Prompt: Analyze the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. Use at least three specific works to support your analysis

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Framework for Review FRQs Jen Baker

Prompt: Analyze the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. Use at least THREE specific works to support your analysis.

Category: Northern Renaissance

  • Death and the Miser (c .1490), Bosch- German master of symbolism and fantasy. His art often looked surrealistic.

  • Northern Ren. Art was more emotional than Italian renaissance art, usually focusing on death and the torments of Hell.

  • Also named the “Christian Humanism”. There were several less humanists in Northern Europe than in Italy because the cities in the rest of Europe were much smaller than the city states of Italy.

Topic Sentence: The Renaissance was separated into two distinct categories which were the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance which consisted of Europe not including Italy.

Category: Italian Humanist

Factual information list

  • The Mona Lisa – Leonardo de Vinci. Considered one of the greatest works of art in all of history.

  • Shows humanistic style of focusing on people, especially facial features and emotions.

  • Distinguishable difference between the portrayal of emotion in Italian renaissance and northern renaissance art as seen in The Mona Lisa.

  • “Renaissance Popes” (Alexander VI, Julius II, and Leo X) gave tremendous patronage to the arts.

Topic Sentence: Italian Renaissance art differed from Northern Renaissance art in that it showed less emotion and was much more popular.

Category: Sculptures

Factual information list

  • David- Michelangelo. Not only was he known for his work in the Sistine Chapel, but also his numerous sculptures.

  • Ren. Sculpture was heavily influenced by the Greek and Roman sculpture.

  • It glorified the human body and often portrayed nude figures.

Topic Sentence: A very important part of humanistic art in the Renaissance was the portrayal of the body through sculptures.

Thesis Statement (Statement linking all categories to a general theme)

Beginning in the late 14th century, humanism impacted the visual arts differently in Northern Renaissance art, Italian Renaissance Art, and sculptures by glorifying the human body and emphasizing the individual.

Framework for Review FRQs Jen Baker

Prompt: Assess the impact of the Scientific Revolution on religion and philosophy in the period 1550 to 1750.

Category: Religion

Factual information list

  • Copernicus’ heliocentric view of the earth (revolves around sun) challenged the bible.

  • Northern European Protestants supported Galileo’s views because they were questioning the doctrines of the Catholic Church.

  • Scientists believed that they were studying and analyzing God’s creation.

  • People debated whether God was still involved with his creation.

Topic Sentence: A major controversy during the Scientific Revolution was the role of God and creation.

Category: Philosophy

Factual information list

  • Descartes believed in logic and deductive reasoning. “I think, therefore I am.”

  • Cartesian Dualism - divide all things in existence into the spiritual and the material world.

  • Newton discovered forces of nature – showed that God isn’t needed to actively participate in the world. This went against classic medieval beliefs.

Topic Sentence: In the Scientific Revolution, scholars such as Rene Descartes produced new ways of thinking

Category: Technology

Factual information list

  • Led to improvements in exploration

  • Medical knowledge was improved.

  • Helped to lead to the agricultural revolution

  • Newton discovered universal gravitation and several other physical laws

Topic Sentence: The Scientific Revolution led in the advancement of technology for Europe

Thesis Statement (Statement linking all categories to a general theme)

Scientists and scholars such as Nicolas Copernicus, Rene Descartes, and Isaac Newton dedicated their lives to science. With the help of these men and several others, the Scientific Revolution impacted long believed religious views, changed philosophical ideas, and introduced new technological advancements.

Framework for Review FRQs Jen Baker

Prompt: Contrast the impact of nationalism in Germany and the Austrian Empire from 1848 to 1914.

Category: Revolutions of 1848

Factual information list

  • Nationalism encouraged people to revolt against the current problems in Europe.

  • Age of Realism (Replaced Romanticism): strong enough to accomplish revolutionary goals.

  • “Kleindeutsch Plan” unify Germany without Austria

Topic Sentence: Nationalism stroke power into people who revolted in the 1848 Revolutions to attempt to make the European situation better.

Category: German Unification

Factual information list

  • Nationalism built up Germany and made it stronger

  • Franco-Prussian War, (1871, German Empire created, Bismarck appointed chancellor)

  • Bismarck and “realpolitik”. He wanted Germany to be separate from Austria, meaning that the center of German affairs would be in Berlin, not Vienna. (Austro-Prussian War.

Topic Sentence: The German nationalism built Germany up and led it to becoming a unified European state.

Category: Austrian deterioration

Factual information list

  • Revolutions weakened Austria

  • Ethnic diversity in Austria between Roman Catholic Church and the people of Nazareth, Bethlehem and Jerusalem.

  • Catholics were in the minority. The Franco-Turkish treaty solidified the RCC’s authority, but there weren’t that many Catholics to protect.

Topic Sentence: Nationalism in the Austrian Empire led to diversity that drove the nation apart by religion.

Thesis Statement (Statement linking all categories to a general theme)

Beginning with the Revolutions of 1848, nationalism encouraged many European states to attempt to fix the problems in Europe. For Germany, the extreme nationalism led to unification and a strong nation. For Austria, nationalism led to war between people of different ethnic backgrounds.

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