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Room 4201, Coombs Building

Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 Australia

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PMB 1291 R.J.S. COOKE, Reported Observations of Volcanic Activity in Papua New Guinea before 1944: published and unpublished documents, C1-C837. Reels 1-10. (Available for reference.)
Descriptions of items C1-C740 scanned from microfiche copy of W.D. Palfreyman and others (comp.), Bibliography of Volcanic Activity in Papua New Guinea before 1944 (BMR Report No.254, Canberra, Bureau of Mineral Resources, 1986). Additional descriptions of items C741-C837 down loaded from GeoScience Australia ProCite database.

Reel 1


Voyage in search of La Perouse, performed by order of the Constituent Assembly during the years 1791, 1792, 1793 ,and 1794

Labillardiere, H. (J.J.H.)

John Stockdale, London

PP151-187, 439-449 (1800)

* Bougainville Island * Bismarck Arc * Admiralty Islands * Lolobau * Ritter

An account of the D'Entrecasteaux voyage which passed along the west coast of Bougainville Island through St.Georges Channel to the Admiralty Islands and along the north coast of New Britain. Duportail Island was named and Ritter was seen in eruption in late June 1793. No mention is made volcanoes on Bougainville Island.


Scenes, incidents, and adventures in the Pacific Ocean, or the islands of the Australasian seas during the cruise of the clipper Margaret Oakley under Capt. Benjamin Morrell

Jacobs, T.J.

Harper & Brothers, New York

PP78-230, 250-305 (1844)

* Bismarck Arc * Bougainville Island * Witu Islands * Ritter

The Witu Islands are described in detail. Descriptions are also given of the north coast of New Britain, and Bougainville Island where two extinct volcanoes were noted. An active volcano and hot springs are described on "Horrell's Peninsula". Ritter Island is also described.


Travels in German, British, and Dutch New Guinea

Poech, R.

Geographica1 Journal

30, 609-616 (1907)

* Bismarck Arc * Manam * Mount Victory * Eastern Papua Mainland. An eruption at Manam on 24 October 1904 is mentioned. Mount Victory is briefly described, but no mention is made of recent activity.


Discovery of William the Fourth group of Islands, Pacific Ocean

Fraser, Captain

Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle

3, 74-76 (1834)

* Dampier Strait * Bismarck Arc

An 1834 voyage through Dampier Strait is described. Volcanic activity from unidentified islands in the strait and along the coast of New Guinea is mentioned.


Dampier' s voyages

Dampier, W.

Grant Richards, London

PP522-549 (1906)

* Ulawun * Ritter * Long Islind * Karkar * Manam * Kadovar

* Bismarck Arc * Bam

An account of a voyage m 1700 along the south coast of New Britain and the north coast of New Guinea. Volcanic activity was seen at Ulawun, Ritter, Manam, and at one of the Schouten Islands, possibly Kadovar. Edited by J. Masefield.


Discoveries in eastern New Guinea, by Captain Moresby and the officers of H.M.S. Bastlisk

Moresby, J.

Royal Geographical Society, Journal

45,153-170 (1875)

* DEntrecasteaux Islands * Bam * Mount Victory * Eastern Papua Mainland * Bismarck Arc

An 1874 voyage during which Fergusson Island thermal areas and Bam Island volcanic activity are described. Mount Victory is named, but was inactive.


Visits to the eastern and north-eastern coast of New Guinea

Powell, W.

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography

5, 505-517 (1883)

* Rabaul * Ulawun * Bamus * Lolobau * Ritter * Long Island

* Karkar * Langila * Bam * Bismarck Arc

A short account of the volcanoes along the New Britain north coast and off the north coast of New Guinea. The Rabaul volcanoes, Ulawun, Bamus, Langila, Lolobau, Ritter and Manam are listed as being active.


The east and west Indian Mirror, being an account of Joris van Speilbergen’s voyage round the world (1614-1617), and the Australian navigations of Jacob Le Maire

Schouten, W. Le Maire, J.

Hakluyt Society, London

Second Series, No.18, P219 (1906)

* Manam * Bismarck Arc * Bam

The 1616 sighting of Manam volcano by Schouten and Le Maire. The volcano was said to be emitting flames and smoke from the summit. Translated with notes and an introduction by J.A.J. de Villiers.


The voyages of Abel Jansroon Tasman

Tasman, A.J.

Clarendon Press, Oxford

PP200-204, 210-233 (1968)

* Earthquake * Witu Islands * Bismarck Arc * Karkar * Manam

* Bam

An account of a 1643 voyage up the east coast of New Ireland, across the Bismarck Sea to the Witu Islands and on to Karkar Island, where he observed volcanic activity. Tasman mistakes Karkar for Manam. A strong earthquake was felt on 1? April 1643. Edited and translated by A. Sharp.


A narrative of four voyages, to the south sea, north and south Pacific Ocean, Chinese Sea, Ethiopic and southern Atlantic Ocean, Indian and Antarctic Ocean from the year 1822 to 1831

Morrell, O. Junior

J. & J. Harper, New York

PP452-466 (1832)

* Bougainville Island * Bismarck Arc

An account of a voyage in 1830 from Buka Island through St. George's Channel, and along the north coast of New Britain and New Guinea. Six unidentified active volcanoes are described off the northern coast of New Guinea.


George Brown, D.D. pioneer-missionary and explorer. An autobiography. A narrative of forty-eight years' residence and travel in Samoa, New Britain, New Ireland, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands

Brown, G.

Hodder & Stoughton, London

PP93-98, 129, 237-246, 508 (1908)

* Bamus * Ulawun * Rabaul * Bismarck Arc

A description of the 1878 eruptions of Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes in the Rabaul Caldera is given. Ulawun and Bamus were seen on 25 July 1896. No activity was reported.


Volcanoes of the Pacific

Phillips, C.

New Zealand Institute, Transactions

31, 510-551 (1899)

* Bismarck Arc * Bagana * Bougainville Island * Tsunami * Ritter

* Karkar * Manam * Bam * Earthquake * Rabaul

Two active volcanoes on Bougainville Island are mentioned. The Rabaul volcanoes and the 1878 eruption are described. The tsunami generated by the 1888 Ritter Island eruption is described. Ritter. Karkar. Manam and Bam are named as active volcanoes. Earthquakes were reported felt in Port Moresby on 6 & 7 March 1895 and a tsunami on 18 April 1895 is described.


On volcanic activity on the islands near the north-east coast of New Guinea and evidence of rising of the Maclay-Coast in New Guinea

Mikloucho-Maclay, N. de

Linnean Society of New South Wales, Proceedings

9, 963-967 (1884)

* Admiralty Islands * Bismarck Arc * Tsunami * Earthquake

* Manam * Bam

Observations of earthquakes, effects of tsunamis, coastal uplifts, and

activity from Bam, Manam and possibly Tuluman volcanoes between 1871 and 1883.


The Solomon Islands: their geology, general features and suitability for colonization

Guppy, H.B.

Swan Sonnenschein, Lowrey & Co., London

PP1-7, 20-23, 137-144 (1887)

* Bougainville Island * Bagana

The volcanoes on Bougainville Island are briefly described. A white column of vapour issued continuously from the summit area of Bagana during intermittent observations over several months from islands to the south. Bagana appeared to be the only active volcano on Bougainville Island.


First ascent of Mount Balbi

Hamlin, H.

Australian Geographer

1(2), 31-38 (1929)

* Bougainville Island * Balbi * Bagana

An account of the first recorded ascent of Mount Balbi by an ornithological expedition lead by Hamlin, who gives a fanciful description of the summit area and the activity there. Bagana and its activity is also briefly described.


Isle of Bougainville

Deland, C.C.

Royal Geographical Society of Australia, South Australian Branch, Proceedings

37, 91-95 (1956)

* Bougainville Island * Balbi * Bagana

Balbi and Bagana volcanoes on Bougainville Island are mentioned briefly. Deland observed Bagana from near Kieta in July 1933 and described the volcano as a well-formed cone emitting enormous amounts of steam.


Cruises in Melanesia, Micronesia and Western Pacific in 1882,1883,and 1884,and visits to New Guinea and the Louisiades in 1884 and 1885

Bridge, C.

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography

8, 545-567 (1886)

* Bismarck Arc * Long Island * Rabaul

The Rabaul volcanoes are briefly mentioned. Long Island was visited in 1885, but is not described.


Northern New Guinea,1936

Marshall, A.J.

Geographical Journal

89(6), 489-506 (1937)

* Earthquake

The effects of an earthquake in the Torricelli Mountains in 1935 are described.


Preliminary notes on the recent earthquake in New Guinea

Stanley, G.A.V. Carey, S.W. Montgomery, J.N. Eve, H. D.

Australian Geographer

2(8), 8-15 (1935)

* Earthquake

The nature and effects of the 20 September 1935 earthquake in northern New Guinea are described in detail.


Volcanic action in New Guinea

Stanley, E.R.

Second Pacific Science Congress , Australia, Proceedings

1, 830-633 (1923)

* D'Entrecasteaux Islands * Balbi * Bagana * Willaumez Peninsula

* Lolobau * Bismarck Arc * Bougainville Island * Dampier Strait

* Manam * Langila

A short note on the distribution of young volcanoes in Papua New Guinea. Balbi is reported to be constantly in eruption. Willaumez Peninsula, Lolobau, or Balbi are recommended as a site for a volcanological observatory.


Narrative of a voyage to the Ethiopic and south Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean. Chinese Sea, North and South Pacific Ocean, in the years 1829, 1830, 1831

Morrell, A.J.

J. & J. Harper, New York

PP73-87 (1833)

* Bismarck Arc

An account of a voyage in 1830 along the north coasts of New Britain and New Guinea. Six unidentified active volcanoes are reported off the north coast of New Guinea.


Log-book kept by the first mate of the American ship Alliance, during the voyage from Pennsylvania to Canton and return in 1787-1788

Dale, R.

Unpublished log, U.S. Department of the Navy, National Archives, Washington

PP1-109 (1788)

* Bougainville Island

A handwritten account of a voyage by an American merchant ship, the

Alliance commanded by Thomas Read during which the vessel sailed north along the west coast of Bougainville Island between 12 and 15 August 1787. No mention of any sightings of volcanoes is made.


Wanderings in a wild country

Powell, W.

Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, London

PP32-39, 112-116, 219-230, 277-278 (1883)

* Rabaul * Ulawun * Bamus * Lolobau * Willaumez Peninsula

* Witu Islands * Langila * Dampier-Strait * Ritter * Bismarck Arc

An important, but in places erroneous, account of the 1878-1879 exploration of the north coast of New Britain. A description of the 1878 activity at Rabaul is given. Matupi Island is said to have an extinct crater at its centre, Ulawun and Bamus were seen smoking and Langila and Ritter were seen in eruption.


New Guinea: a summary of our present knowledge with regard to the island

Trotter, C.

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography

6(4), 196-215 (1884)

* Bismarck Arc * Ritter

Ritter Island and a volcano on New Britain are briefly mentioned.


Some notes on recent exploration in British New Guinea

Trotter, C.

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography

14(11), 785-796 (1692)

* Mount Victory * Eastern Papua Mainland

A report on the observations made by Macgregor regarding activity of Mount Victory.


My adventures among south sea cannibals. An account of the experiences and adventures of a government official among the natives of Oceania

Rannie, D.

Seeley, Service & Co. London

P37 (1912)

* Bougainville Island * Bagana * Rabaul

Account of a Government agent, who from 1884 to 1903, supervised recruitment of island labourers. Report of an active volcano, "Bagano", in the centre of Bougainville but made no mention of any volcanic activity on the island. Violent volcanic activity from the Rabaul area is reported, but it appears that either the data or location is in error.


The Rabaul volcanic eruption of 1937

Joycey, D.

Historical Society of New Britain, Bulletin

PP1-4 (1937)

* Rabaul

A narrative of the 1937 Rabaul eruption by a Medical Assistant based at Rapindik Hospital.


Mourning on a desolate coast

Ross, W.A.

Christian Family and our Missions

PP146, 155 (1930)

* Tsunami

The effects of a tsunami on the Sapara Mission station on 24 December 1930 are described.


Account of tidal wave and earthquake as observed at Buna Bay, Papua

Richmond, J.

Government Gazette, Port Moresby

No.1, 19 January 1907, PI (1907)

* Earthquake * Tsunami

The effects of an earthquake and tsunami on the Buna Bay area on 2 October 1906 are described.


Report on the seismicity of the Mandated Territory

Fisher, N.H.

Unpublished memorandum to The Secretary for Lands, Rabaul

PP1-2 (1938)

* Earthquake

A review of Papua New Guinea seismicity, 1913-1937, compiled by P.F. Rheinberger, Riverview College, Sydney. The results are discussed by Fisher partly with respect to volcano distribution and activity.


Manam Island volcanic eruption. Extracts from Inspector's Journal

Marr, C.C.

New Guinea Agricultural Gazette

3,3-4 (1937)

* Manam * Bismarck Arc

A report on the agricultural effects of the 1936 Manam eruption is given.


Violent eruption in Bougainville, T.N.G.

Robson, R.W. (editor)

Pacific Islands Monthly

8(2), 9 (1937)

* Bagana * Bougainville Island

A report from Kieta of the 1937 eruption of Bagana


Narrative of a voyage round the world, performed in Her Majesty's ship Sulphur, during the years 1836-1842, including details of the naval operations in China, from Dec.1840 to Nov. 1841

Belcher, E.

Henry Colburn, London

PP68-106 (1843)

* Earthquake * Rabaul

A July 1840 visit to New Ireland. A felt earthquake and the view of

Rabaul volcanoes are mentioned.


The islands of the New Britain group

Romilly, H.H.

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography

9(15,1-18 (1887)

* Rabaul * Earthquake

Visits to New Britain, 1881 to 1883. The Rabaul volcanoes and the 1878 Rabaul eruption are described. An earthquake felt on Matupit Island during 1883 is also described.


An historical journal of events at Sydney and at sea 1787-1792

Hunter, J.

Angus & Robertson, Sydney

PP155, 417, Plates 10 & 11 (1968)

* Rabaul

The narrative of Hunter's visit to the Rabaul area, including a record of the 1791 eruption of Tavurvur. Journal originally published in 1793. Edited by J. Bach.


Carteret's voyage round the world, 1766-1769

Carteret, P.

Hakluyt Society, Cambridge

PP178-199, 341-345 (1965)

* Rabaul

The narrative of the 1767 visit to New Britain, recording the discovery of St George's Channel and volcanic activity probably from Tavurvur. Edited by R. Uallia.


A voyage to New South Wales. The journal of Lieutenant William Bradley RN of HMS Sirius 1786-1792

Bradley, W.

Trustees of the Public Library of New South Wales in association with Ure Smith Pty Ltd

PP254-269 (1969)

* Rabaul

A narrative of John Hunter's visit to the Rabaul area including a record of the 1791 eruption of Tavurvur.


Report on the salient geological features and natural resources of the New Guinea Territory

including notes on dialects and ethnology

Stanley, E.R.

Report on the Territory of New Guinea, 1921-1922

Appendix B. PP1-93 (1923)

* Bismarck Arc * Earthquake * Rabaul *Lolobau * Ulawun

* Bamus * Pago * Willaumez Peninsula * Ritter * Long Island

* Karkar * Manam * Bam

A comprehensive account of the known volcanoes and volcanic areas of New Guinea. Earthquakes felt in Rabaul during 1920 are listed. Major earthquakes on 1 December 1916, 7 May 1919 and 4 July 1921 are mentioned.


Report on volcanological and seismological investigations at Rabaul

Stehn, C.E. Woolnough, W.G.

Unpublished report, Commonwealth Government, Canberra

PP1-34 (1937)

* Rabaul

A volcanological report by external advisors on the 1937 Rabaul eruption, which recommends evacuation of Rabaul as a main administrative centre.


Log and private journal of D. Parker Wilson, ship’s surgeon of the South Sea whaler Gypsy on a voyage from 23 October 1839 to 19 March 1843.

Microfilm copy, No.M198, of the unpublished manuscript, held in Pacific and Asian History Records Room, RSPAS, Australian National University, Canberra, from the original at the Royal Geographical Society, London.

15 March 1842 (1843)

* Bougainville Island * Bagana

Wilson recognised the volcanic nature of the mountains on Bougainville Island. On 15 March 1842 dense white vapours were being emitted from the summit area and flanks of Bagana.


Bericht ueber die vulkanischen Ereignisse der Jahre 1895-1913

Sapper, K.

Gerlands Beitraege zur Geophysik

14, 85-97, 99-155 (1914)

* Bismarck Arc * Bougainville Island * Manam * Karkar * Bam

* Ulawun * Balbi * Bagana * German

Bismarck Arc and Solomon Island volcanic activity during the period 1895-1913 is reported. Part translation.


Pioneering in New Guinea

Chalmers, J.

Religious Tract Society, London

PP216-219 (1887)

* Bismarck Arc * Long Island * Ritter

A report of a voyage to New Guinea's north coast. Activity from Ritter is mentioned and Long Island is described as being extinct.

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