Peloponnesian War: the fortification of the Attica coastline by paul Montgomery



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Warfare, and Ideology in the Greek Historians, Cambridge University Press: UK.1998.Page 1.

18 The plague of Athens wiped out at least a huge amount of it population. Thucydides Book II, XLVII- LIII.

19 With Pericles death two years after the great plague, Cleon a high-ranking citizen in Athens became leader. Thucydides ,Book II, LXV.

20 The siege ended with Spartans held a sham trial of Plataeans, The Thebans later razed the city to the ground. Thucydides ,Book III. LXVII.

21 Corinthians adopted a purely defensive formation, forming their ships into a circle with the prows facing outward. Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927.Page 100.

22 Island of the cost of Pylos in the Pelopennes. Thucydides ,Book IV.III.

23 292 troops were taken by Athens may of home were taken back to Athens to show the public. Victor Davis Hanson, The wars of the Ancient Greeks and their Invention of Western Military Culture, Cassell and Co, London 1999 Page 111.

24 422 B.C. Cleon and Nicias take a Athenian army north to deal with Brasidas attacks on their settlement in north Greece, who falls back to Amphipolis. Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927. Page 281-286

25 The Athenian commander Cleon also dies in the battle. Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927. page 285-286.

26 The peaces of nicas, Athens and Sparta make the 50 year truces which returned all lands held during the war to there pre- Peloponnesian war holders. Donald Kagan, The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition ,Cornell Universty press: Ithaca and Londen ,1974. Page 17-18.

27 In both battles Sparta’s with her allies attacked allies of Athens Argos and Mantinea, while not breaking the peaces treaty.

28 Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927. Page 357-366.

29 Gylippus supposedly came from the same social back ground as Lysander, his troops were also made up of large amount of free slaves and none Spartans solders. Donald Kagan, The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition, Cornell Universty press: Ithaca and Londen ,1974. Page 257-258.

30 The loss of the fleet cut the Athenian invasion army off form there supply as well as there only retreat, resulting in the capture of large number of them. Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927.Page 367-398.

31 Thucydides. Book VIII, XVIII.

32 The commander of all of these endeavors was the now back in favorer Athenian general Alcibiades. Plutarch Lives; ALCIBIADES, XXVII-XXXI.

33Lysander came from poor family and not a member of the Spartan royal families. Details of his early life and career are not known.. Plutarch Lives; Lysander. II.

34 Lysander paid his men 4 obls as day; with money he got form Cyrus. Plutarch Lives; Lysander, IV.

35 Spartan military law states that a person can only hold the same command one year at a time, with a mandatory number of years elapsing before reelection. Plutarch Lives; Lysander , VII.

36 The defeat results in the death of the Spartan navel commander Callicratidas. Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927.Page 451.

37 Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927.Page 451-463.

38 In this battle the fleet of Athens 368 destroyed the much bigger fleet of the Persian invasion forces of 1200 Persian loss were about 200, ships. Victor Davis Hanson, The wars of the Ancient Greeks and their Invention of Western Military Culture, Cassell and Co, London 1999. Page 99.

39 The league was found by Athens, Chios, Samos, and Lesbos, but many of the principal islands and Ionian cities joined the league, whose base was on the island of Delos. Wees, Hans van (1958-) : Greek warfare.: Duckworth, London, 2004. Page 14-15.

40 Athens moved the treasury of the league to their own city on the pretext of keeping it secure. Anton Powell. Athens and Sparta: Constructing Greek Political and Social History From 478 B.C., Routledge, 1988 Page 45.

41 The Alcmaeonidae or Alcmaeonids were a powerful noble family of ancient Athens who claimed descent from the mythological Alcmaeon, the grandson of Nestor. Also main enemies of the Pisistratus clan tyrant rulers of Athens. Among its famous members is Alcibiades. Plutarch lives; Alcibiades, XIX.

42 Cleon d. 422 B.C., Athenian political leader ruled Athens form 430 B.C until death. Thucydides Book III, XXVI,2.

43 All of which were led by Demosthenes General of Athens. R. E. Dupuy and T. N. Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History; from 3500 B.C. to Present, Macdonald and Janes, 1970. Page 30

44 Led by Nicias general of Athens. Thucydides Book I, CVII-CVIII.

45Hippocrates attacks but is defeated by the Theban under Pagondas . Thucydides ,Book V, XIV,1.

46 418 B.C. Battle of Mantinea, the Spartans invaded Argos and Mantinea, Athens aids them, 417-416 B.C. Athens aids Argos. Donald Kagan, The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition, Cornell Universty press: Ithaca and Londen ,1974. Page 107-137

47 Is removed from command and flees to Sparta afther being accused of profaning the Hermes of Athens. Donald Kagan, The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition, Cornell Universty press: Ithaca and Londen ,1974. P192-209.

48 Lamachus, Son of Xenophanes. Thucydides , Book VI, VIII.

49 Alcibiades was requested to return to Athens from exile as of the failure of the Sicilian wars and the Spartan -Persian treaty of 412 B.C, to aid his state. Donald Kagan, The Fall of the Athenian Empire ,Cornell Universty press: Ithaca and Londen ,1974. Page 287-292.

50 See Appendices B.

51 I .G. Spence notes 7 different routes by which a land army could enter the heart of Attica. I. G. Spence, Perikles and the defense of the Attika during the Peloponnesian war. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol 110, 1990, Page 91-109. Page 94.

52 Rhamnous and Sounion, note Thorikos included by Hanson is not a coastal fort but rather a fort for the silver mines at Laruiem. Victor Davis Hanson, Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece. Giardini Editori E Stampatori in Pisa, 1983. Page75-76.

53 This formality of removal of the dead signified the end of the conflict, sometimes known as the custom of the Greeks. Victor Davis Hanson, The wars of the Ancient Greeks and their Invention of Western Military Culture, Cassell and Co, London 1999. Page 53-54.

54 It was reliably assumed that the Spartans would either be in Attica or in one of the other Athenian states persuading revolt in the summer season, as was their habit from the start of the Peloponnesian war.

55I. G. Spence, Perikles and the defense of the Attika during the Peloponnesian war. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol 110, 1990,( Page 91-109). Page 97.

56 When a phalanxs formed it was able to stop a full-on cavalry charge. I. G. Spence, Perikles and the defense of the Attika during the Peloponnesian war. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol 110, 1990, (Page 91-109). Page 98.

57 Athens was able to expand its fleet after the Persian wars using the Delian league. Victor Davis Hanson, The wars of the Ancient Greeks and their Invention of Western Military Culture, Cassell and Co, London 1999. Page 105.

58 Had 120 ships at the start of the war. Thucydides ,Book I. XXV. 4.

59 Both battles were fought in the context of a blockade of Corinth, both of which cost Corinth large parts of its fleets. Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927. Page 98-109.

60 It consisted of 136 ships and 5000 troops plus some allies. Thucydides, Book VI. XLIII. 3

61 Westlake quoted. I. G. Spence, Perikles and the defense of the Attika during the Peloponnesian war. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol 110, 1990, Page 91-109. Page 92.

62 It should also be pointed out that Alcibiades the author of the plan was a relative of Pericles, as this may have been the reason the people of Athens supported him at the start. Plutarch’s Lives :Alcibiades Vol IV, I.

63 Plutarchst Lives :Alcibiades Vol IV, XVIII- XXIII.

64Alcibiades tells the Spartans to invade and take over Dekelia, Thucydides, Book VI XCI. 4-7 .

65 Plutarchst Lives :Alcibiades . Vol IV, XXV.

66 He in his negations with Persia had his own line of interests, his well being, and at times they were compatible with Athens: making sure that the Spartans did not win over the Persians. Plutarch’s Lives :Alcibiades . Vol IV, XXV.

67 Plutarch Lives: Alcibiades Vol IV, XXXVII.

68 The Spartans brought steel and tools for working stone with them. Thucydides. Book VII, XVIII, 4.

69 It was a link in the internal structure, with a major road from Oropos to Athens, that was usable by carts. Josiah Ober. Fortress Attica: Defense of the Athens Land frontier 404-322 B.C. E.J. Brill Leiden, Netherlands, 1985. Page 115.

70 It was 120 stades from Dekeleia to Athens or 18 km by line of sight. Thucydides. Book VII, XIX, 3.

71 Many of these slaves also would have been skilled craftsmen, further damaging the economy of Athens. Victor Davis Hanson, Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece. Giardini Editori E Stampatori in Pisa, 1983. Page 128.

72 Victor Davis Hanson, Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece. Giardini Editori E Stampatori in Pisa, 1983.

73 Hanson admits that the amount of damage to land was minor but the population and mental damage from the plague and seeing the land ravaged by the Spartans was major. Victor Davis Hanson, Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece. Giardini Editori E Stampatori in Pisa, 1983.Page 126-127.

74 The plants would lose at most one season’s harvest from the damage, which was irregularly applied to Attica by wandering parties. Victor Davis Hanson, Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece. Giardini Editori E Stampatori in Pisa, 1983. Page 112 -123.

75 As pointed out by I.G. Spence, the closer to the walls land was the safer it would be in theory; there fore it would be owned by the wealthier class. I. G. Spence, Perikles and the defense of the Attika during the Peloponnesian war. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol 110, 1990, Page 91-109. Page 103.

76 Thucydides, VII. XXVII, 1-3.

77 Archeological data finds from excavation in remote parts of Attica from the period, show, due to the lack of objects, support for the idea of wide spread plundering. Victor Davis Hanson, Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece. Giardini Editori E Stampatori in Pisa, 1983. Page 128-129.

78 The advantage of surprise, numerical advantage and lack of enemy support from allies. All three factors would have come into play due to its location within enemy lines.

79 Thucydides Book I , CXLIII, 4-5.

80 Thucydides Book VIII, IV, 2.

81 Appendices E

82 The region gets it name from small shrubs of the same name that is common in it. J.G. Frazer, 1900. Page 163.

83 The site was noted by number of authors from the classical period and after as the site of the worship of Nemesis. Miles, M. 1989. Page 138.

84 By the 5th century B.C. it had its own garrison of soldiers. Richard Stillwell ed, Macdonald and McAllister aed, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, Princeton University Press: Princeton New Jersey, 1976. Page 753.

85 Like the temple of Poseidon at Sounion most monumental buildings were destroyed in 480 B.C. W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., 1971. Page 8.

86 Thucydides. Book VII. 2-XIX.I.

87 Herodotus tells of a number of people who saw sprits or immortals during the battle like the blinding of one Eqizelus. David Grene, 1987. Herodotus Book VI, Pha 117.

88 The statue showed Nemesis with a crown. It was probably made by Pheideas or his student Agorakritos. Pausanias ,Peter Levi, 1971. Book I Line 201-204 page 95-96.

89 There is a terrace wall and it is filled in to form a flat surface. Richard Stillwell, 1976. Page 753.

90 The temple is 21x 35 feet and consisted of a cella in antis with a Doric portico of columns. Raymond V. Schoder S.J, 1971.Page 181.

91 Themis was the titanid-goddess of custom, assemblies and right order, and the goddess who presided over the feasts of the gods on Olympus. Huge Lloyd-Jones, 1971. Page 166.

92 Raymond V. Schoder S.J, 1971.Page 181.

93 It was never completed, as a numbers of columns were never decorated. Richard Stillwell, 1976. Page 753.

94 Thucydides Book II, XXIII, 3.

95Richard Stillwell ed, Macdonald and McAllister aed, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, Princeton University Press: Princeton New Jersey, 1976. Page 753.

96 Richard Stillwell ed, Macdonald and McAllister aed, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, Princeton University Press: Princeton New Jersey, 1976.Page 753.

97 Appendices F

98 The port was commonly used by corn ships passing form Euboea to Piraeus. W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr. 1971. Page 29-30.

99 A large number of Egyptian objects have been found at the site. Raymond V. Schoder S.J, 1971.Page 198.

100 Menelaos king of Sparta and brother of Agamemnon. Jasper Griffin, Landmarks in world Literature: Homer the Odyssey, Cambridge university press, 1987. Page 36.

101 Phrontes Onetorides was killed by the wrath of the god Zeus. Pausanias, Peter Levi, 1971. Book 5 line 145 page 470.

102 The event is noted in Herodotus, the histories. David Grene,1987. Book V Pha 87 Page 444.

103 W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr. 1971 . Page 39.

104 W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., 1971.Page 42.

105 W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., 1971 .Page 29

106 W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., 1971. Page 30.

107 W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., 1971. Page 34.

108 W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., 1971. Page 30.

109 W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., 1971. Page 31

110 The gate was 1.47 meters wide. W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., 1971. Page 31.

111 Their dry docks were cut out of the base rock of the cliff side. W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., 1971 . Page 35.

112 W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., Sounion, Lycabettus press, 1971 .Page 6.

113 Most likely date of construction 450-400 BC. W.B. Dinsmoor, Jr., 1971 .Page 11

114 Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927.Page 444, 445.

115 Mothakes were generally considered second-class citizens, but a number of them made names for themselves such as the leader Syracuse forces Gylippos. Pavel Oliva, Sparta and her social problems. Academia Prague, 1971. Page 176.

116 One Antiochus the pilot of his flagship. Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927. Page 446.

117 Lysander year as naval commander was over by Spartan law Book I ,IV, VI and Alcibiades was removed for his failure to win. Book I.V. Carletoni Brownson, Xenophon: Hellenica,. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. London. William Heinemann Ltd, 1981. Vol I book I-IV

118 The city was emptied of people most of who were on Salamis, they were set alight by the Persians before the sea battle of Salamis. Victor Davis Hanson, The wars of the Ancient Greeks and their Invention of Western Military Culture, Cassell and Co, London 1999. Page 97.

119Bernard W. Henderson, The Great War between Athens and Sparta: A Companion to the Military history of Thucydides, Macmillan and Co Limited London, 1927. Page 400.

120 Thucydide .Book VIII, LXXI, 1.

121 After the end of the Peloponnesian war Agesilaus II king of Sparta lead an invasion of the Persian Empire for 3 years. Wees, Hans van (1958-) : Greek warfare.: Duckworth, London, 2004.Page 27





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