS-State

Klaus-Michael Mallmann and Gerhard Paul, ‘Omniscient Omnipotent, Omnipresent? Gestapo, Society and Resistance’ in David Crew (ed.), Nazism and German Society 1933-1945

F R Nicosia and L D Stokes (eds.) Germans against Nazism: Nonconformity, Opposition and Resistance in the Third Reich

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Herbert G Ziegler, Nazi Germany's New Aristocracy. The SS Leadership 1925-1939

Nikolaus Wachsmann, Hitler’s Prisons. Legal Terror in Nazi Germany

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Michael Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation. The Nazi Leadership of the Reich Security Main Office.

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