One of the goals of the gi bill was to



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Norton, Chp 29. America at Midcentury, 1945-1960

On your answer document, indicate the best response to each of the following questions or prompts.


1.

One of the goals of the GI Bill was to

A)

require employers to reserve a set percentage of new job openings for returning soldiers.

B)

prop up the sagging post-war housing industry.

C)

prevent a sudden explosion in the number of people looking for jobs.

D)

outlaw deficit spending for peacetime purposes.




2.

What was the main reason for the rash of strikes that began in late 1945 and extended through 1946?

A)

Major unions were competing with one another to get the best deal for their members.

B)

The Communist Party had actively recruited workers during the war and was now ready to assert itself.

C)

Most major corporations had withdrawn vacation and pension benefits that had been extended during the war years.

D)

Inflation was eating away at workers' incomes.




3.

To deal with strikers who refused to work in an industry considered vital to national security, Truman requested that Congress authorize the president to

A)

fire all strikers and prevent them from ever returning to their jobs.

B)

imprison strikers who refused to negotiate in good faith with management representatives.

C)

force labor and management to settle their differences within a specified period of time.

D)

draft into the armed forces all strikers who refused a presidential order to return to work.




4.

Which of the following is true of the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947?

A)

It repealed most of the 1935 Wagner Act.

B)

It allowed states to pass right-to-work laws outlawing the “closed shop.”

C)

It weakened labor unions by making collective bargaining illegal.

D)

It allowed union contributions to political funds in federal elections.




5.

William Levitt is noted for which of the following?

A)

The design of the modern mobile home

B)

Modular home construction

C)

On-site assembly of factory-built homes

D)

The adaptation of assembly-line methods to the process of home construction




6.

Which of the following was accomplished during the Eisenhower years?

A)

Congress authorized construction of the interstate highway system.

B)

Federal funding was provided for civilian aviation research.

C)

The Amtrak system was created to centralize control over the nation’s railroads.

D)

Congress provided the first federal grants for construction of urban mass transit facilities.




7.

Which of the following was a consequence of the Highway Act of 1956?

A)

It led to the revitalization of inner-city neighborhoods.

B)

It caused a weakening of the tourist industry.

C)

It further separated the South from the rest of the nation.

D)

It encouraged the process of suburbanization.




8.

In the 1948 presidential election, Henry Wallace of the Progressive Party

A)

advocated friendship with the Soviet Union.

B)

advocated that Americans defy the desegregation order of the Supreme Court.

C)

advocated the passage of immigration-restriction laws.

D)

pledged to send troops to Europe to liberate Eastern Europe from Soviet domination.




9.

The Dixiecrats who attracted national attention in 1948 were

A)

southern activists who fought to end the poll tax and voter literacy requirements.

B)

teams of Carolina businessmen promoting new industry in their region.

C)

a fourth party made up of breakaway Democrats opposed to the Democratic Party's position on civil rights.

D)

union leaders who lobbied southern state legislatures to pass pro-union laws.




10.

Which of the following explanations of Truman's 1948 victory is correct?

A)

His opponents were political unknowns.

B)

The Democratic party was united.

C)

He won the African American vote in key northern states, thus gaining those states’ electoral votes.

D)

He won the Progressive vote.




11.

Which of the following is a reason for Eisenhower's victory in the 1952 presidential election?

A)

Many voters hoped he would end the Korean War.

B)

African Americans were led to believe he would actively work for enactment of civil rights legislation.

C)

He publicly denounced Joseph McCarthy.

D)

He promised to end American support of the French in Indochina.




12.

Which of the following is true of the amendments to the Social Security Act signed into law by President Eisenhower?

A)

They raised benefits and expanded the program's coverage.

B)

They raised benefits and reduced the program's coverage.

C)

They lowered benefits and reduced the program's coverage.

D)

They lowered benefits and expanded the program's coverage.




13.

The 1958 National Defense Education Act was passed in response to

A)

an alarming decline in the literacy rate of army draftees.

B)

the Russian launching of the first earth-orbiting satellite.

C)

the growing problem of juvenile delinquency.

D)

the decline in American exports to the world market.




14.

The National Defense Education Act of 1958

A)

offered fellowships and loans to college students.

B)

provided federal research grants to major universities.

C)

created the ROTC program.

D)

desegregated the Naval Academy.




15.

The aspects of elementary and high-school education that the National Defense Education Act most focused on were

A)

textbooks and equipment.

B)

school lunches and school breakfasts.

C)

ROTC and physical education programs.

D)

science and mathematics courses.




16.

Which of the following was a provision of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954?

A)

Private companies were allowed to own reactors for the production of electric power.

B)

The release of any information on atomic weapons to any nation was strictly forbidden.

C)

All nuclear materials, even those used for the production of electric power, were regulated and controlled by the Atomic Energy Commission.

D)

Federal funds were allocated for the construction of nuclear power plants at key locations throughout the United States.




17.

President Eisenhower responded to the three recessions that occurred during his presidency by

A)

resorting to deficit spending.

B)

persuading Congress to increase taxes.

C)

increasing farm subsidies.

D)

ordering massive budget cuts.




18.

In his final radio and television address, President Eisenhower warned the nation about

A)

world overpopulation and starvation.

B)

the “military-industrial complex.”

C)

the threat of environmental pollution.

D)

the “international communist conspiracy.”




19.

Many Americans accepted which of the following beliefs in the 1950s?

A)

The diversity within American society means that tension and conflict are inevitable in the United States.

B)

Citizens in a mass democracy must always harbor a healthy distrust of their elected officials and question their decisions.

C)

Americans must work to bring about the moral regeneration of American society.

D)

As the United States struggles against the Soviet Union for the future of the world, critics of America are suspect and perhaps even unpatriotic.




20.

President Truman contributed to the anticommunist fear after the Second World War by

A)

recommending that “procommunist” books be removed from the nation's libraries and bookstores.

B)

claiming that all liberal Democrats were communist sympathizers.

C)

releasing classified information revealing an international communist conspiracy.

D)

ordering investigations into the loyalty of federal employees.




21.

One result of the anticommunist crusade during the Truman administration was the dismissal as security risks of

A)

alcoholics, homosexuals, and debtors in the employ of the federal government.

B)

J. Edgar Hoover from the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

C)

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg from the State Department.

D)

Henry A. Wallace as Secretary of Commerce.




22.

Within the labor movement, how did the CIO respond to the anticommunist hysteria of the late 1940s?

A)

It labeled it as un-American.

B)

It called for solidarity among all workers against management while also pledging its support for the capitalist system.

C)

It participated in it by expelling some unions for allegedly being dominated by communists.

D)

It denounced it as a management tool to weaken organized labor.




23.

Which of the following is true of the Internal Security (McCarran) Act of 1950?

A)

It stipulated that critics of American foreign policy could not hold defense jobs.

B)

It prohibited American citizens from traveling to the Middle East, China, or Eastern Europe.

C)

It required members of “Communist-front” organizations to register with the government.

D)

It made it illegal to belong to an organization that advocated the violent overthrow of the United States government.




24.

Which of the following is true of the 1954 Communist Control Act?

A)

It put all labor unions suspected of communist domination under surveillance.

B)

It effectively made membership in the Communist Party illegal.

C)

It provided for the internment of known communists during a national emergency.

D)

It denied employment to communists in defense-related industries.




25.

Richard Nixon, Alger Hiss, Julius Rosenberg, and Ethel Rosenberg all gained national attention during the late 1940s and early 1950s because they were all associated with

A)

civil rights infringement trials.

B)

Cold War spy trials.

C)

Korean War profiteering trials.

D)

stock price manipulation trials.




26.

How did Senator Joseph McCarthy finally undercut himself?

A)

He charged that fellow senators were communist dupes.

B)

He took on the U.S. Army in front of millions of television viewers.

C)

He appeared on the Senate floor in an obviously inebriated state.

D)

He publicly stated that President Eisenhower was a “communist sympathizer.”




27.

In its report To Secure These Rights, President Truman's Committee on Civil Rights proposed which of the following?

A)

An increase in the number of Supreme Court justices

B)

Federal aid to African American colleges

C)

The enactment of antilynching and antisegregation legislation

D)

Legislation to bring about a redistribution of wealth in the United States




28.

Which of the following statements best expresses the significance of the report issued by President Truman's Committee on Civil Rights?

A)

It represented the willingness of the president to acknowledge the federal government's responsibility to strive for racial equality.

B)

It indicated that the president was willing to respond to congressional demands that he provide a comprehensive legislative agenda to protect minority rights.

C)

It indicated the government's willingness to bow to public pressure and actively protect the rights of minorities.

D)

It indicated that the president was unwilling to support ideas that would cost him white votes in the southern states.




29.

The Supreme Court's decision in Smith v. Allwright benefited African Americans by

A)

ending racially-discriminatory hiring practices.

B)

desegregating the nation's public schools.

C)

desegregating all public accommodations.

D)

outlawing whites-only primaries.




30.

Supreme Court decisions in such 1940s cases as Smith v. Allwright, Morgan v. Virginia, and Shelley v. Kramer suggest that by the 1950s

A)

environmentalists had little reason to expect help from the Supreme Court.

B)

the NAACP had some reason to hope for a favorable ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

C)

big business could be virtually sure of a sympathetic hearing in the Supreme Court.

D)

labor unions had no reason to expect pro-labor rulings from the Supreme Court.




31.

In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court ruled that

A)

states could require a period of silent meditation in public schools.

B)

racially-segregated public educational facilities were unconstitutional.

C)

pro-Communist statements expressed by a public school teacher were sufficient grounds for the teacher's dismissal.

D)

local school boards could require students to complete a sex-education course without infringing on students' religious rights.




32.

In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court accepted the argument that

A)

public schools could not be equal and separate at the same time.

B)

society's need for an educated citizenry outweighed any freedom-of-association rights of minors.

C)

segregation of any public facility threatened American relations with other nations.

D)

as taxpayers, African Americans were part owners of all facilities paid for by taxes and therefore had the right of equal access to those facilities




33.

The target of Rosa Parks's protest in Montgomery, Alabama, was the denial of the right of African Americans to

A)

use Montgomery city buses to transport African American children to after-school activities.

B)

sit wherever they liked on city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, without having to give up their seats to white passengers.

C)

secure jobs driving Montgomery city buses.

D)

ride on Montgomery city buses during the evening hours.

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