Pastor Jeremy M. Thomas Fredericksburg Bible Church

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Pastor Jeremy M. Thomas
Fredericksburg Bible Church
107 East Austin
Fredericksburg, Texas 78624


B0749 – December 16, 2007 – The Flood & Noah's Ark
Now, with this series, “A Biblical Framework” we’re emphasizing three thing; the Historicity of the Bible, the Interrelatedness of the Bible and the Strategic envelopment of unbelief within this Framework. Those are the three emphases and I’ve come up with a little acronym to remember these; H.I.S. HIS Curriculum or HIS Framework.

  • H i s t o r i c

  • I n t e r r e l a t e d

  • S t r a t e g i c

First we emphasize the Historic nature of the Bible, i.e. that the Bible is talking about real history; it’s not talking about religious ideas and speculations. The Bible doesn’t allow us to do that. The Bible marries so closely and tightly what it’s teaching about God and our relationship with Him to what happened in history that you can’t separate the two. This is the scandal that is felt intellectually by our generation, and actually for the last 200 years. The scandal is that you can have your Biblical faith without an inerrant Bible, you can come in to the cafeteria and pick and choose what you want out of the Bible, but the Bible won’t let you do that. The Bible roots ideas about God, salvation and sin to what went on in history and what the Bible reports, so they’re inseparable. This is not like other religions. If you look at Confucianism, and you read the Analects of Confucius, you find these nice moral and ethical teachings, principles but they don’t depend on Chinese history, they’re just moral insights. But Confucius doesn’t rest his case on the reality of Chinese history. You can go to other religions outside the Bible and you see the same trend. For example, Hinduism, it doesn’t matter what happened in Indian history to justify or negate Hinduism. But our Biblical faith is at one with the events of Scripture. If these events didn’t happen in real history then our faith is worthless. So that’s the problem we have, and that’s why we emphasize the historicity of these events and eventually we’ll get into the historical problems of biology and geology and astrophysics in more detail and you ask “Why are we bothering with that?” Because we have to. If modern man is going to say he can’t believe the Bible because of those things, then I have to deal with them. That’s the first thing, and this is why I’ve partitioned this course into historical events, to force us in the way we think, the basic way we think, to think in terms of historical events; Creation, the Fall, the Flood, and that if these things did not happen, then the doctrines that we learn from them aren’t true. We’ve looked at Creation and the Fall, today we move to the Flood.
The second thing we are going to deal with is the Interrelatedness of each event of Scripture and its doctrines to every other event of Scripture and its doctrines. Every part of Scripture permeates every other part that reflects the coherence of our God. I keep pointing this out because you can’t defend the Bible in piecemeal fashion. If you try to defend, say the resurrection, your non-believing friends will re-interpret that evidence piece in a pagan frame of reference and you will have a hard time getting very far. Rather than thinking and defending Christianity piecemeal, you bring the whole system of biblical thought to bear on him as a military commander brings the whole army to war with the enemy. In the army you have a strategy, highly organized so you can overwhelm your opposition. You send in the air strikes first followed by the tanks and the ground forces who solidify their presence and systematically take the rest of the enemy out. It’s strategic, it’s networked, it’s highly organized and when executed it overwhelms the enemy. You want to leave your opponent with no other option that surrender. So, it’s not like you present one part of the Scripture as true and then they believe that and you present another part and later on they come to believe that part of the Scripture. The problem with that is that as long as the human being is deciding which part of Scripture they’re going to believe and which part they’re not, “Who’s the final authority?” Man is, he’s still autonomous. He’s on the bench and God’s on the hot seat. Whereas what is our faith? Our faith is that we’re trusting God’s word; we’re submitting to God Himself as the authority who spoke the text, so the text has to be the authority, not man. We may not like the text, we may have difficulties with the text, of course we do. We have many areas in the text we don’t understand. But if you are a Christian you have in principle submitted to the fact that you aren’t the final authority, God is. Society isn’t the final authority, God is. Authority is located in the Creator God.
The third thing we emphasize is the fact that there is a Strategy to what we are doing. Since the word of God is the authority and it is a sword it is our weapon of choice in the strategy to dismantle unbelief and expose it for what it truly is; ethical rebellion against the Creator.
The Creation: Creator-creature & man-nature distinction
So as we start I want to draw your attention to the interrelatedness of the first three events. These are foundational to everything else. First, the event of creation defines the Creator-creature distinction. You can’t have a creation without a Creator, so the act of creation defines the Creator-creature distinction. It defines it like no other religion or philosophy on earth. Hinduism doesn’t define it that way; paganism never has defined it this way, only the Bible defines it this way. Then we said inside the creation there is a further distinction, a distinction between man and nature. Paganism does not distinguish that, and you can see it every day in the media, “man’s genetic structure is so similar to the chimpanzee, we share 98% of the DNA, so we must be related.”i The fact of the matter is that there’s an infinite gulf between the smartest chimpanzee and the stupidest man, because man is made in God’s image and the chimpanzee isn’t. So there’s a distinction and all these distinctions hold and that’s why we obtain the doctrine of God, man and nature all from the event of creation, but you can’t say you believe that if you don’t buy into the literalness and historicity of the creation event in Genesis.
The Fall: Evil is Bracketed & Man is Responsible
Then we said that the Bible is different from all the religions on earth in the sense that it starts evil after origins, so there’s a Fall that happens. That’s missing in pagan thought. Pagan thought says that evil, sickness, death, and sorrow are just the normal attributes of existence. We as Christians say “No, that’s wrong because man at the Fall brought into existence evil, death, sorrow and suffering and these are abnormal features brought into existence not by the Creator but by creature rebellion against the Creator. So by separating the Fall from the Creation, we have a tremendous difference. You can’t over emphasize this. That’s why we spent 20 weeks just on these two events. You cannot overemphasize that the Creation and the Fall are two absolutely, fundamentally different events, and what that distinction causes is an awesome responsibility that falls upon the creature’s shoulders for bringing in evil.
The Flood: Judgment/Salvation
If that’s the case, we move to the third event, the Flood. The Flood in the Bible is universally picked up in the pages of the New Testament as a mirror of what? When you think of Jesus and the Apostles talking about Noah’s flood what context are they inevitably talking about? The Second Coming of Jesus Christ (cf Matt 23:39-41; Luke 17:26-27; 2 Pet 3:1-7). The Flood is being used as a picture of what is coming, the future culminating act of history, a cosmic catastrophe. So the Bible says that there’s a solution to the problem brought in by the Fall. If the Fall brought evil into an otherwise good creation and thereby produced the tension between what we know ought to be and what in fact is happening, the question obviously is, “Well, is there any resolution, is there any solution to the evil problem? What is the culmination of this, is this just going to go on forever and ever or is there a salvation?” And the Bible’s answer is there is a salvation and here’s the key, which we’ll emphasize in this event, the Biblical view of salvation is an intrusion by the Creator again into the creation. It’s nothing less than that. He comes in and disrupts, so to speak, the regular course of events. The Fall was something we did; salvation is something God does. And the reason that God has to do this is because man can’t do it. Chemically speaking it’s a one-way reaction; man can Fall but man can’t undo the Fall. Only God can catalyze the opposite reaction because there are barriers that only He can overcome. And so it requires God’s intervention. Having grasped the implications of the Creation and the Fall, now we understand why salvation in the Bible is totally different from all the other religions of the world. Every other religion has man working up some kind of righteousness; man’s always the one who has to correct the problem. But it doesn’t work because they’ve never diagnosed the problem correctly. They’re not really talking about salvation. They may use the word “salvation,” but when you look at the content of what they’re talking about, it’s like they’re prescribing Advil for cancer. But that’s the only kind of salvation possible on a pagan basis because there’s no major problem. Only the biblical Creation and Fall set up the severity of the problem so we can get to the real solution. So salvation in the Bible is set up by how you understand Creation and the Fall and that’s how these three events interrelate. That’s why you can’t take a part of the Bible and talk about it without taking every other part; it all fits together. If you get the wrong diagnosis you’ll always get the wrong prognosis. So the nature of salvation in Scripture is a radical one, and it’s radical precisely because of the severity of the problem that we need to be saved from.
The Problem of Sin
Turn to Gen 6 to see the problem because in Gen 6 we have a passage that gives a lot of people difficulty. I won’t go into the sons of God coming into the daughters of men, that one’s caused difficulty too, but I want to go into something even more profound in difficulty, Gen 6:5-6. “Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth,” just look at the diagnosis of verse 5. This is the diagnosis, it’s not the Apostle Paul, it’s not something Augustine or Calvin made up. It’s something that has been around long before Christian theologians. Look at the diagnosis and description of the human race, “that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.” Now tell me that Paul and Augustine and Calvin are worse than that; they didn’t start that, they just read their Bible. The problem is that people that read them don’t read the Bible. Then in verse 6 notice the personal action. “And the LORD was sorry that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart.” Verse 7, “I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the land, from man to animals, to creeping things and to birds of the sky; for I am sorry that I have made them.” That’s the personal background. We said what distinguishes paganism from Biblical religion—in paganism there’s no ultimate person, paganism only has this impersonal backdrop. Paganism starts with ‘in the beginning gas’…the Bible with ‘in the beginning God’. So there’s a person behind it all, and since He’s a person, that means we are similar to Him. Got gets mad, we get mad, God gets sorrowful, we get sorrowful, and this is the anger and sorrow of the Lord here, He is mad here and grieved in His heart over His creation, “I made this universe and look what has happened to it.” A small scale version of this is a woman who cleans the house, spends all day cleaning the house and what comes along behind her? And you get mad, you have created this clean, beautiful house and look what happened. That’s a very tiny example of what God thought when He created the universe good and beautiful and look what happened to it.
The Solution of Judgment/Salvation
Now that we understand the nature of the problem we want to introduce two words. This is a word pair. Get down these two words because in the Bible it’s important, you always see these two words hooked together. One is the word “judgment,” the second is the word “salvation.” You cannot in Scripture have one without also having the other. And the Flood is an example. People are saved, but they are saved precisely because God judges evil. Get hold of that idea. The salvation in Scripture is a salvation that happens in conjunction with a judgment. The Flood, the Exodus, the Cross and the Tribulation are the big pictures of judgment/salvation. So the two hinge together.
3 Approaches to the Genesis Flood Narrative (Gen 6-8)
The Genesis Flood has given people a hard time because God did this, He caused this global catastrophe. Can we really believe this? For years and years we’ve had the same problem with the Genesis Flood in Gen 6, 7, and 8, that we had with the Genesis Creation and Fall in Gen 1, 2, and 3. Same book, same problem! Did this really happen? What about the modern story of science? When we went through Gen 1-3 we said there are three approaches you can take. The first approach was Capitulation. The Bible is obviously irreconcilable with modern histories of nature so we just capitulate to what modern historians are telling us about the history of nature. So, this is the assumption that modern science is authoritative. Thus, the biblical account must be a myth, just a poetic allegory, the material of fantasy. So, the Capitulation strategy exchanges biblical reliability for scientific reliability and at the same time tries to hold on to a few sacred morals from Scripture but basically what they’ve done is become traitors and given away the whole house, they have rejected the reliability of Scripture.
The second group, many of them born again, hold to the strategy of Accommodation, hoping desperately there’s some way to make the Bible fit with the modern history of nature. But the modern story is a moving target so we just end up re-interpreting the Bible over and over and over to keep up with the latest theory. This has been tried for 150 years and people are still trying this and it has never worked and it will never work. You can’t wait till science finally settles down to settle down on what the text means.
The third tactic is simply to go on the Counter-Attack and say “Look, the Bible must be true and if the Bible is true then we’ve got a conflict with the modern history of nature, somewhere science has gone wrong in their reconstruction of the past.” But those are the only three choices. You can Capitulate to Modern Science, Accommodate to Modern Science or Counter-Attack. So obviously those of us who are the fundamentalists take the choice that if the Bible doesn’t fit what modern science says then modern science is wrong not the Bible.
What I want to do is defend the fact that the Bible is speaking here in Gen 6-8 of a literal Global Flood. Capitulationists deny this. Accomodationists deny this, many Christians deny a global Flood. So, this is an argument going on inside our own camp and we want to deal with a literal Flood interpretation and why that is the meaning of Genesis. There are many arguments, but I just want to cover two or three arguments today that show that the Bible clearly teaches a catastrophic Global Flood. For some of you this is a waste of time because you say “Well obviously the Bible teaches that.” Don’t be so passive because sooner or later you’re going to be around other Christians who will try to take you to task for that. Be prepared and don’t be shocked if it happens some day because it’s widely prevalent in our own evangelical circles that this is talking about a local flood, it is not some global catastrophe, in fact it’s a flood that’s so local and so small in scale we can’t even find a trace of it in archeology and geology.
The Depth-Time Argument
The first argument we’re going to deal with is the Depth-Time argument. Turn to Gen 7:19. Here’s the structure of this argument. The argument is going to show that I can prove the universality of the flood without using this word “A-L-L.” Throughout the text “all” is used, all the mountains and all the hills, but those who would hold to a local flood say that’s just a relative use of “all,” it just means a lot of them, or all of them in a local area, all of them within the reach of Noah were covered, that’s all it means. So the Depth-Time argument is going to argue without using the word “all”. We’re going to use a line of argument that doesn’t depend on that word. Here’s the argument, it comes out of Gen 7:19-20. It says “And the water prevailed more and more upon the earth, so that all the high mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered. The water prevailed fifteen cubits higher, and the mountains were covered.” We’re going to ignore all the universal statements there and just look at one statement, the depth. It says “fifteen cubits” over the highest mountains. Now, a cubit is 1.5 feet so 15 times 1.5 gives us 22.5 feet. Let’s just say 22 feet. Why 22 feet? Why do you suppose 22 feet is mentioned? If you’re in a boat and you’re floating in a body of water and you’re hull is below the surface of the water you never want that hull to hit the ground. So, how deep do you want the water to be, at least? At least as deep as the hull. So, what does that tell us about the hull of the Ark when it was loaded down? That it was less than 22 feet beneath the surface, otherwise the ark could run into mountaintops as it floated around. So, with this observation we learn that the ark was able to freely float and never be grounded.
Next question: how long did this depth last? Verse 24 says for 150 days, that’s five months. The water remained at that depth for five months before it began to recede. So, for 150 days the earth was undergoing massive geological changes and the Ark sat 22 feet above the highest mountains safe from destruction. Only after things calmed down did the waters recede and the ark rested on Mt Ararat. So, let’s think about that; 22 feet above the highest mountains. If I plug my kitchen sink and start filling it with water what will eventually happen? The water will spill over. If I leave the water on when will the water level rise above the top of my sink? When the water outside the sink reaches that level. That’s a lot of water. For the sake of Genesis argument, imagine your kitchen sink is on Mt Everest, the highest mountain in the world today (antediluvian mountains were not that tall). Is there any way to inundate your sink without covering the whole earth with water? No. There is a principle of water that it “must seek its own level—and must do so quickly.”20 If the flood was only local what must it have looked like?
A wall of water encompassing 360 degrees around the region. This is your only alternative. You’d have to say that this is what happened in the Middle East. That you’ve got all this water in that local region and its 22 feet above the highest mountains in that region so the ark never hits one of those mountains, that’s an interesting Flood. But that creates a problem because if that’s the case then why didn’t they just migrate a few hundred miles? Why all the trouble of building an ark? A local flood means there are two ways of salvation, the Ark or Migration. And another interesting thing, “What’s the natural drainage pattern in the Mesopotamian valley? From northwest to southeast. Where did the ark ground? Northwest. So not only do we have the problem of somehow keeping thousands of feet of water suspended in this valley, we’ve got the ark floating in the wrong direction. Instead of going down the river it’s going up the river and grounds up there. What I’ve just shown you is why you cannot accommo­date the Scripture to fit what science is telling us happened in history. Either the Bible or science or both are in bad shape. That’s why we have to rethink this whole thing and that’s what I’m pressing you to do.
Notice something else in Gen 7:19. Is the water 22 feet deep just in a local area? Or “under all the heavens”? All the heavens. You can try to relativize the usage of “all” in certain contexts but in this context the Hebrew uses it twice. As Leupold says, “A double “all” (kol) cannot allow for so relative a sense. It almost constitutes a Hebrew superlative.” And if these highest points must be covered for five months, the Flood must have been global. But the main point here is that you don’t have to use the argument resting on the term “all” because the details of the text imply a global flood.ii
The Ark’s Distinctive Size, Design and Purpose
Second argument, Dr John Whitcomb says, “The problem people have with the flood is the ark.” So we want to look at the ark, it’s size, design and purpose. Gen 6:14-15. Where did the plan for the ark come from? Popular Science Magazine? No, God revealed it to Noah. Let’s observe the dimensions of that ark. Verse 15, “…the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits.” If we multiply those three dimensions by 1.5, the length of a cubit what do we get? 450L x 75W x 50H (ft). Dr Tim Lovett has been studying the Flood and the Ark for about 13 years, he’s a Mechanical Engineer and he says, “The proportions in the Bible are…so realistic that…those proportions happen to match a modern cargo ship. And we wouldn’t expect that if that were a made up story, we wouldn’t expect them to accidentally come up with 300x50x30 cubits as the proportions of this imaginary vessel…It gives you the right stability, not too much, not too little. In fact, those proportions are so good that one of the naval architects I’ve been working with…actually realized that Genesis was literal because of those proportions…”iii See, the Bible isn’t fantasy; those dimensions tell you something about the stability of that boat. They tell you its architecturally stable, it’s a stable platform. Dr. Morris who was the co-author of The Genesis Flood had a PhD in hydrodynamics, and he wrote a paper in which he showed when you take the formulas that are used for stability of hulls and you apply it to Noah’s ark it turns out that the ark can be tipped almost 60 degrees in either direction and the center of gravity restores it. So, this is a credible design, enormously stable design.
Here’s something else very interesting and striking. If the Bible is just a collection of mythology, where do you suppose these ancient people who never built a boat this big got the skills to do it so successfully? Where did the technology come from? How long did people live before the flood? 900 years. What happens when people live that long is they become very competent in many areas, they are superior in health, their mental and concentrative powers are vastly greater than ours. In fact, long before the Flood, a man named Tubal-cain had already invented every cutting tool for bronze and iron. They had a technology before the Flood that was arguably not matched until pre-industrial Europe. That’s how they could pull this off. Remarkably, there’s not another boat built as large as Noah’s ark until 1864, the best navies of Europe didn’t build boats this big, no boat that we know of was ever built equal to or to exceed the dimensions of Noah’s ark until the 1860’s. But what was going on in the ancient world while this Bible was being written? What was going on in other cultures when the truth of history was preserved by the Holy Spirit in the nation of Israel? Dr Duane Gish has documented that they were writing flood stories, more than 270 of these stories have been found in different cultures around the world. If you look at these other stories you do see parallel elements, there was a flood, there was an ark, humans were saved, animals were saved, there was universal destruction.
“A flood story in China records that Fuhi, his wife, three sons, and three daughters escaped a great flood and were the only people alive on earth.”iv “A flood story in Hawaii records that Nu-u and his family escaped a global flood by building a great canoe and filling it with animals. Only he and his family were left alive.”v But you also find extravagant claims. And what those are is truth mutilated by the carnal mind. The carnal mind has selective amnesia and deliberate distorts truth. For example, the Babylonian flood story, the Gilgamesh Epic, has been discovered on cuneiform tablets, but notice the ark size. Here Utnapishtim, his wife and family get on an ark that is 120x120x120 cubits, a perfect cube. Now, I challenge you to do an experiment. Take some balsa wood, make Utnapishtim’s ark, a perfect cube, put it in the bathtub. Alongside it make Noah’s ark out of balsa wood with its rectangular proportions. Put some waves in your tub. Which one would be the most stable? The ark. What happens to a cube in water? The center of gravity is at the center of the mass, so when it’s tipped it rotates, it falls all over the place, it just tumbles. What happens to Noah and the animals? They die! It’s not realistic. But Noah’s ark doesn’t tumble. It preserves life. So it’s the details of the narrative that reveal to us the reality of Gen 6-8. The details of the mythological narrative don’t fit; the details of the true narrative, preserved by the Holy Spirit from men’s distorted memories, is now reporting to us out of the text, out of these verses, the true dimensions of a boat that was built thousands of years before modern steel hull boats had the strength to be of this size.
Something else, we also mention the water-sealant. In Gen 6:14, “Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch.” We don’t know exactly what this substance was but note its function, “to cover”. It provided a sealant from the dangerous waters outside. It’s the Hebrew word kafar, and is used later in the Bible for atonement, to cover sin. So, this is a picture of atonement. It’s used just like that in the Old Testament for the covering of the blood. The theme of salvation is obvious and note something else, “Is it just man who is saved in that ark?” No, it’s man and nature. This has implications for the extent of the atonement. For whom or what did Christ die? What is included in Christ’s redemptive work on the cross? Whole dimensions of the Bible nobody thinks twice about.
Notice something else, that after the animals are brought to it the door is closed, in Gen 7:16, a radical observation that has never been reproduced in any Hollywood film about the flood that I know. Notice the last clause in verse 16, who closed the door? “the LORD closed” the door. Yet they always depict Noah as closing the door. What problems would you have if Noah closed the door? A waterproofing problem? Whose going to seal it from the outside? So God closed the door and sealed it. There’s a profound salvation truth in there. If you think about it, you are seeing something of eternal security, involved in this little observation, that God seals the vehicle of salvation. What does that do for the inhabitants and the occupants inside the vessel of salvation?
Another difficulty pointed out by skeptics is the volume of the ark. Is there really enough space on the ark for all the animals? But think, the Bible states God made different kinds and that two of each kind came to the ark. It doesn’t say every variety on earth, just two of each kind, a dog kind, a cat kind, that’s all that was needed. Creationists have been researching this area and, for example, they discovered that dogs, wolves, coyotes and jackals are all probably from a canine (dog-like) kind. Or horses, zebras and donkeys are all an equine (horse-like) kind. So, you only need to salvage, on the ark, the genetic variability that can give rise to all the varieties we see today. Dr John Woodmorappe wrote a book Noah’s Ark: A Feasibility Study back in the 90’s, he researched all the objections for over 10 years and he said that at most you would need about 16,000 animals on the ark (8,000 male + 8,000 female). But what about the big dinosaurs? Well, you don’t have to take adults, you can take babies. Bottom line is the average size animal is smaller than a sheep. Woodmorappe calculated that the volume of the ark was 522 standard American boxcars. And if you took 16,000 sheep size animals and put them in the boxcars more than half of the ark would be empty, that leaves plenty of room for food and water which could be stored near the animals. So, there’s no problems with the Ark size. People have also raised the objection about how could eight people handle the manure, how could they do the feeding, “C’mon, this was a menagerie on a boat.” Well, Woodmorappe goes into all that and talks about theories about whether the animals were in a semi-hibernating state during the flood, where the food and water could have been stored, what they did with the manure. But the point remains that this ark was a massive thing, equal to a modern vessel in size, as far as the principles of naval architecture and hydrodynamics stability it was outstanding, it was 522 times the size of a standard American boxcar, it had plenty of volume to do the job, PLENTY of volume to do the job. And remember, this wasn’t a luxury cruise liner, this was an emergency situation, they just have to be on the ark for a little over a year and the ark was sufficient for such a rescue operation.
Finally, in Gen 6-7 what are Noah and his family doing on that ark that harps back to Gen 1? Think back to the way God designed man to function in the universe in Gen 1. When God made man, what did God tell man was his relationship to the animal kingdom? He is to rule it, not rule it in the sense of being cruel, he is to take care of the animal kingdom. Who was the agent who saves the gene pool for the new world? God, yes. He gets all the animals on the ark but once they are all there who takes care of them? Notice that when God saves He doesn’t undo His creation structures. The original creation structure held man as a little lord, lord with a little “l” and he was to be the custodian of the resources God gave him. And lo and behold when God saves man and the animals on the ark he puts man in charge of caring for the animals on the ark during the flood. So the ark becomes a vehicle. We would say toady he captured the gene pool of the entire land based animal kingdom, and it was the most significant ecological act ever in history and it was accomplished by God and man. Yet you will never hear this spoken of on your local Earth Day. So, we’ve covered the Depth-Time argument, The Ark’s Distinctive Size, Design and Purpose. The point here is very simply: if the Flood is local you can kiss off one way of salvation, you don’t need a boat, you can migrate, and that creates tremendous soteriological problems.

i More recent studies have reduced that percentage to 95%. And further, using percentages to compare hides the fact that this amounts to 150,000,000 different DNA base pairs (

20 Morris and Whitcomb, The Genesis Flood, 2.

ii This argument was introduced in 1961 by Morris and Whitcomb in their book, The Genesis Flood.

iii Tim Lovett, Noah’s Ark: Thinking Outside the Box (DVD).

iv Answers Magazine, Vol 2, No 2 (April-June 2007), 19.

v Ibid, 19.
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