Norton, Chp 30, The Tumultuous Sixties



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Norton, Chp 30, The Tumultuous Sixties

On your answer document, indicate the best response to each of the following questions or prompts.


1.

The Greensboro sit-in was

A)

a televised debate on issues related to the Vietnam War.

B)

the beginning of a series of nonviolent challenges to racial segregation in the South.

C)

a takeover by flower children of San Francisco's Greensboro Park.

D)

a prayer vigil in response to the assassination of John F. Kennedy.




2.

In the 1960 presidential election, John Kennedy

A)

lost all of the southern states.

B)

was hurt in some states because of his Roman Catholic faith.

C)

gained votes because of his honesty about his health problems.

D)

lost a substantial number of votes because of his call for a reduction in the size of America's nuclear arsenal.




3.

In the 1960 presidential campaign, Vice President Nixon was handicapped by

A)

his lack of knowledge on foreign policy issues.

B)

an unappealing television image.

C)

his open endorsement of the civil rights movement.

D)

the installation of nuclear-capable missiles on Formosa.




4.

John Kennedy's top priority upon becoming president in 1961 was

A)

reducing defense spending.

B)

civil rights.

C)

waging the Cold War.

D)

cutting taxes.




5.

The Alliance for Progress (1961) illustrates

A)

the kind of successful Soviet investment in technological development in Africa that President Kennedy thought the United States had to match.

B)

the dozens of business-government cooperative ventures that President Kennedy promoted during his first year in office.

C)

a series of anti-Cuba trade agreements the United States pressured South American countries to sign.

D)

the Kennedy administration's use of nation building in Latin America.




6.

Which of the following is associated with Kennedy's nation-building policy among Third World nations?

A)

The Limited Test Ban Treaty

B)

The Organization of American States

C)

The International Monetary Fund

D)

The Peace Corps




7.

Which of the following restates the Kennedy administration's concept of counterinsurgency?

A)

The United States can defeat anti-American radicals by using American forces to quell unrest and lawlessness in Third World countries.

B)

All that is needed to defeat anti-American revolutionaries in Third World countries is to provide the people of those countries with food and medical supplies.

C)

By training native troops and police forces in Third World countries, the administration will be able to defeat anti-American revolutionaries.

D)

American economic advisors can help build stable economies in Third World nations and destroy the root cause of rebellion and revolution.




8.

Which of the following is true of the nation building program and of counterinsurgency?

A)

These programs were based on the American assumption that the United States model of capitalism and democracy could be successfully transferred to other parts of the world.

B)

Each complimented the other and made it possible to place American aid in the hands of the people of the Third World who most needed that aid.

C)

The two ideas revived faith throughout the Third World that America was the exemplar of freedom and democracy.

D)

These programs drained money from all branches of the armed services, which were already underfunded.




9.

Nation building did not work as President Kennedy had envisioned because

A)

the monetary aid was usually funneled through a self-interested elite and often did not reach the very poor.

B)

Congress refused to appropriate the sums of money needed to make the program succeed.

C)

the Soviet Union gave more foreign aid to the Third World than did the United States.

D)

Communist subversives staged violent protests, which forced many countries to reject the U.S. offer of assistance.




10.

When President Kennedy refused to accede to Soviet demands in the 1961 Berlin crisis, the Soviet Union

A)

denied the Western powers access to their zones in the city of Berlin.

B)

began installing tactical nuclear weapons in East Germany.

C)

built the Berlin Wall.

D)

cut off all trade with the United States, Great Britain, and France.




11.

Which of the following is true of the 1961 invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs?

A)

The invasion was planned and executed by military experts in the Pentagon.

B)

The invasion was based on the assumption that the Cuban people would rise up against Castro.

C)

The invasion was elaborately planned and skillfully executed.

D)

The invasion was launched only after several attempts by President Kennedy to negotiate with Castro ended in failure.




12.

Which of the following is true of the Kennedy administration's policy toward Cuba after the Bay of Pigs fiasco?

A)

The administration directed American businesses to halt all trade with Cuba.

B)

The administration opened talks with Castro through secret emissaries.

C)

The administration continued trying to remove Castro from power through CIA activities.

D)

he administration acknowledged its mistake and pledged to respect Cuba's sovereignty.




13.

The Cuban missile crisis appears to have been most directly the outgrowth of

A)

Castro's belief that the missile installations would bring jobs and spending to help the depressed Cuban economy.

B)

President Kennedy's anti-Castro projects.

C)

Castro's desire to win status and respect throughout Latin America.

D)

Khrushchev's determination to make Soviet inroads into Latin America.




14.

Khrushchev installed nuclear missiles in Cuba for which of the following reasons?

A)

He was preparing for a nuclear strike against the United States.

B)

He did so solely to persuade the United States to remove its missiles from Turkey.

C)

He did so to deter an American invasion.

D)

He was attempting to build an anti-American alliance among Latin American nations under Soviet control.




15.

President Kennedy responded to the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba by

A)

ordering a naval quarantine of Cuba.

B)

ordering a surgical air strike against the installations.

C)

publicly threatening a full-scale military invasion of Cuba.

D)

undertaking quiet negotiations with Castro.




16.

In response to the Soviet agreement to withdraw its missiles from Cuba, President Kennedy pledged that the United States would

A)

establish normal diplomatic relations with Cuba.

B)

refrain from invading Cuba.

C)

end the economic boycott against Cuba.

D)

abandon the American naval base at Guantanamo Bay.




17.

In the aftermath of the Cuban missile crisis,

A)

the United States and the Soviet Union signed a nuclear test ban treaty.

B)

the United States began to fall further behind the Soviet Union in deliverable nuclear weapons.

C)

relations were normalized between the United States and Cuba.

D)

the nuclear arms race cooled, with both sides reducing their nuclear arsenals.




18.

A beneficial effect of the Cuban missile crisis was

A)

major improvements in the American civil-defense system.

B)

public support for improving relations with Cuba.

C)

installation of a Washington-Moscow hot line.

D)

tighter control of the CIA by Congress.




19.

Which of the following is true of the young people who formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee?

A)

They favored the concept of Black Power as expressed by Stokely Carmichael.

B)

They were committed to the tactic of nonviolence in the civil rights movement.

C)

They accepted Booker T. Washington's policy of accommodation.

D)

They believed that African Americans should arm themselves in order to defend themselves against the injustices of white racism.




20.

In response to the violence encountered by the Freedom Riders in Birmingham, Alabama, and Montgomery, Alabama, President Kennedy

A)

sent federal marshals to Alabama to protect them, but allowed them to be arrested in Mississippi.

B)

chastised those involved for engaging in civil disobedience.

C)

provided them with military escorts for the rest of their journey.

D)

took no action.




21.

Those who volunteered to work in Mississippi during the Freedom Summer of 1964

A)

encountered little resistance from the white power structure as they worked to register African Americans to vote.

B)

refused to participate in the creation of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.

C)

allowed all decisions about their activities to be made by a core of southern African American leaders.

D)

risked their lives attempting to build the political power of African Americans in the South.




22.

When James Meredith attempted to attend the University of Mississippi as that institution’s first African American student, President Kennedy

A)

stood by helplessly while Governor Barnett ordered the university closed.

B)

urged Meredith to attend a northern university instead.

C)

prevented riots by quietly negotiating with the governor of Mississippi and university officials.

D)

ordered federal marshals to protect him.




23.

When Martin Luther King, Jr., put children on the front lines of protest in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, the city's police commissioner

A)

allowed the march to proceed without incident.

B)

called out the Alabama National Guard to prevent the march.

C)

used powerful water guns and attack dogs against the protesters.

D)

lined the route of the march with Birmingham police to protect the children from violence.




24.

Which of the following is true of President John Kennedy on the issue of civil rights?

A)

He took no significant action during his presidency.

B)

He only gradually committed himself to first-class citizenship for African Americans.

C)

He vetoed several civil rights bills.

D)

He allowed George Wallace to prevent the integration of the University of Alabama.




25.

In relation to his program called the New Frontier, John Kennedy

A)

demonstrated an ability to move legislation through Congress.

B)

called for an end to the missile race.

C)

did little to push his social-policy agenda through Congress.

D)

made no mention of the problem of poverty in the United States.




26.

In his vision of the Great Society, President Johnson believed

A)

it was better to provide public-works jobs to the unemployed than to provide job-training programs.

B)

he could rely primarily on economic growth to solve the problem of poverty.

C)

it was the responsibility of the government to provide every American with a guaranteed annual income.

D)

that the government should work actively to improve the lives of Americans.




27.

On entering the presidency, Lyndon Johnson made which of the following his top legislative priority?

A)

Environmental protection

B)

Civil rights

C)

Military rearmament

D)

Housing




28.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

A)

outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

B)

made illegal the use of literacy tests to determine a person's eligibility to vote.

C)

guaranteed equal educational opportunities to all races.

D)

guaranteed equal pay for equal work.




29.

The provision in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that forbade discrimination on the basis of sex was included because

A)

southern congressmen hoped it would lead to the defeat of the bill.

B)

the Johnson administration was warned by Democratic congresswomen that they would vote against the measure unless the provision was included.

C)

liberal congressmen hoped it would convince their undecided colleagues to support the bill.

D)

the National Organization of Women pledged to lobby against passage of the bill if the provision was not included.




30.

Which of the following is true of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

A)

It contained no enforcement provisions.

B)

It established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to investigate claims of job discrimination.

C)

Although it forbade discrimination in public accommodations, it did not forbid discrimination in voting.

D)

It did not forbid discrimination on the basis of sex.




31.

This 1964 Republican presidential candidate voted against the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and opposed the Social Security system.

A)

Thomas Dewey

B)

Barry Goldwater

C)

Ronald Reagan

D)

Henry Wallace




32.

Which of the following is true of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party of 1964?

A)

Its delegates were certified as the true Democrats of Mississippi.

B)

Its delegation challenged the delegation of regular Mississippi Democrats at the Democratic National Convention.

C)

Its delegation was totally ignored at the Democratic National Convention.

D)

It was composed of white, middle-class racists who challenged the predominately African American delegation of Mississippi Democrats.




33.

In his campaign for the presidency in 1964, Barry Goldwater

A)

called for negotiations with the Soviet Union to end the arms race.

B)

indicated his support for the use of tactical nuclear weapons against the nation's enemies.

C)

implied that he would end America's involvement in Vietnam.

D)

stated that individual liberty could be achieved only when all Americans enjoyed equal opportunity in voting, employment, and housing.




34.

Which of the following is true of the presidential election of 1964?

A)

The election marked the start of domination of the South by the Republican Party rather than the Democratic Party.

B)

The election temporarily turned relations between the United States and the Soviet Union into a minor issue in American politics.

C)

The election gave Johnson a landslide victory, but it also gave him the most conservative Congress in history.

D)

The election featured the most peaceful party conventions in twenty-five years.




35.

Which of the following best explains why President Johnson was able to enact a sweeping program of reform legislation in 1965 and 1966?

A)

His proposals received overwhelming support from the public.

B)

The congressional Republicans decided to vote for his program.

C)

He was able to use the patriotic spirit engendered by the Vietnam War to win support for his program.

D)

In the 1964 congressional elections, the voters gave Johnson the most liberal Congress in American history.




36.

Quantifiable evidence indicates that the Voting Rights Act of 1965

A)

led to vote fraud and corruption in most state and federal elections.

B)

was an unreasonable infringement on the rights of the southern states as guaranteed under the Tenth Amendment.

C)

had no noticeable impact on voter registration among African Americans in the South.

D)

caused a dramatic increase in the proportion of southern African Americans who were registered to vote.




37.

Which of the following is true of the Immigration Act of 1965?

A)

It severely restricted immigration from Asia.

B)

It lifted all immigration quotas.

C)

It ended racially-based immigration quotas.

D)

It placed no quota on immigrants from the Western Hemisphere.




38.

Many of the laws that were part of Johnson's War on Poverty primarily focused on

A)

providing adequate clothing to children living in poverty.

B)

providing free federal housing to the homeless in America.

C)

granting a guaranteed income to Americans below the poverty line.

D)

increasing opportunities for the nation's poor.




39.

The Medicare program, enacted in 1965, provided insurance against medical and hospital bills for

A)

Vietnam veterans.

B)

ethnic minorities.

C)

the elderly.

D)

welfare recipients.




40.

Which of the following is true of the War on Poverty?

A)

It provided public-works jobs to millions of poor people.

B)

It especially benefited female-headed families.

C)

It directly attacked the housing, health, and nutritional problems of the poor.

D)

It alone was responsible for alleviating hunger in the United States.




41.

As a result of the War on Poverty,

A)

the number of elderly Americans living in poverty declined dramatically.

B)

rural poverty was practically eliminated.

C)

health-care costs began a slow but steady decline.

D)

poverty in households headed by women steadily declined over a period of ten years.




42.

Which of the following is a legitimate criticism of the War on Poverty?

A)

It did not give sufficient attention to poverty in female-headed households.

B)

It did nothing in response to the increase in poverty among the elderly.

C)

It did not accomplish any significant reduction in poverty.

D)

It primarily focused on the problem of rural poverty, with few resources directed toward ending urban poverty.




43.

The presidency of Lyndon Johnson was characterized by which of the following?

A)

Limitless support for space exploration, cheer, and optimism in the White House, and confrontational dealings with the Soviet Union

B)

Intensification of the Vietnam War, enactment of a wealth of legislation attacking economic and social ills in the country, and a dramatic increase in black elected officials in the South

C)

Much-needed refurbishing of America's infrastructure, intense efforts to win friends in Latin America, and huge tax cuts

D)

Major anti-crime legislation, contentious relations between the president and Congress, and defense-contract scandals




44.

How did the Diem government in South Vietnam end?

A)

Diem died peacefully in office and was replaced by a more progressive leadership.

B)

Diem was removed from power in an American-supported coup and then was murdered.

C)

Because of pressure from the United States, Diem resigned from office and fled to Paris.

D)

Diem's campaign for reelection failed because he had lost support among the people.




45.

Which of the following is true of President Johnson's response to the August 1964 report that U.S. destroyers had been attacked twice by North Vietnamese patrol boats in the Gulf of Tonkin?

A)

Even though evidence of the second attack was questionable, President Johnson ordered retaliatory air strikes against North Vietnam.

B)

Johnson suggested the use of tactical nuclear weapons against strategic targets in North Vietnam.

C)

Johnson expressed grave fears that the incident would bring the United States and the Soviet Union into armed conflict.

D)

The incident convinced Johnson that North Vietnam was being supplied with sophisticated military equipment by the Soviet Union.




46.

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is particularly significant in American history for which of the following reasons?

A)

The resolution marked the point at which most Americans began to have serious doubts about the American role in Vietnam.

B)

The resolution served notice to the rest of the world that the United States no longer accepted any geographical limits on its freedom to patrol the seas.

C)

In enacting the resolution, Congress relinquished its war-making powers to the president.

D)

Passage of the resolution established the precedent of U.S. rejection of United Nations Security Council authority in international disputes.




47.

The Johnson administration chose to “Americanize” the war in Vietnam despite the fact that Democratic leaders in the Senate, some administration officials, and many of America's allies had misgivings. Why?

A)

Intelligence indicated that China would immediately invade Vietnam if American forces withdrew.

B)

Japanese leaders expressed fears of instability and disorder throughout Southeast Asia if the United States failed to defend South Vietnam.

C)

Johnson believed that “Americanizing” the war was the first step in convincing the United Nations to send a multinational peacekeeping force to Vietnam.

D)

The administration believed that America's credibility was at stake.




48.

During the Johnson administration, the United States continued escalating its commitment to the Vietnam War because

A)

all of the nation's European allies urged it to do so.

B)

most members of the Johnson administration strongly believed it was inevitable that the United States would win the war.

C)

the American public demanded victory.

D)

the administration feared that a failure in Vietnam would lead to a loss of respect for American power throughout the world.




49.

The majority of soldiers who served in Vietnam were

A)

career soldiers.

B)

draftees.

C)

reservists.

D)

volunteers.




50.

America's reliance on such things as carpet bombing, napalm, and crop defoliants in the Vietnam War

A)

caused Ho Chi Minh to abandon the Vietcong and concentrate his resources on the North Vietnamese army.

B)

alienated many South Vietnamese, bringing new recruits to the Vietcong.

C)

made Vietnamese villages safer and more secure by destroying the Vietcong's ability to wage war.

D)

led China to send troops and military materiel to aid the Vietcong.




51.

Senator Fulbright's public hearings on the Vietnam War

A)

demonstrated that public officials were deeply divided over America's role in the Vietnam War.

B)

convinced President Johnson that he must find a way to honorably end America's role in the war.

C)

were merely an attempt by Senator Fulbright to embarrass the Johnson administration.

D)

indicated that Congress had turned a deaf ear to anti-war protests.




52.

The 1964 race riot in Harlem was triggered by

A)

violence against African American-owned businesses by white mobs.

B)

attempts by African Americans to desegregate suburban neighborhoods.

C)

the shooting of a black teenager by a white police officer.

D)

the assassination of an African American state legislator.




53.

Which of the following may be considered the underlying reason for the Watts race riot of 1965?

A)

African Americans resented the fact that they were drafted disproportionately to whites to fight in Vietnam.

B)

African Americans were frustrated and angry over their joblessness and lack of opportunity.

C)

Radical left-wing instigators incited African Americans to engage in violence.

D)

Whites were angry over the expansion of the African American neighborhood of Watts into surrounding white neighborhoods.




54.

The Kerner Report, issued in 1968 by the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, blamed the urban riots of the mid- to late-sixties on

A)

white racism within American society.

B)

unfair distribution among the nation's socioeconomic classes of the burden of fighting the Vietnam War.

C)

anger over the steep climb in taxes necessary to pay for welfare programs.

D)

rising unemployment among the nation's young.




55.

Which of the following statements is consistent with the beliefs of Black Muslims in the mid-1960s?

A)

African Americans must practice the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth by turning the other cheek and loving their enemies.

B)

The “white devil” is the source of evil in the world; thus, African Americans must separate themselves from white society.

C)

African Americans must work toward the end of creating a brotherhood of man, regardless of race, creed, or national origin.

D)

Because politics is the primary source of power in the United States, African Americans must concentrate on getting elected to political office.




56.

Malcolm X was assassinated by

A)

supporters of Martin Luther King, Jr.

B)

Black Muslims who believed he had betrayed their cause.

C)

white assassins hired by the FBI.

D)

a member of the Ku Klux Klan.




57.

Which of the following is most consistent with the belief expressed by Stokely Carmichael in his 1966 call for Black Power?

A)

To right the wrongs done against them, African Americans should move to several southern states, take them over, and push white residents out.

B)

To be truly free from white oppression, African Americans must control their own economic, political, and social institutions.

C)

African Americans can gain independence and dignity only by returning en masse to Africa.

D)

African Americans must seek revenge for the wrongs done against them by forming vigilante groups to assassinate prominent whites.




58.

In response to the concept of Black Power, groups such as CORE and SNCC began to

A)

oppose the involvement of African Americans in American politics.

B)

purge whites from their membership rolls.

C)

support the NAACP's approach of challenging discriminatory practices in court.

D)

organize a back-to-Africa movement.




59.

The Black Panthers advocated

A)

establishment of a separate state exclusively for African Americans.

B)

extermination of the white power structure.

C)

destruction of the capitalist system.

D)

that African Americans rely on the American legal system to secure equality under the law.




60.

The Sharon Statement, the Goldwater presidential nomination, and the outcome of the 1964 presidential election in the South all suggested that

A)

support for the Vietnam War was waning.

B)

conservatism did not disappear from the political landscape during the Johnson years.

C)

strong support for an activist federal government crossed party and regional lines in the 1960s.

D)

Americans who had most feared the spread of communism were becoming less fearful.




61.

Which of the following is true of the Port Huron Statement?

A)

It called for the replacement of the American two-party system with a European-style multiparty political system.

B)

It condemned racism, poverty, and the Cold War.

C)

It called upon college students to boycott corporations whose activities served to support racism or militarism.

D)

It suggested the formation of a new political coalition consisting of college students and minority groups.




62.

Which of the following was a factor in the emergence of the student protest movement at the Berkeley campus of the University of California in 1964?

A)

The university's ban on political activity at the students' traditional gathering place

B)

A sharp increase in tuition

C)

The mediocre quality of many academic programs

D)

The willingness of campus administrators to give draft officials access to student records

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