Poverty Eradication through Aquaculture a leverhulme Trust Research Grant Project Tanzania National Policy-Makers Meeting Kunduchi, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania – November 2011

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Poverty Eradication through Aquaculture

A Leverhulme Trust Research Grant Project

Tanzania National Policy-Makers Meeting
Kunduchi, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania – November 2011

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Contents: Page

Historical Timeline results 2

Historical Timeline Reflection 3

Event Prioritisation 4

Policy Cycle Analysis 5

Participants 6

Acronyms 6

Poverty Eradication through Aquaculture:

How to address food security issues and poverty requires solutions today. For the first time in Tanzania, this research project combined knowledge from local stakeholders, private enterprise, policy-makers, researchers, practitioners and social/economic scientists to promote best practice in community-led aquaculture development.

Local communities were interviewed to understand social and economic drivers that explained people’s way of life. Their willingness to consider aquaculture as an alternative or supplementary livelihood was measured.

To better understand what is needed to allow aquaculture to fulfil its potential as an income generating opportunity a policy cycle analysis was undertaken and is explained herein.

National Policy Makers Meeting

A national meeting led by Newcastle University and University of Dar es Salaam brought main policy-makers together to determine what is needed to support aquaculture development in Tanzania.

The purpose of the meeting was to identify past and future events as a way to understand how Tanzania went from dependence on different activities like fishing with a view to planning on how growing sectors like tourism can be better managed so that local communities can benefit.

Meeting participants took part in 2 exercises:

  1. A historical time scan to show how past major events may shape future sector growth of aquaculture;

  2. A policy cycle analysis to identify who is involved in management and policy development.

The results are presented and it is hoped they will facilitate advice on priority actions to promote sustainable livelihoods.
Historical Timeline

The below timeline helped policy makers better understand Tanzania’s history and changes that have occurred in relation to aquaculture as an aid to help predict future developments.

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Historical Timeline Reflection
On completion of the timeline participants were asked to review the historical timeline and agree on major or key events which were considered turning points or times of significant developments within Tanzania, particularly in relation to aquaculture. Seven key events and developments were identified and summarised by Prof. Mgaya, University of Dar es Salaam:



No/limited management


Environmental and fisheries mgmt

Aquaculture masked by fisheries


Aquaculture recognition in policy/mgmt

No/limited environmental awareness


Increasing and effective awareness

No women involved in aquaculture


Women involved in seaweed farms

Low fisheries research


Fisheries research centre

No proposed MPAs


MPA establishment and growth

Protectionist economy


Neo-liberal economy

Priority Actions for Aquaculture
Participants were able to address the following question:

What priority actions do you recommend to advance Aquaculture Development in Tanzania?
The list below provides an overview of all responses given.

“A new Aquaculture Policy and Act”

“Human resource capacity building”

“Aquaculture extension services / officers”

“Hatchery services and appropriate hatchery technology “

“Research on the right species and the right market”

“Provision of aquaculture technology”

“Awareness raising through pilot/demonstration farms and media”

“More private sector involvement”

“Government popular support and commitment”

“Financial support for aquaculture development”

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Event Prioritisation:

Participants were asked to prioritise key developments on the historical timeline by placing positive or negative arrows as small dots on each event. These highlighted perceived significant impacts on major developments In Tanzania’s history.

Negative perceptions included aquaculture being considered under agriculture and a lack of coordination of environmental issues particularly in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The largest positive events were advances in mariculture zoning in the 2000s and establishment of the MPRU and MPAs in the 1990s. Into the future, the most positive action identified as deserving more effort as a way to help the aquaculture sector grow was introducing enabling mechanisms for aquaculture to significantly contribute to future exports from Tanzania.

Positive Valuations (n)

Negative Valuations (n)









Policy Cycle Analysis – Which actors are involved in policy?

The policy cycle analysis gave participants an opportunity to explore which organisations are involved in aquaculture policy formation, management, research and development in Tanzania. Participants identified all public and private bodies involved in formal and informal structures governing aquaculture. Explanations of the different stages of the policy cycle are explained directly underneath the groups identified below:

Key to different stages of the policy cycle analysis:

Data and Information

Research and assessment, including social, environmental and economic at all scales

Analysis and Advice

Analyses that can lead to advice that is useable by decision makers, such as local groups and national committees

Decision Making

International and national organisations with a mandate to review advice and make decisions, such as government and NGOs


Primarily national and local agencies with a mandate to put decisions into action, e.g. capacity building, new legislation or direct enforcement

Review and Evaluation

Similar bodies to those that are responsible for analysis and advice and that often oversee the policy cycle.

Prof. Yunus D Mgaya, University of Dar es Salaam, TZ

Prof. Selina Stead, Newcastle University, UK

Jairos Mahenge, Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership (TCMP), Bagomoyo, TZ

Sandey Nundwe, Former TCMP – Freelance Aquaculture Advisory, Dar es Salaam, TZ

Ritha Mali, Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries, Dar es Salaam, TZ

Mr. Jeremiah Daffa, Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership, Dar es Salaam, TZ

Mr. Abdillahi I. Chande, Marine Parks and Reserves Unit, Dar es Salaam, TZ

Dr. Charles Byarugaba, Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries, Dar es Salaam, TZ

Dr. Matt Slater, Newcastle University, UK


Aquaculture Without Frontiers


Jumuiya ya Maendeleo yq Jamii na Uhifadhi wa Mazingira Zanzibar 


Commission for Science and Technology


Department Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries


East African Community


East African Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization


East African Marine Fisheries Research Organisation


Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations


Faculty of Agriculture 


Health Policy Initiative


Integated Coastal Management


International Foundation for Science


Institute of Marine Sciences


Institute of Resource Assessment - UDSM


International Union for Conservation of Nature


Marine and Coastal Environment Management Project


Marine Protected Area


Marine Parks and Reserves Unit


National Environment Management Council


Research on Poverty Alleviation


Sustainable Aquaculture Research Networks in Sub Saharan Africa


Sokoine University of Agriculture


State University of Zanzibar


Tanzanian Fisheries Research Institute


Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership


University of Dar es Salaam


United Nations Development Programme


United Nations Industrial Development Organization


US Agency for International Development


World Aquaculture Society


World Bank


Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association


World Wildlife Fund


Zanzibar Archipelago

Contacts: Dr. Matt Slater (matthew.slater@ncl.ac.uk) or Prof. Selina Stead (selina.stead@ncl.ac.uk)

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