Reading Guide Directions: You know how it goes… please complete either these questions or the associated graphic organizers

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Name: ______________________________ Ms. Ecker

Date: _______________________________ APEH

Unit 3 Reading Guide

Directions: You know how it goes… please complete either these questions or the associated graphic organizers.

  1. What are some of the primary reasons that led to absolutism emerging in the 16th and 17th centuries?

  1. Who was Bishop Jacques Bossuet? What did he write? What were his overall concepts and ideas regarding absolutism and divine-right theory?

  1. Discuss the involvement of Cardinal Richelieu in the consolidation of French monarchial power. What were some policies that he initiated to reform and strengthen the central administration?

  1. Discuss the religious policies of Louis XIII and Richelieu. (i.e. What did they do with the Huguenots?)

  1. Who succeeded Richelieu as regent of the French crown (the regent of Louis XIV)? What was the Fronde?

  1. What did Louis XIV hope to accomplish in his domestic and foreign polities? To what extent did he succeed? Be specific in giving examples of his successes and failures.

  1. How was Loius XIV able to restructure the central-policy making machinery of government and further expand French monarchial power?

  1. Who was Jean Baptiste Colbert? Why is he significant to Louis XIV?

  1. Discuss Louis XIV’s religious policy. What was included in the Edict of Fontainebleau?

  1. What were some of the direct and underlying purposes of Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles?

  1. What was Louis XIV’s main objective in his foreign policy? (mainly, his war policy.)

  1. Discuss Louis involvement in the War of Spanish Succession. What is the name of the treaty that ends the conflict? What does it do?

  1. How did Philip II, Philip III, and Philip IV help facilitate the economic and political decline of Spain?

  1. Describe the Holy Roman Empire & the Germanic states following the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.

  1. Who was Frederick William the Great Elector and what did he do to help bring about the emergence of Prussia? How was he able to use his army and support from the nobles to accomplish his goals?

  2. Who was Leopold I? Why as the Austrian monarchy unable to become a highly centralized, absolutist state?

  1. In what ways did Peter Romanov (the Great) bring about the expansion and advancement of Russian society?

  1. Why and in what ways did Peter the Great try to industrialize and westernize Russia?

  1. How was he able to secure a “warm water port” and his “window to the west?” (These were two of his major objectives)

  1. Discuss the Ottoman gains during the 16th century. What factors began to lead to the eventual demise of the Ottoman Empire?

  1. What are some of the reasons why Poland be considered a weak monarchy?

  1. What European nation was considered the greatest commercial power in Europe? What are some of the factors that led to their economic and commercial boom?

  1. Who succeeded Elizabeth I as King of England? What are some of the issues he had with Parliament, both religious and political?

  2. What was James I’s theory regarding absolutism and the divine-right theory?

  1. What was the Petition of Right (signed in 1628)? How did Charles I react to it?

  1. Describe Charles I’s era of “personal rule.” How did he attempt to raise money for the crown?

  1. How did Charles I’s religious policy also prove disastrous?

  1. What event forced Charles I to call Parliament into session in 1640?

  1. What was the “Long Parliament?” How did it try to eliminate royal power?

  1. Who was Oliver Cromwell? How did he effectively lead the New Model Army? What happened on January 30, 1648?

  1. How did Cromwell effectively rule England between 1649 – 1658? How successful was he and what effect did his actions have on England?

  1. Who was commonly regarded as the “Restoration King?” What was the Test Act? What was the major religious issue that loomed so large during Charles II’s reign?

  1. How did James II’s ascension to the throne lead to a new constitutional crisis for the English?

  1. Discuss the Glorious Revolution. What were the immediate and underlying effects of the Revolution?

  1. What were some of the things included in the English Bill of Rights?

  1. What was included in the Toleration Act of 1689?

  1. Who was Thomas Hobbes? What did he write? Discuss his overall reaction to the Glorious Revolution.

  1. Who was John Locke? What did he write? Discuss his overall reaction to the Glorious Revolution.

  1. Discuss the main tenets of mercantilism.

  1. What country replaced Italy as the cultural center of Europe? What is Classicism?

  1. Who was Rembrant? What country did he represent?

  1. Describe French neoclassicism.

  1. Discuss some of the characteristics of Mannerism and Baroque.

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