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Gordon S. Wood, Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789-1815, The Oxford History of the United States (Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
Ibidem KW: Early American Comps; Federalists; Education; infrastructure; Jefferson; War of 1812

Ibidem Annotation: In this book, Gordon Wood holds that from 1789 - 1815, American political ideology changed drastically. While the Federalist era served as an essential point (allowing people to buy into government), as Republicans came to power they ingrained democracy into the political system (and insured that society would be firmly rooted in politics).

Does his level of view force him to be too reductionist in the assertion? Either America was making progress or it wasn’t? Does the holistic view of progress gloss over too much. (ie. women, canals, slavery)
Intent: What is the intent of the work

The intent of this work is to provide a content-filled overview of the period between 1789 - 1815.
Thesis: What is the main argument

From 1789 - 1815, American political ideology changed drastically. While the Federalist era served as an essential point (allowing people to buy into government), as Republicans came to power they ingrained democracy into the political system (and insured that society would be firmly rooted in politics).
Historiography: What is it dealing with? What is it using?

Gordon Wood tends to dismiss social history as who based work on generalizations of modern world, they were not responsive to historical past. Recent historians went back to historical sensitivity. Dismisses view of race and gender in popular culture. Many see that Revolution connected to previous eras through culture, etc. While very knowledgeable about the works and sources, he is very dismissive of social history (and political social history). Aside from Joyce Appleby (who he seems happy about) using her concept of progress and positivism (Appleby).
Why is the contribution important?

This work is important because it provides an important overview Early American history 1789 - 1815. While it is synthetic, it tends to promote a consistent view of progress and jockeying between Federalists and Republicans.
Sources: What are they? How do they advance the argument?

The primary sources (vary debating on their particular chapter - ie. stuff on Trumbull in the art but really) depend on mainly the presidents and other big political figures. So when talking about political ideology and progress the discourses tend to come from the very top.


In the “Editor’s Introduction,” David Kennedy gives a brief overveiw of the book. He maintains that this is important account of the development of American culture at the time. This book is between Middlekauff and Howe. Howe evokes cultural ferment and technological transformations. At the beginning of Wood’s era, Americans having trouble establishing self on continent. Americans aspired to mirror but differ from Europe. Wood particularly focused on American law (congress, presidents, and laws put in place.) “Gordon Wood’s most original contribution in this book is his deeply engaging account of the development of a distinctively American democratic culture, a culture that shaped civil society in its manners and mores and values and behaviors every bit as deeply as it shaped the official organs of American government.” (Wood:xv) While leaders believed in self-government they assumed that lower classes would defer to social betters. Middling sorts became the very essence of national character. This work good in what it does.
In the “Introduction: Rip Van Winkle’s America,” Gordon Wood begins with the anecdote of Rip Van Winkle to discuss the changes taking place between the Revolution and 1820. Rip Van Winkle as a character who gets lost in sleeping from about the Revolution to 1819. Van Winkle lost in many things, including the politics of the time. Many people can understand his bewilderment with this change. Before Revolution, America mainly on the the seaboard after 1812 expansive. Large population growth (doubling about every 20 years). Slavery growing more and more anomolous, dissappearing in North and becoming more entrenched in the South. Politics became more democratic with more people voting. Revolution instilled in people that they were in a great experiment and not to what they had to be. There was possibility to base this all on enlightenment principles. Slavery and natives presented problems from this original grouping. Revolution had officially run its course after the War of 1812. Things seemed to be secure. But many still threatened by slavery.
In “Chapter 1: Experiment in Republicanism,” Gordon Wood discusses the promise of a new government. “For nearly all Americans, as it was for Shippen, becoming republican was the deeply felt meaning of the revolution.” (Wood:6 - 7) Initially thirteen small colonies, now view that could be powerful national republic. Keys to good republic were virtuous citizenry and rough equality. Hypocrisy of equality something very interesting now but equality very promising then. Jefferson belief in minimal government. With politeness and civility, classical virtue spread. Not defects in Articles of Confederation as problem but the ways it manifested division in action and thought. State abusing individuals. Belief in equality by birth but not in talents. Politics still not regarded as a profession. “By the 1780s all these classical ideals of political leadership were losing much of their meaning, particularly in the Northern states.” (Wood:27) Lines between elite and middling classes blurring especially in the North. Even as protection ratified through Constitution, this did not mean that all were a nation. “If they were to be a single national people with a national character, Americans would have to invent themselves, and in some sense the whole of American history has been the story of that invention.” (Wood:41) Americans assured themselves as young and forming. Not surprised that the nation was attracting refugees. Many Americans felt that Freemasonry embodied cosmopolitan ideals. “Freemasonry became a way for American males of diverse origins and ranks to be brought together in republican fraternity.” (Wood:52)
In “Chapter 2: A Monarchical Republic,” Gordon Wood holds that Washington and Federalists importantly promoted all things that bound the United States together. Federalist as ones who clung to the name of supporters of Constitution. Hamilton and Washington determined to turn US into republic with vibrant public sphere. NYC as first capital mainly by default. House of Representative took serious that it was the more democratic branch of Congress. Allowed public to listen to debates. Madison as head of House. Adams of Senate and VP. Adams as confused over his role. President failed to provide guidance to Congress. Madison made Bill of Rights personal goal. 1) Free religion and speech 2) bear arms 3) illegal quartering 4) search and seizure 5) rights of those suspected in a crime and public censure of private property 6) rights of criminal defendants 7) trial by jury 8) cruel and unusual 9) these will not be used to constrain others 10) rights not to federal government to states. 7 (Wood:70 - 71) Washington as preordained. “He promoted...anything and everything that would bind the different states and sections together.” (Wood:78) Issue over deference to president. Alexander Hamilton as secretary of treasury most important. Hamilton given much autonomy. Implementing his plans (could smack of Britishness) and could challenge county-whig sentiments.
In “Chapter 3: The Federalist Program,” Gordon Wood holds that Federalists used political patronage but it was partly challenged by democratic clubs. Hamilton knew that we needed to pay foreign debt off in full. Proposal to assume debt of states. Hamilton hoped to create sinking fund. Proposal for the bank more controversial. Also a standardization of coinage. Big issue was whether or not to hand power over to the federal government (Wood:104). Federalists like Washington and Hamilton used patronage to gain support for side but knew that they still needed coercive powers (Wood:111). Federalist knew they would have issues maintaining control over new lands in the West. Land speculating. Scioto company bilking monies from French. Congress realized that they needed more law abiding good citizens in the West. NAs had different conception of what the west should be. Government felt that “Indians could save themselves by giving up their culture and becoming farmers like the whites.” (Wood:127) Yazoo land sale in Ga. Mad Anthony Wayne in Ohio. Excise tax protest in Western PA. Washington hesitated in using force. “The Whiskey Rebellion turned out to be among the least of the problems facing the Washington administration.” in reference to political clubs. (Wood:139)
In “Chapter 4: The Emergence of the Jeffersonian Republican Party,” Gordon Wood holds that Republicans grew out of contention with Federalists (once power federal power assured). Madison very active counter-acting Anti-federalist sentiments. Big move was the temporary establishment of capital in Philly for permeant in VA. Brought Middle and Southern states together. This is not the traditional narrative from Joseph Ellis. This move for the assumption of state debts. Madison not keen on bank though. By 1780s, Jefferson and Madison become good political friends. Jefferson and Hamilton jockey for position (Wood:157). Developing Republicans after Federal union assured. Republicans overwhelmingly southern. Republicans tended to view battle with Federalists as one they had against monarchy earlier.
In “Chapter 5: The French Revolution in America,” Gordon Wood holds that although American (people) for the French, Federalist alignment with the British made them unpopular. Initially enthusiasms for the French Revolution unanimous (Wood:174). As Europe aligned against Americans became more fervent. Yet Federalists started to separate selves, this became advantageous as moved to anarchy. French minister Genet meeting with democratic-republican groups to procure ships. Washington did not like. Republicans hoped to use American commerce to change British policies overall. Jay Treaty (with England) seen as bad in that it tended to be seen as making US subservient to British (Wood:197). Washington anxious about the tensions taking place. Farewell address as mixture of hope and realism for US republic.
In “Chapter 6: John Adams and the Few and the Many,” Gordon Wood holds that Adams view on mixed government ensured a showdown with Republicans in the future. Aside from Civil War, late 18th century most contentious period of American history. Republican Jefferson versus Adams and Pinckney. Adams stressed mixed government (Wood:215). Federalists had a tendency to be aristocratic, and many of these people fell on hard times at some point (Wood:233). Many still clung to gentility. “With the inauguration of John Adams as president and the spread of the French Revolution throughout the Western world, America was heading for...crisis.” (Wood:238)
In “Chapter 7: The Crisis of 1798 - 1799,” Gordon Wood holds that Adams as a moderate helped to maintain peace between U.S. and France. When French learned of Jay treaty they began to sieze American ships and cargoes. France decides to attack America directly. Adams receives word of XYZ affair. Demanding major concessions in order to negotiate peace. Congress and Adams led to Quasi-War. Laid an embargo and allowed for attacking of ships. Alien and Sedition acts born out of an attempt to deal with those that could be Jacobins. Federalist afraid of immigration and Republican press (Wood:256). Southern Republicans particularly against these actions. Adams sends committee to France to negotiate peace but to late and Republicans take over presidency (Wood:275).
In “Chapter 8: The Jeffersonian Revolution of 1800,” Gordon Wood holds that with the Jeffersonian sweep in 1800, government reduced and Federalists realized that they needed to change (some migrated to Republican party). Jefferson as embodiment of revolutionary transformation. Burr emerges as Republican. Burr pushed out getting the same amount of votes as Jefferson. This led to the passage of 12th amendment so party could vote president and vice-presidential candidacy. Jefferson and Republicans set out to “reduce the overweening and dangerous power of government.” (Wood:287) While Jeff kept BUS, constantly looked to reduce its power. Voting as one of the most obvious changes. With Jefferson takeover many Federalists sensed they had to change their ways (Wood:305). Because of rapid democratization, Federalists were never again able to recoup power.
In “Chapter 9: Republican Society,” Gordon Wood discusses how social ills were combated by patriarchy (although seemly losing by end of Jefferson’s administration). Ohio’s rapid growth (Wood:316 - 317). Social hierarchy tended to be diffuse and Americans tended to move West out of old structures. Farmers still knew about trade and commerce. With all of these changes “It became increasingly clear that society could no longer expect men to sacrifice their time and money - their private interests - for the sake of the public.” (Wood:329) Partisanship sometimes became violence. Hard liquor and distilled spirits sometimes blamed. Sexual fidelity also seemingly opened up. Patriarchy also seemingly divided amongst youth. South with leisure culture turned backward as industriousness became mark of honor (Wood:353). “By the end of Jefferson’s administration in 1809 some Americans, mostly Federalists, thought the experiment was failing, that the degree of freedom left to individuals had already gone too far.” (Wood:356)
In “Chapter 10: The Jeffersonian West,” Gordon Wood held that only by moving west Jefferson and the like could only realize yeoman farmer, although there was no way that Native Americans could be incorporated into this. While Hamilton’s focus was on Europe, Jefferson on the west. Only by moving west, could Americans realize the yeoman dream. North and Southwest tended to create different places. Northwest filled with absentee landholders. Southwest overwhelmed by planters. Spanish Florida. Sugar importance. Jefferson eager to take advantage of hazy boundaries in Louisiana. Lewis and Clark natural choice. Burr’s secession plans (Wood:383). While Jefferson and others talked about incorporating NAs they knew they could not. “They knew that the Indians represented much of what they themselves valued - a respect for human dignity and a passion for human freedom. These were the values that Americans also came to identify with the West.” (Wood:399)
In “Chapter 11: Law and an Independent Judiciary,” Gordon Wood discusses how views of importance of a weak judiciary changed to becoming essential. In 1801 Republicans took over Congress (2/3rds), but Judiciary remained Federalists. This branch with its circumstances was the most unrepublican branch. Colonists often rejected courts dependence on monarchy but it still remained essential. Early Revolutionary states took power of appointing away from governors and too legislatures. Yet they still remained bound to the legislature in many states (Wood:401). What revolutionaries thought was one of the best way to protect against it was to weaken the judiciary. There was a dislike of the ability to appropriate different laws and with lawyers. 1776 many states resolved to keep English Common Law until needed amended through legislation. Yet state governments after independence, often confused the situation. The 1780s skepticism in legislative reform and abuses led to necessity in raising judiciary to one of three capital powers. “from the much scorned and insignificant appendage of crown authority into what Americans increasingly called on of “the three capital powers of government.” (Wood:407)

Constitution committed to independent judiciary but troubles instituting it. Judiciary Act of 1789 Section 25 allowed for the overturning of state rulings if against federal treaties. District courts did admiralty cases , petty crimes and tax. Supreme Court 6 justices to convene twice for two weeks a year. The English tradition was knowing political character as opposed to legal experience (Wood:412). Political magistrate view. John Jay as chief justice in 1790. Hope for federal courts to breakdown state allegiances. Federalist judges tended to show preference to uniting people as one nation. Chisolm v. Georgia (1793) allowed for the suing of individual states. did not like this. Active in Whiskey and Fry rebellion cases. Often these Federalists judges tended to appropriate common law to insert themselves in things.

John Adams added many federalist judges before leaving and John Marshall to chief Justice and passing Judiciary Act of 1801 making more courts. Republicans attempted to diffuse some of the power but issue was how to dismantle without dismantling US government. Struggles emerged in the federal and state governments (Penns) (Wood:425). Yet many moderate Republicans understood the importance of strong judiciary with flexible common law. This enabled rapid development.
In “Chapter 12: Chief Justice John Marshall and the Origins of Judicial Review,” Gordon Wood discussed the importance of the development of judicial powers (particularly review) under John Marshall and the precedence it established for business in the era. Federalists also divided between radical and moderate. John Marshall as moderate federalist opposed to Alien and Sedition acts. Marshall from VA but not really of the sophisticated ilk. But had abilities, rising to leader of VA bar in 1780s. Opposition to Alien and Sedition drew him closer to John Adams. New Chief Justice January 27, 1801.

Although Supreme Court had power, congress still claimed to be equal interpreter of laws. Marshall set out to correct this. Yet also retreated the court from some of more advanced Federalist ideals, common law running through lower courts.

1803 Marbury v. Madison the case that really did it for him. As one of midnight judges (who Jefferson refused to deliver appointment to) Marbury brought suit against Secretary of State Madison. The court could not really simply attack presidency (Wood:441). In this ruling, Marshall asserted the original authority of Supreme Court. It also promoted strict reading of Constitution as the basis for rejecting laws, establishing Judiciary Review (Wood:441). This is only partly viewed as ability to void laws. In theory this comes out of the tradition of appropriating the Magna Charta in English cases. As seen in US, there was a realization that this had major powers to reconstitute lives (Wood:447). What was also essential was the transition from unwritten to written constitution that allowed more direct connection. Jefferson felt that judges should have no monopoly on interpreting Constitution. Jefferson did not like Lord Mansfield establishment of juris prudence. States, particularly in the West, affixed to the importance of judiciary.

At this time jurists and lawyers exploded, this meant that courts attempted to avoid most virulently political issues. Not until McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) did Marshall attempt to proactively build power of federal government. Prior to this a series of case that established Federal jurisdiction over the states. As contracts and corporations multiplied by the early 1800s, Marshall Court first grappled with corporation in Head v. Providence Insurance Company (1804). Issue as to whether legislature could change terms of contract, this established had the right in things related to the public interest. This led to Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819). Suit as to whether college had right to install who wanted without legislature. As Dartmouth was defined as private, this allowed for protection of things defined as not public (Wood:464). “By protecting the rights of minorities of all sorts against popular majorities, it has become a major instrument for both curbing democracy and maintaining it.” (Wood:468)
In “Chapter 13: Republican Reforms,” Gordon Wood holds that reform helped to create important civil society. This seems to validate Tocqueville. Despite some concerns, “most Americans continued to remain extraordinarily confident and optimistic about the future.” (Wood:469) From Enlightenment, Americans knew that culture was something to be constructed. Heart of Revolution “lay the assumption that people were not born to be what they might become.” (Wood:470)

Education seen as an important institution. New England seen as champion of education prior to Revolution and after but still not uniform and not enforced. Only 9 colleges prior to Revolution, 24 more by 1815. While English opposed education since create dissatisfaction, American elites liked it for all white males (Wood:473). Also a growth of private education. This was not always formal schooling. Benjamin Rush. One thing related was a cultural striving to become more gentile (especially from middling classes). “Everywhere institutions and organizations were burdened with the responsibility of imparting virtue and knowledge to the citizenry.” (Wood:477) Post office seen as spreader of knowledge and virtue, ie newspapers.

This could not have been achieved with building postal roads and turnpikes (Wood:479). Roads and turnpikes began developing at crazy pace. Along with this came the canal sentiment. Associations also popped up to meet needs of humanitarianism and knowledge and virtue. “They needed new and substantial institutions, such as relief societies, hospitals, free schools, prisons, and savings banks, to improve the character of the weak and vicious of the society.” (Wood:488) This spirit of reform not contained to citizens. Indian missionaries also fit into this. Also there was a change in the conception of punishment at this time, milder more compassionate forms of government but this was being challenged in this era as we were seeing prison overpopulation.

All of these reforms fed the creation of civic society. Women gaining new sense of selves during this time, as men handed over power particularly when at war. While legal coverture existed, minds were changing . Marriage seen more as equals. Revoking of laws punishing extra for women killing men. Inheritance laws reformed to give women greater authority.

“Although most Americans understood ‘rights’ in the post-Revolutionary years to mean simply the rights of men, some began asserting as well the rights of women.” (Wood:500) Judith Sargent Murray. Tough to jib with women’s household roles. Republican motherhood became an important concept. In this period there was also a move within reformers to support women’s education (Wood:504). “Despite all the talk of women’s rights, most women in this period were not yet eager to vote and participate in politics.” (Wood:507) All of these reforms and rights helped to strengthen Civil Society.
In “Chapter 14: Between Slavery and Freedom,” Gordon Wood discusses how initial positivity and ambiguity towards abolition and slavery eroded in the face of economic growth, rebellion, and increased immigration. While not fully exploring “the Revolution did accomplish a great deal: it created for the first time in American history the cultural atmosphere that made African American slavery abhorrent to many Americans.” (Wood:508) Southerners had to defend slavery.

African slavery in America as unique. It differed over time and space. 460,000 African slaves prior to Revolution (1/5 of total population). Staple crop lent selves to different types of slavery. Tobacco in VA; SC rice with need for more slaves. By Revolution Chesapeake moved to more industrialized. Southern slavery still required importation of slaves. Washington and slaves no incentive to work well to get good name (Wood:513). Jefferson as typical slaveholder. “he always condemned slavery.” (Wood:514)

Slaver not inconsequential in the North. 50,000 prior to Revolution. Slaves here tended to work closer with masters. But it was only one model of labor and not the dominant one.

Recognition that this was one of the lowest rungs of legal hierarchy. “The contradiction between the appeal to liberty and the existence of slavery became obvious to all the Revolutionary leaders.” (Wood:517) Most leaders assumed that it was on its last legs.

VT first state to abolish slavery. Even VA and MD attempted to make moves in treating slaves more paternalistically (refusing to break up slaves). Yet, SC began to feel defensive (Newman).1790 abolition petition from PA set up issues. Madison, Washington, Adams all factor importantly here. Eli Whitney (1793) cotton gin mechanizing cotton and reinvigorating Carolina Up-country into cotton producer. Cotton moved throughout the Deep South. Sugar remained important in Orleans. “Slavery and the Southern economy tended to breed deference.” (Wood:531)

Haitian Revolution did a lot to diminish optimism. This was the seed for slave rebellions in the US. 1800 Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion. With Haitian refugees. There was a greater awareness of the impossibility of removal of Africans. This led to even a compartmentalization of blacks within the North.
In “Chapter 15: The Rising Glory of America,” Gordon Wood holds that arts failed to live up to the expectations of Revolutionaries. In particularly, its utilitarian push tended to discourage development. Inspite of high hopes, America plagued with a seeming inability to create anything of artistic worth to Europe. Many try to explain this cultural nadir. While America was to be exception, it really wasn’t supposed to be (Wood:544). Not only supposed to be taking part in culture but supposed to be world leader. Neoclassicism as a revival of culture at this time. Painting and sculpture. Issue was that art at sometimes became related to evil. Instead of arts for entertainment, arts focused on instruction (Wood:550). Newspapers, libraries, book clubs, etc. Englishmen and Europeans attempted to exploit arts for reform.

John Trumbull, Joel Barlow. Charles Wilson Peale as influential artists. “Always the goal of every cultural effort during these post-Revolutionary years was to instill the right feeling in spectators.” (Wood:557) The neoclassicism not only in art but proliferation of ancient towns. Theater as a debate because often known for licentiousness. Lines between utilitarian and creative art blurred. Learning academies did not always fit in the US (Wood:568).
In “Chapter 16: Republican Religion,” Gordon Wood discusses how Christianity jibbed with Democratic ideals While rationalism did not replace religion, transformed to a promoter of individual power. “Nearly all common and middling people in the early Republic still made sense of the world through religion.” (Wood:577) Continuation of religion. Second Great Awakening as appearing to be more religious. Rationalism did not erode religion here as it did in Europe.

Revolution seemed to have little to do with religion. Not many Founders religious. Enlightenment seemed to eat away at Calvinist principles. Politics did not replace religion during revolution, it helped to fuel it. Second Great Awakening not simply a continuation but outpouring of evangelicalism.

Constitution not a complete rejection of religion; yet, ones like George Washington went out of way to make religions feel like part of American community. “Although Jefferson may have remained oblivious to the increasingly religious character of the country, many other members of the elite soon realized what was happening; indeed, some of them developed a belated interest in religion themselves.” (Wood:589)

Catholicism different story. Only about 35,000 in 1790. John Carroll first Catholic Bishop in US. Grew immensely but not in power. Evangelicalism also limited in its spread. Cane Ridge 1801 beginning of revivals. “The Second Great Awakening, like the democratic impulses of the Revolution, was very much a movement from below, fed by the passions of ordinary people.” (Wood:602) Calvinism was a dividing force in New England. In the South revivals more limited in their development because of the hierarchy of society. Growing number of Baptists and Methodists threatened to destroy standing order. Divisions arose over Arminianism. “The divisive effects of all this fragmentation were offset by a curious blurring of theological distinctions among the competing denominations.” (Wood:611) Millenarians also boomed at this time. “They reconciled Christianity with American democracy, and they explained and justified the anxious lives and the awakened aspirations of countless numbers of ordinary Americans for whom the world had hitherto offered much promise and improvement.” (Wood:619)
In “Chapter 17: Republican Diplomacy,” Gordon Wood discusses the diplomatic issues that led to tensions during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison. Republicans as proactively attacking, impressment and seizures through their non-warlike initiatives. US born amidst world at war. French Revolution a total war. Napoleonic wars were not a single continuous war but a series of clashes. “They [Americans] had an extraordinary emotional need to exaggerate their importance in the world - a need that lay behind the efforts to turn in their diplomacy is not a major means of defining their national identity.” (Wood:622) US never really had direct disdain with France. By 1790s, France and Spain needed US for commerce in their side of the Atlantic. Commerce became extremely profitable. This all was necessitated by broken trade (trade taking place through somewhere as opposed by Spain). Re-export trade. Jefferson devoted much of his efforts to defending it. Jefferson hoped that it would spur domestic development. But Europe not eager to freely open up, US had to shackle themselves to European nations (Wood:628). “The Republicans believed that republics were naturally peace-loving, while monarchies thrived on war-making.” (Wood:630) Robert Fulton showed off prototype submarine in NYC. Republicans wanted diplomatic missions to be replaced with consuls. Republicans felt a need to be part of old world with aversion to war.

Barbary pirates first. US driven into uneasy treaties with Barbary Pirates. Morrocco peace treaty since 1786, our longest ally. Barbary pirates saw these treaties as a way of extorting more money. Americans drew to the irony of Black pirates enslaving white Americans (Wood:639).

1805 Royal Navy began to seize American ships doing broken voyages. It was not the seizure but the presumption that Britain had a right to do this.

Impressment “the most humiliating grievance.” (Wood:641) “The British never claimed the right to impress American citizens, but since British and American sailors looked a sounded so much alike, aggressive British naval officers often made the mistakes that might take years to correct.” (Wood:642) An issue in this, was the denial of British subjects to be expatriates. Republicans as leaders against impressment. Seizures and impressments forced Jefferson to stop talking of alliance with Britain. Non-importation a way to avoid officially cutting off trade or war. 1806 Berlin Decree cutoff US from European trade.

Leopard-Chesapeake 1807. Does not say was impressment but always seen as such. Non-importation and Embargo comes into power in 1807. “Although Jefferson eventually came to share Madison’s grand vision, he initially saw the embargo as little more than a defensive device to prevent the capture of American ships, cargoes, and seamen.” (Wood:652) Congress sets money out for gun-boats and building US Army regiments. Republicans always feared standing armies. Jefferson’s embargo as a miscalculation of international clout. Embargo ended on March 4, 1809.
In “Chapter 18: The War of 1812,” Gordon Wood describes the war as Republican led and Federalist challenging, although political tensions are not really as clear in earlier chapters. “The War of 1812 is the strangest war in American history.” (Wood:659) US told the world that it was about free trade and sailors rights. Navy unprepared with gunboats. War really popular in the South and West. Northeast against war, and should be for because of impressment. There was a historiographic tendency to see the West leading the US into war, but they were not that powerful. War was mainly a political issue, Republicans for and Federalist against it.

Madison seemed prepared for presidency. Madison had less control over his party. Madison immediately confronted with ending the embargo that he wanted to continue. Was able to get some assurance from France (Cadore letter) that Napoleon would end Berlin Decree. In the meantime the Republican party was splitting all around Madison. Anglophilia tended to be used to go against Federalists. The main reason they went to war was that their foreign policy left them no recourse for going to war (Wood:669). Republicans who were against war, felt that whatever war they fought would have to be different. There was a growth of the Army but the initiative to build 12 ships of line and twenty frigates ran into problems. What this meant was that they consciously thought there would be no need to use navy in War (Wood:672). June 1 presidents message and 18th War officially declared. “Many Americans initially saw the war as a way of dealing with the problem of Indians in the Northwest.” (Wood:675) William Henry Harrison to Tippicanoe. Canada seemed vulnerable to the American invasion. Three pronged attack through Detroit, Niagara, Montreal. Hull destroyed at Detroit. Fort Dearborn. General Dearborn’s trouble moving into Canada. USS Constitution defeats HMS Guerriere. Privateering the real key for the US. As long as Britain holding territory then tough to sell as US win. War on the Great Lakes, Oliver Hazard Perry and the Battle of Lake Erie. Harrison in stopping out Tecumseh and their British allies. Andrew Jackson against the Creeks. British invasion of the Chesapeake region. British burning of Washington but fail to get Baltimore (Wood:691). Federalist opposition to the war a big issue from this. January 1815 Hartford Convention although doesn’t say. Peace not reaching US until February 13, 1815. In the meantime the Battle of New Orleans. US during war lost ground to Barbary pirates. After the war, “People now called for an end to party bickering and for uniting as one great family. The grand republican experiment had survived.” (Wood:700)
In “Chapter 19: A World Within Themselves,” Gordon Wood summarizes the transformations in US, demographic, cultural, political, and economic that all make Civil War evident by 1815. “By the end of the War of 1812 the United States was becoming, in the minds of its citizens, a nation to be reckoned with.” (Wood:701) Population about 8.5 million, 1.5 being African American. Addition of a lot of states. US was the only republican system, after the fall of Napoleon. Only 11 representatives still remained from Constitutional Convention.

Embargo and non-intercourse raised prices of manufacturing goods and led to development of manufacturing. This manufacturing growth boomed in the North. Rural manufacturing not subcontracting work but growth out of familial work. Even small towns had manufacturing. By the 1800, realization (by Albert Gallatin) that the economy developed different from Britain and non-agriculturally. Even by after 1812, Jefferson realized the necessity for manufacturing (Wood:705). While cities popped up only 5 plus 25 thousand. The development of domestic trade pushed demanded for internal improvements. With this exportation fell by the wayside to merchant.

Middling culture in the US differed from Britain, in the US these people helped to establish thoughts of nation. Developing nationalism rather than class within the political cultural system. The differences between gentlemen or commoners blurred. “ordinary folks were collapsing traditional social differences and were bringing the aristocracy down to their level.” (Wood:710) In Northern Part, society was tending to appear to have no upper and no lower classes. Yet there was still economic inequity in the North and South.

To justify this all, Americans had to connect themselves to the Revolution. Franklin as the model businessmen for society. Honor, wealth, and education all became challenged as marks of distinction. In the years to follow, Northerners turned terms like democracy and democrat into points of pride. By the end of this period, Congress “was not to be a deliberative body set apart from the people.” (Wood:720)

With this the idea of cultural progress fell by the wayside. Scholars forced to abandon Enlightenment for firm grounding in gathering facts. In this it transformed true heroes as those that find useful arts. Newspapers transformed from being thought of as way to teach the public to entertainment (Wood:732).

“Not only were the middling people popularizing America’s culture, but they were as well creating the country’s sense of identity, even its sense of nationhood.” (Wood:732) This tended to come from the North who extolled the virtues of hard work, while the South could follow they could never fully get on board. While Northerners developing infrastructure, South (particularly VA in decline). “The Southern planters, bewildered and besieged by the fast-moving commercial developments in the North, reacted, as Jefferson did, by turning inward, blaming conniving, mercenary, hypocritical Yankees for their problems, and becoming increasingly anxious and defensive about slavery.” (Wood:735) By 1815, there was a clear identification of US as being self-fulfilling rather than a need to emulate Europe. “The Civil War was the climax of a tragedy that was preordained from the time of the Revolution.” (Wood:738)


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