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OBO: Education

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INTERNATIONAL ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Stephen P. Heyneman

Professor, International Education Policy

Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations

Vanderbilt University
Jeongwoo Lee

PhD Candidate

International Education Policy and Management

Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations

Vanderbilt University
Introduction

General Overviews

Regional Overviews

OECD Countries

Developing Countries

Africa

Middle East and North Africa

Latin America and the Caribbean

South and East Asia

Central Asia

Western Europe

Textbooks

Journals

Data Sets

Access and Equity

Governance

Human Capital, Economics and Finance

Accreditation and Quality Assurance

The Role of International Organizations

Corruption

Social Cohesion

Competition and Ranking

Future Issues

Changes in Technology

Industry Relations

The Role of Education in International Technology

INTRODUCTION
International higher education issues refer to those problems or dilemmas which pertain to more than one country or region. These can include the nature of student affairs, finance, professional misconduct and corruption, international trade, management efficiency, equity, institutional governance, academic integrity, student migration, research quality and many others. Until recently the study of higher education and the preparation of higher education managers were predominantly North American. The literature on higher education and concepts of higher education issues of importance, are influenced by these origins. This is now changing. Today higher education issues are heavily influenced by the nature of the changes in Western Europe, the Former Soviet Union and in East Asia and the Pacific. And the research on higher education increasingly reflects the new balance of these international issues. The study of international higher education issues continues to be influenced by the North American context – endowments, differential remuneration of faculty, transfer of course credits. On the other hand, many issues which used to be considered solely North American are now international – enrollment ratios, dropout rates, differentiation in institutional function. Lastly, there are issues which have emerged elsewhere, – the study of corruption, trade, research quality assessment and undergraduate student achievement – which are rapidly being studied within North America.

GENERAL OVERVIEWS
The following works provide an introduction to the field of international higher education issues. Some provide this introduction without regional or specializations. This is the case with respect to: Teichler 2007, Hirsch and Weber 1999, Altbach and Peterson 2007, and Goedegeburre et. al. 1994. Others provide an overview with a particular emphasis. For instance, Altbach et. al. 2009 track policies which were originally North American, but today can be found globally. Purcell et. al. 2004 provides a perspective on issues pertaining to women’s colleges; Baker and Wiseman 2007 on issues which stem from research findings. Geiger et. al. 2007 track issues pertaining to the research university; Stromquist 2007, the professorate; Neave and van Vught 1994, the relations with government, and Qiang 2003, internationalization.
Altbach, Philip G. and Patti McGill Peterson, ed. 2007. Higher Education in the New Century: Global Challenges and Innovative Ideas. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Analysis of six key challenges in higher education: academic profession, access and equity, higher education and social cohesion, private higher education, international student flows, and research universities 
Altbach, Philip G, Liz Reisberg, and Laura E Rumbley. 2009. Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. Boston: Center for International Higher Education.

Investigation of main driving forces, in particular globalization and massive demand for higher education, for changes in scope and diversity in higher education and their impacts on higher education
Goedegeburre, Leo, Frans Kaiser, Peter Maassen, Lynn Meek, Frans A. van Vught, and Egbert de Weert, ed. 1994. Higher Education Policy: An International and Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

A volume providing not only comprehensive identification and analysis of the principles, structural features, modes of different higher education policies in 11 different countries but also higher education policies’ similarities and differences in international trends and issues and country-specific elements
Hirsch, Werner A. and Luc E. Weber, ed. 1999. Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

A overview of some key issues in higher education including challenges at the millennium, future environment of higher education, and certain initiatives in relation to funding, governance, alliance building between industry and institutions and technology 
Neave, Guy and Frans A. van Vught, ed. 1994. Government and Higher Education; Relationships across three Continents: the Winds of Change. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Analysis of the relationships between government and higher education in 12 countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America to examine the effectiveness of specific types of government regulation in comparison with others in tackling higher education crisis arising in many developing countries
Purcell, Francisca, Robin Matross Helms, and Laura Rumbley, ed. 2004. Women’s Universities and Colleges: an International Handbook. Chestnut Hill: Center for International Higher Education.

This book as an inventory of women’s higher education institutions worldwide provides a wide range of specific and detailed information and resources by region, which are expected to be used as practical resources for research and studies for women’s’ higher education.
Qiang, Zha. 2003. Internationalization of higher education: Towards a conceptual framework. Policy Futures in Education 1, no. 2: 248-70.

Presentation of a conceptual and organizational framework of internationalization of higher education including the meaning of, rationale for, and approach to internationalization and strategies to incorporate international dimensions
Stromquist, Nell, ed. 2007. The Professoriate in the Age of Globalization. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Discussion of the professoriate, a primary player in higher education institutions, in six countries, in particular in terms of its conditions in a comparative perspective
Teichler, Ulrich. 2007. Higher Education Systems: Conceptual Frameworks, Comparative Perspectives, Empirical Findings. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Description of various dimensions of higher education in Europe between 1990s and the present such as higher education’s changing role, access and admission, diversity of institutions, the Bologna process, excellence, and education systems

REGIONAL OVERVIEWS
Higher education issues vary in more respects than from country-to-country; they also vary from one group of countries to another.  We have followed this variation in the categories of citations located below. Some summarize the issues with respect to the industrial democracies (OECD 2009), low and middle income countries (Task Force on Higher Education and Society 2004; World Bank 1994; World Bank 1995; World Bank 2002). Other overviews pertain to specific geographical regions such as the Middle East and North Africa (Bashshur 2004), Central Asia (Heyneman and De Young 2004; Brunner and Tillett 2007), Western Europe (Fagerlind and Stromquist 2004; In’t Veld et. al. 1996), Latin America and the Caribbean (Segrera, et al. 2009), South and East Asia (APEID-UNESCO 2006), and Sub-Saharan Africa (Hinchliffe 1987; Teferra and Altbach 2003). In some instances an overview might include a specialized issue within a region (Assie-Lumumba 2007).
OECD Countries
The challenges of higher education in Industrial democracies are dramatically different from other parts of the world. There is greater access so attention is paid to efficiency and quality. There is intensive competition in higher education.
OECD. 2009. Higher Education to 2030, Volume 2: Globalization. Paris: OECD.

A book exploring significant issues including trends and developments in higher education provision, financing, international mobility governance, and quality assurance in the context of how to meet challenges over the next 20 years
Developing Countries
Issues in low or middle income countries include access and the difficulties of maintaining standards of quality and efficiency with marginal available resources.
World Bank. 1994. Higher Education: The Lessons of Experience. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Investigation of the major aspects of higher education crisis in developing countries and the prospects for four main directions for reform (diversity of institutions, funding, the role of government, and quality and equity)
World Bank. 1995. Priorities and Strategies for Education. Washington, D.C: World Bank.

A review of the proposals of the World Bank made in the 1980s intended to develop new approaches for the educational sector, in particular education as a mechanisms for economic growth and poverty reduction, in the 1990s
World Bank. 2002. Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

A report describing the contribution of higher education to a country’s capacity to take part in an knowledge-based global economy and examining policy options to promote economic growth and to alleviate poverty through higher education
Africa
In the case of Sub-Saharan Africa, universities struggle not only with the inadequacy of financial resources and unmet demand, but with weak institutions, autocratic governments with an intolerance for academic freedoms.
Teferra, Damtew and Altbach Philip, ed. 2003. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

A comprehensive survey of current trends and issues in higher education in Africa and analytic essays in 54 African countries’ higher education
Hinchliffe, Keith 1987. Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Croom Helm Publishers.

This book addresses higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular concentrating on the present and future labor market for higher education graduates and on financing higher education. This book will be helpful to understand current status and growth of higher education and costs and outputs (efficiency) of higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Assie-Lumumba, N’Dri T. 2007. Women and Higher Education in Africa: Reconceptualizing Gender-Based Human Capabilities and Upgrading Human Rights to Knowledge. Abidjan: CEPARRED.

Analysis of complicated issues necessary to appreciated the interface between gender, higher education, and the production of knowledge and issues related to the fundamental right of women to higher education
Middle East and North Africa
Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa is characterized by unresolved traditions of state monopoly, low private costs, poor quality and an intolerance of academic debate which may question social or political authorities.
Bashshur, Munir. 2004. Higher Education in the Arab States. Beirut: UNESCO Regional Office.

A report on higher education in the Arab states in the world context, ground-level case studies from three countries on purposes and performance of higher education institutions, and possible dilemmas in higher education 
Latin America and the Caribbean
Higher education in the Latin America and Caribbean region is characterized by high quality government universities attended largely by the economic elite who have benefited from non-government primary and secondary education and lower quality non-government institutions attended largely by students from lower socio-economic backgrounds who have attended lower quality government primary and secondary schools.
Segrera, Francisco López, Colin Brock, and José Dias Sobrinho, ed. 2009. Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean 2008. Caracas, Venezulea: IESALC-UNESCO.

An overview of current main trends in higher education in Latin America and presentation of case studies analyzing key issues and realities in higher education 
South and East Asia
Higher education in South and East Asia is characterized by rapid expansion matching growth in the general economies and the struggle to maintain quality with reference to higher education in the industrial democracies.
APEID-UNESCO. 2006. Higher Education in South-East Asia. Bangkok: UNESCO.

A report on case studies from eight countries analyzing higher education systems, specifically reform, access, diversification, governance, research capacities, private education, internalization, accreditation, quality assurance, and challenges for the future
Central Asia
Higher education in Central Asia is characterized by the challenges of changes the structures from what was appropriate under the Soviet Union to the structures appropriate for industrialized democracies. Also relevant is the growth of education corruption which threatens the higher education sector generally.
Heyneman, Stephen P. and Alan J. De Young, ed. 2004. The Challenge of Education in Central Asia. Greenwich (Conn.): Information Age Publishing.

Exploration of challenges in elementary, secondary, and higher education in Central Asia along with introduction of social, political, and economic background of Central Asia
Brunner, Jose Joaquin and Anthony Tillett. 2007. Higher Education in Central Asia: the Challenges of Modernization – an Overview. The Chilean Education Forum.

Exploration of current challenges that higher education in Central Asia is confronted with, focusing on Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan in terms of system, policy, and competitiveness  
Western Europe
The issues of higher education in Western Europe, aside from those of industrial democracies generally, contain issues of re-structuring under the Bologna Process, the search for a ‘European dimension’ and the natural competition with the quality and flexibility of higher education in North America.
Fagerlind, Ingemar and Gorel Stromquist, ed. 2004. Reforming Higher Education in the Nordic Countries: Studies of Change in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Paris: International Institute of Education Planning.

Review of changes in the higher education sectors which are generated by technology, globalization, and competition in the Nordic countries
In’t Veld, Roel, Fussel, Hans-Peter, and Neave, Guy, ed. 1996. Relations between the State and Higher Education: Legislating for Higher Education in Europe. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.

Identification of key issues that European countries need to face in their higher education legislations and description of exemplary good practices of European countries

TEXTBOOKS

       

Though much attention is paid to the importance of electronic technologies, textbooks remain deeply important. They shape the character of the manifest curriculum. They are lightening rods for debate over history and civics, and they provide an unprecedented ‘window’ into the character of public education in every country.
Altbach, Philip G. 2006. International Higher Education: Reflections on Policy and Practice. Chestnut: Boston College Center for International Higher Education.

Discussion of worldwide issues in the contemporary debate in higher education policy and practice such as globalization, internationalization, world-class research universities, funding, private higher education, corruption, and academic freedom 
Forest, James F. and Philip G. Altbach, ed. 2006. International Handbook of Higher Education. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

A volume containing in-depth analyses of the central topics in higher education across the globe and comparative analyses of key countries and regions in an attempt to provide the background, trends, and realities of contemporary higher education
Mauch, James E. and Paula L.W. Sabloff, ed. 1995. Reform and Change in Higher Education: International Perspectives. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.

Discussion of the changing roles of government involvement in higher education policy reform in 10 countries
Phelps, Phelps P., Greta L. Dietrich, Gabriele Phillips, and Kevin A. McCormack. 2002. Higher Education: An International Perspective. Washington, D.C.: The ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education.

A report providing a review of higher education systems in selected 12 developed countries and outcomes of comparing the U.S. with 11 other countries, which share some similarities with the U.S., in the context of such higher education measures as student participation, resources and expenditures and education outcomes
Tight, Malcolm, Ka Ho Mok, Jeroen Huisman, and Christopher Morphew, ed. 2009. The Routledge International Handbook of Higher Education. New York: Routledge.

Critical and comparative overview of the major eight issues and questions in higher education and higher education research across countries

JOURNALS
International issues of higher education can be found in the journals which specialize in international education. Few journals focus on international higher education exclusively.

This list includes most of those which contain higher education issues.


*Comparative Education [http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713410081]*

This journal investigates theoretical and empirical analyses and debates in the field of comparative education from national, international and global perspectives
*Comparative Education Review [http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/toc/cer/current]*

Founded in 1957 by University of Chicago Press, this journal explores cross-national issues of education and the social, economic, and political influences and forces shaping them.
*Education Review [http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/00131911.asp]*

This journal covers national and international issues in a wide range of schooling and education fields including education policy and management
*Higher Education Management and Policy [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/oecd/16823451]*

Published by OECD, this journal investigates practices and policies on wide international scope in the field of higher education institutional management and system
*International Journal of Educational Development [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07380593]*

This journal intends to stimulate significant debates about the roles of education in development, with particular emphasis on developing new theoretical insights and understanding of the interaction between local, national, regional. And global contexts
*International Higher Education [http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/soe/cihe/newsletter/index.htm]*

This journal addresses critical issues in higher education from international perspective and reports analyses of the issues
*International Journal of Higher Education Research [http://www.springer.com/education+%26+language/higher+education/journal/10734]*

This journal explores educational developments in higher education institutions and in public and private higher education sectors on a basis of comparative analyses and studies
*Studies in Higher Education [http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/03075079.asp]*

This journal publishes both research-based empirical analyses and policy-oriented articles from any perspective in higher education or discipline
*UNESCO Prospects [http://www.springer.com/education+&+language/journal/11125]*

Published by UNESCO, this journal covers current and controversial comparative and international educational issues with emphasis on not only theoretical or research-oriented discussions, but policy implementation for policy makers and practitioners

DATA SETS
Statistical information on international higher education can be found in three central locations: *OECD[http://www.oecd.org/document/54/0,3343,en_2649_39263238_38082166_1_1_1_37455,00.html]*

(for the industrialized democracies), UNESCO Institute of Statistics (for all member states), *World Bank Education [www.worldbank.org]* (for middle and low-income countries). Additional information can be found at *Eurostat [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home]*, *USAID: Education & Universities [http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/education_and_universities/higher-ed/index.html]*, the *U.S. National Center for Education Statistics [http://nces.ed.gov/]*, and three Regional Development Banks: *Asian Development Bank – Education [http://www.adb.org/Education/default.asp]*, *Association for the Development of Education in Africa [http://www.adeanet.org/adeaPortal/]*, and *Inter-American Development Bank – Education [www.iadb.org/sds/edu/]*. Available statistics include rates of enrollment, drop out, specializations, graduation rates and portion of the general population with post-secondary education. OECD includes higher education financial data including portion of public expenditures allocated to higher education, portion of higher education expenditures from non-government sources, and unit expenditures. These data are not as complete in either the UNESCO or World Bank data sets, though they are improving over time. Data sets do not yet include academic achievement or unit expenditures/faculty, but these are currently under construction.
*Asian Development Bank – Education [http://www.adb.org/Education/default.asp]*

This agency contains comprehensive and broad information on education, in particular educational reform and development, for Asian countries
*Association for the Development of Education in Africa [http://www.adeanet.org/adeaPortal/]*

This agency created in 1988 in an attempt to establish links between ministries of education and development agencies provides databases and plentiful information on education policies and the transformation of education for development.
*Eurostat [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home]*

This portal site of the European Union provides information and statistics on European Union affairs by theme that allow comparison between countries and regions in an attempt to help EU Member States make decisions on a concrete foundation of reliable and objective statistics.
*Inter-American Development Bank – Education [www.iadb.org/sds/edu/]*

This agency with objectives of alleviation of poverty and inequality and sustainable development for Latin America and the Caribbean countries contains over 1,000 searchable statistics and indicators which create a wide-ranging dataset for the region. A dataset of educational indicators is provided in the subsection titled “Sociometro”.
*Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development[OECD] [www.oecd.org/education/database]*

OECD’s educational database serve as reliable database in that they are based on documents and reports Ministries of Education or National Statistical offices provide. In particular, there are two useful annual publications: Education Policy Analysis and Education at a Glance, which compile comparable indicators on country-specific education systems’ performance, quality, equity, and efficiency.
*UNESCO Education [http://www.unesco.org/en/education]*

UNESCO is one of the most comprehensive sources of educational dataset worldwide. *Institute for Statistics [http://www.uis.unesco.org]*provides a multitude of publications and numerical data. Also, it contains resources for higher education and important international higher education policy issues *online [http://www.unesco.org/en/higher-education].
*USAID: Education & Universities [http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/education_and_universities/higher-ed/index.html]*

The principal U.S. Agency focusing on foreign assistance also works in the field of higher education, especially in terms of contribution of education to political, economic, and social development. It is possible to acquire many publications and reports on higher education from *Higher Education for Development[HED] [http://www.hedprogram.org/]*and specific education data from *USAID Global Education Database [http://ged.eads.usaidallnet.gov/]*which includes data from UNESCO and the Demographic and Health Surveys.
*U.S. National Center for Education Statistics [http://nces.ed.gov/]*

The primary federal entity of the U.S., NCES gathers and analyzes data associated with education in the country and other countries. NCES annually makes public a wide range of education statistics and publications. 
*World Bank Education [www.worldbank.org]*

As another huge epicenter of data and researches on various sectors, World Bank provides a rich, comparable and up-to-date range of data and indicators on education as well through its *Education data page [http://data.worldbank.org/topic/education]*

ACCESS AND EQUITY

       

Stemming from WWII, the principal equity concern has been the selectivity of higher education and its fairness to marginal populations, working class families, low-income minorities, residents of rural areas. Since no nation, including the Soviet Union, has ever had a system where the portion of students exactly mirrored their portion of the general population, much of the debate has centered on interventions which hold the potential of raising the portion of underserved populations in higher education (see Clancy and Goastellec 2007). This has raised tensions on grounds that need for assistance might contrast with ability, hence the concern over whether under-served populations were sufficiently prepared for university work and whether the efficiency of the economy was inhibited by inattention to the more able (though they originate disproportionately from middle class families). Recent work on access and equity however has broken into new areas. Traditionally it was thought that the gap in higher education quality was widening between wealthy and poor countries and with every new technological innovation, and that this gap only increased. Now with the wide-spread use of electronic technologies in higher education, it may be possible to narrow instead of widen the gap. The fact that a student with electronic access in Shanghai may have the same level of bibliographic resources as the student in Boston (see Capshaw 2008) suggests that the equity issues of the future may be cast quite differently than they have in the past. Similarly, the struggle over alternative sources of higher education income has traditionally revolved around tuition fees. It has been a common understanding that higher tuition raises a handicap to those from low-income families; hence the struggle has been to keep tuition low or non-existent on the grounds that to not do so would hurt the poor. New cross-national surveys of student populations in countries with different higher education systems have now challenged this traditional notion (Arun et al. 2007). Countries with a wide divergence in higher education missions and a wide divergence in tuitions have been found to have higher portions of the poor enrolled.  Moreover, the higher the portion of income from sources other than the state (which can include tuition and other sources), the larger the portion of low income students with higher education opportunity. The future of this issue internationally is likely to continue to challenge these traditional assumptions that because it is free it is therefore advantageous to the poor.

Arun, Richard, Adam Gamoran, and Yossi Shavit. 2007. More Inclusion than Diversion: Expansion, Differentiation, and Market Structure in Higher Education. In Stratification in Higher Education: A Comparative Study, ed. Yossi Shavit, Richard Arum, and Adam Gamoran, 1-39. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

This is the first cross-national study of the influence of higher education structures on socio-economic representation in higher education institutions. The book contends that systems where institutions have diverse missions and large portions of income from non-state sources have higher access and higher portions of students from low income backgrounds within their student populations.
Capshaw, Norman Clark. 2008. Do Electronic Technologies Increase or Narrow Differences in Higher Education Quality Between Low and High Income Countries? Peabody Journal of Education 83, no. 1: 117-42.

An attempt to figure out how technologies of the internet and computers have influenced the gap in higher education quality, focusing on the U.S. first and low- to middle-income countries second
Clancy, Patrick and Gaele Goastellec. 2007. Exploring Access and Equity in Higher Education: Policy and Performance in a Comparative Perspective. Higher Education Quarterly 61, no. 2: 136-54.

This article conducts a comprehensive analysis of some commonalities and differences in national policies of access and equity in higher education between countries and introduces some problems of measuring equity in and access to higher education from a comparative perspective
Skilbeck, Malcolm and Helen Connell. 2000. Access and Equity in Higher Education: an International Perspective on Issues and Strategies. Dublin: Higher Education Authority.

A report on the international range of equity issues in terms of legislative framework for pursuing equity in Ireland, fundamental concepts in the equity debate, current state of equity in higher education, and issues and problems that primary equity target groups are confronted with  and applicable strategies and approaches to accomplish greater quality in higher education  
Stromquist, Nell P. 2005. Comparative and International Education: A Journey toward Equality and Equity. Harvard Educational Review 75, no. 1: 89-111.

Discussion of issues of equality and equity in the context of the comparative and international education including gender in education, non-formal education, globalization, international finance agencies and translational organizations as new educational actors, and public policies in education

GOVERNANCE
Rapid growth in enrollment rates (massification), rapid improvements in quality, new standards of equity yet insufficient public resources have combined to drive major shifts in higher education governance. A university of 20 years ago might have been considered ‘autonomous’ if it had control over academic content and faculty appointments. Today, the definition of autonomy includes sources of revenue, remuneration policies, ownership of property, admissions, allocation of scholarships, and managerial structures. Originally thought of as ‘privatization’ today these areas of governance are considered the normal components of good management. The literature on university governance such as Heyneman (2009) and Thompson (1998) reflects shifts in the nature and function of the state from one of control to that of supervision. It also reflects managerial choices which universities now must face. These include the choice of breadth vs. depth of endeavor; the range of topics to cover; the type of student market to target; the question of whether they are a developer (rare) or a deliverer (more common) of knowledge. Bad or naïve choices may contribute to over-expectations and inefficiencies (see Thompson, 1998).

Amaral, Alberto, Glen A. Jones, and Berit Karseth,ed. 2002. Governing Higher Education: National Perspectives on Institutional Governance. Dordrecht: Springer. 

Analysis of higher education governance (jurisdiction) issues and reforms in nine countries from different theoretical perspectives and presentation of empirical evidence and theoretical approaches to examine system-level reforms and institutional governance issues
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2009. The Appropriate Role of Government in Education. Journal of Higher Education Policy 3, no. 2: 135-57.

A review of the origins and purpose of public education and higher education and a discussion of the roles and responsibilities of the government in education
Huisman, Jeroen, ed. 2009. International Perspectives on the Governance of Higher Education: Alternative frameworks for coordination. New York: Routledge.

In an attempt to answers to a question of how to better comprehend governance in higher education and its impact, this paper concentrates on three directions: the traditional approaches (application of existing governance frameworks), deviation from the traditional approaches, and new and complex interaction of governance and cooperation
Kennedy, Kerry. J. 2003. Higher Education Governance as a Key Policy Issue in the 21st Century. Educational Research for Policy and Practice 2, no. 1: 55-70.

Introduction of governance in terms of its definition, its significance in current higher education, the social, political, and economic condition governance should consider, and the desirable features of university governance in the 21st century
Paradeise, Catherine, Emanuela Reale, Ivar Bleiklie, and Ewan Ferlie, ed. 2009. University Governance: Western European Comparative Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer.

Analysis of the structure, governance, and management of seven Western European higher education and research systems from the perspective of national dynamics, organizational design, and the changes introduced through steering tools
Thompson, Quentin. 1998. Trends in Governance and Management of Higher Education. Human Development Department LCSHD Paper Series No. 33. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

A report on trends in higher education governance and management primarily in the English speaking OECD countries, the impact of external environmental changes on higher education governance, and governance and management at the institutional level in terms of changes within higher education institutions
Trakman, Leon. 2008. Modeling University Governance. Higher Education Quarterly 62, no. 1-2: 63-83.

Evaluation of competing trends in types of university governance in three countries, the U.K., Australia, and the U.S. and description of five models of board level governance in higher education institutions and the models’ practical application

HUMAN CAPITAL, ECONOMICS AND FINANCE

       

Early human capital models suggested that public or private investment in higher education led to positive economic rates of return and could explain a sizeable portion of the variation in economic growth and innovation. However, with the rates of enrollment above 50% of the age cohort, the economic rates of return to higher education might be expected to decline. Instead they have been maintained. Wage differences between high school and college completion in OECD countries have increased rather than decreased. Today, attending some sort of higher education is becoming the norm rather than the exception. On the other hand explanations of economic growth have shifted. Economic growth used to be attributed to the quantity of education to which an age cohort had been exposed; today the major portion of the variance can be explained by the quality of learning to which an age cohort has attained But economic growth is also influenced by the style of higher education. Land grant institutions may have made a large contribution to the economic growth in the American west With respect to finance there has been a long-standing observation as to the characteristics of ‘cost sharing’ the need to finance higher education with a combination of resources from the state and the student. It also includes the discussion over the characteristics of student loan programs which may be feasible in the context of a particular country Equal attention has been paid to how financing can be used to augment organizational efficiency. Performance-based funding schemes have become more common

Bennell, Paul. 1996. Using and Abusing the Rates of Return: A Critique of the World Bank. International Journal of Educational Development 16, no. 3: 235-48

Examination of how the World Bank’s 1995 Education Sector Review draws on the research of rate of return to education, whether patterns of internationally acknowledged rate of return to education are in existence, and the role of rate of return to education in economic analysis of education
Bowman, Mary J. 1962. The Land Grant Colleges and Universities in Human Development. Journal of Economic History 22, No. 4: 523-46.

Examination of the diffusive and indirect impacts of land-grant higher education institutions and their activities on human resource development and the contribution of land-grant activities to American economic growth
Hanuskek, Eric and Ludger Wobmann. 2007. The Role of Education Quality for Economic Growth. The World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series No. 4122. Washington, D.C.

A review of the role of education, in particular education quality, which is representative of the cognitive skills, in promoting economic welfare, which is expressed in individual earnings, income distribution, and economic growth 
Heyneman, Stephen P.  1995. Economics of Education: Disappointments and Potential. UNESCO Prospects XXV, no. 4: 559-83.

This article summarizes the problems with using economic rates of return to make investment decisions in higher education. It explains the categories of education questions to which economic rates of return can inform and the categories of education investment issues on which economic rates of return have no useful role.
Johnstone, Bruce D. and Pamela N. Marcucci. 2007. Worldwide Trends in Higher Education Finance: Cost-Sharing, Student Loans, and the Support of Academic Research. UNESCO.

Discussion of six worldwide trends underlying the financing of higher education, trends in the contexts of country-specific and global politics and ideology, and such solutions as cost-side solutions, cost-sharing, student loans and government’s financial sponsorship for research and development in response to financial pressures and growing demands for accountability
Jongbloed, Ben and Hans Vossensteyn. 2001. Keeping up Performances: An International Survey of Performance-Based Funding in Higher Education. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 23, no. 2: 127-45.

Exploration of national government policies for funding higher education in 11 OECD countries and a description of mechanisms for funding the higher education sector and the multitude of how grants to higher education institutions are oriented on performance


Shin, Jung Cheol. 2010. Impacts of Performance-based Accountability on Institutional Performance in the U.S. Higher Education. DOI: 10.1007/s10734-0099285-y

This article analyzes the changes in institutional performance in the United States resulting from the adoption of the new standards of accountability. The article discovers that performance has not improved with performance-based accountability.
Task Force on Higher Education and Society. 2000. Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise. Washington, D.C. World Bank.

A report on the future of higher education in developing countries in the context of higher education’s problems and new realities, public interest in higher education, higher education as a system, governance, science and technology education, and need to develop general education curricular
Task Force on Higher Education and Society. 2004. Moderated Discussion: The Task Force on Higher Education and Society. Comparative Education Review 48, no. 1: l70-88.

Description of three different comments on the Task Force on Higher Education and Society’s 2000 report (Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise): introductory comment (background to the report, the impact of the report on the World Bank’s programs and priorities, the content of the report, and the impact of the report  

ACCREDITION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE
New non-government institutions have been founded in Africa, Asia, Latin American and the former Soviet Union. Some are branches of well-known universities in OECD countries; others are newly-formed and well financed; others are no more than profit-making proprietary schools. There has been a growing literature on how standards can be maintained for these new institutions and others can be accredited.

Billing, David. 2004. International Comparisons and Trends in External Quality Assurance of Higher Education: Commonality or Diversity? Higher Education 47, no. 1: 113-37.

A comparative study on the major national external quality assurance frameworks for higher education in the context of commonality and diversity
Brennan, John L. and Tarla Shah. 2000. Managing Quality in Higher Education: An International Perspective on Institutional Assessment and Change. McGraw-Hill Education

Clarification of the purposes, methods, and impacts of national systems of quality assessment and management in higher education institutions that are elucidated through a series of case studies on the experiences of 29 institutions and 7 national quality agencies in 17 countries
Gaither, Gaither H, ed. 1998. Quality Assurance in Higher Education: An International Perspective. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Presentation of some of the best quality assurance policies, practices, and procedures in higher education which are identified in five countries
Uvalic-Trumbic, Stamenka. 2002. Globalization and the Market in Higher Education: Quality, Accreditation and Qualifications. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

Exploration of the probable extent of an international framework in quality assurance, accreditation, and qualification and the potential limitations of the framework and discussion of how governments and higher education institutions are acting in response to the challenge of global markets in higher education
Van Damme, Dirk. 2002. Trends and Models in International Quality Assurance and Accreditation in Higher Education in Relation to Trade in Education Services. Higher Education Management and Policy 14, no. 3: 93-136.

Providing an analytical and descriptive overview of trends and models in quality assurance contributable to transnational regulation of trade in higher education with an emphasis on four models of development of international quality assurance
Westerheijden, Don F., Bjorn Stensaker, and Maria J. Rosa, ed. 2007. Quality assurance in higher education: Trends in regulation, translation and transformation. Dordrecht: Springer.

Description of quality assurance in higher education in terms of the impact of quality assurance on higher education system, quality assurance in relation to regulation, translation, and transformation, problems of current quality assurance practices, and proposals for better quality assurance in dealing with institutional challenges
Wit, Hans de and Jane A. Knight. 1999. Quality and Internationalisation in Higher Education. Paris: OECD.

Discussion of the internationalization of higher education and quality assurance in terms of its concepts and review process, presentation of case studies of internationalization quality review process in six countries, and analysis of the uses, benefits, approaches, and issues in internationalization quality review process of higher education



THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

       

Because policies for improvement are in high demand, because higher education development costs are high for low and middle income countries, and because of the premium for student and faculty exchanges, research collaboration and clarifications in the international regulatory environment, there has been a growing literature on the role of international organizations.. This literature covers trade organizations (WTO), international banks (the World Bank and the regional development banks), U.N. professional agencies (UNESCO) and institutions to maximize regional cooperation and development (EU, SEAMEO).

Altbach, Philip G. 2001. Higher Education and the WTO: Globalization Run Amok. International Higher Education 23: 2-5.

Discussion of the rules of WTO and GATS in changed circumstances such as inequalities among the world’s universities exacerbated by globalization and the commercialization of knowledge and higher education and each country’s need to control over its higher education.
Bassett, Roberta M. and Alma Maldonado-Maldonado. 2009. International Organizations and Higher Education Policy: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally? New York: Routledge

A book describing the significance of international organizations as the global drivers behind higher education policy, especially in developing countries and analyzing their impacts on the formulation and implementation of national higher education policy and roles in higher education institutions 
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2003. The History and Problems of Making Education Policy at the World Bank, 1960 – 2000. International Journal of Educational Development 23: 315-37.

Discussion of reasons of the World Bank’s growing influence on the global education agenda and, however, of its ineffective policies that in some cases create significant educational distortions 


Jones, Phillip W. 1992 World Bank Financing of Education: Lending, Learning and Development. London: Routledge.

Description of the World Bank as a driving force of the major changes in global education, specifically the history and evolution of the Bank’s lending policies in education, the Bank’s education lending project experiences, and the Bank’s influence on formulation of educational policy of a lot of countries  
Jones, Phillip W and David Coleman. 2005. The United Nations and Education: Multilateralism, Development and Globalization. London: Routledge

Description of four key agencies within the UN system, UNESCO, the World Bank, UNICEF, and UNDP during the period of the post-Cold War in terms of their commitment to the promotion of worldwide advancement of education.
Jones, Phillip W. 2006 Education, Poverty and the World Bank. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers

Description of the World Bank’s role in education, in particular the expansion and reform of education systems, and the World Bank’s policies and projects for education and education systems since 1963 within the context of promoting economic growth and alleviating poverty.

CORRUPTION
One purpose of higher education is to offer an opportunity for the more able to prove themselves worthy of specialized, often expensive training. Such training frequently leads to positions of societal leadership in the arts, politics, the military, business, law, medicine and many other fields. It is important for nations to have leaders who have achieved their positions on the basis of what they have accomplished rather than on inheritance, military force, or wealth. As a profession, faculty members in a university have a code of ethics not unlike medical doctors. They are obligated to treat all students fairly and to judge their work on the basis of achievement rather than on race, ethnicity, gender or other characteristics acquired at birth.  In the last decade however, it has been discovered first in the former Soviet Union then elsewhere that university systems can be corrupt.  Admission and good grades can be acquired for a price; university accreditation can be purchased illegally; research can be plagiarized. The literature on these tendencies began with the definition and description of higher education corruption Altbach (2004) and Heyneman (2004) open the discussion of its definition. Hallak and Poisson (2007) open the discussion of how to manage it as a problem and Rumyantseva (2005) relates the issues of higher education to corruption in the economy more generally. It then progressed to noting the differences between regions (see Heyneman 2009a; Osipian 2008) and lastly to issues of its adverse economic impact (see Heyneman et al. 2008) and social development (see Heyneman 2009b).

Altbach, Philip G. 2004. The Question of Corruption in Academe. International Higher Education 34: 7-8.

Discussion of professional corruption such as academic posts, plagiarism, and promotion process, the examination system considered a common site for corruption, and causes and effects of academic corruption
Hallak, Jacques and Muriel Poisson. 2007. Corrupt Schools, Corrupt Universities: What can be Done? Paris: Institute for International Educational Planning.

A report on educational corruption in terms of definition, a conceptual framework, diagnosis of corruption phenomena, and factors conducive to explaining the development of corrupt practices, applicable strategies to improve transparency and accountability, and policy recommendations to combat educational corruption
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2004. Education and Corruption. International Journal of Educational Development, 24(6), pp. 637-648.

Discussion of the definition and importance of corruption in education, description of various types of corruption and their causes, and introduction of four categories of reforms designed to minimize the risk of educational corruption
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2007. Buying your way into heaven: The Corruption of Education Systems in Global Perspectives. Perspectives on Global Issues, 2(1), pp. 1-8.

Explanation of the meanings of education corruption and how it works, illustration of the effects of corruption, and provision of measures to deal with education corruption
Heyneman, Stephen P., Anderson, K.H. & Nuraliyeva, Z. 2008. The Cost of Corruption in Higher Education. Comparative Education Review, 52(1), pp. 1-25.

Discussion of corruption in higher education in Europe and Central Asia along with empirical evidence in incidence of corruption and empirical analysis of the impacts of corruption on educational attainment and private economic return

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