Revival of the Women’s Movement Experiences at Work and Home



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NOTES-Chapter 30 Section 1: Women and Native Americans Fight for Change

MAIN IDEA: In the 1960s women and Native Americans struggled to achieve social justice.
Revival of the Women’s Movement

Experiences at Work and Home

  • Throughout the 1950s-60s, increasing numbers of women joined the workforce (1/3 of workers were women in 1963)

  • Women earned about ________ of what men made and were excluded from many types of work

  • 1961 President Kennedy ordered a report about the status of women at work the proved they were being _________________________________________________

  • Women still married young (20 was the average) and frequently did not work when they married

  • Not all women were happy to stay home; ______________________________ wrote The Feminine Mystique in 1963 detailing how trapped many women felt by being homemakers and mothers

Consciousness Raising

  • Women organized groups called _____________________________________________ groups to discuss problems unique to middle class women and common patterns of discrimination

  • Many were upset to find discrimination even in movements to end discrimination like the African American Civil Rights Movement.


The Women’s Liberation Movement

NOW

  • Women began organizing around an idea known as _________________________: women should be socially, politically, and economically equal

  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned discrimination based on sex but was not well enforced

  • 1966: a group of feminists led by Betty Friedan formed the ________________________________ ________________________________________ to fight discrimination, end violence against women, and fight for abortion rights

  • They work to pass laws, filed lawsuits, and staged rallies and marches

The Equal Rights Amendment

  • NOW actively campaigned for passage of the ___________________________________________ that would guarantee equality in all spheres of life, not just employment

  • It passed Congress and had to be ratified by at least 38 states

  • After making good gains initially, it ran into opposition with conservatives, especially in the South

  • ________________________________________ was an outspoken critic who was concerned that women would lose privileges they held if the amendment passed

  • the ERA was unable to get enough votes to ratify it by the 1982 deadline, and it was not added


The Women’s Liberation Movement

Roe v. Wade

  • 1973: Supreme Court strikes down state laws banning abortion as a violation to the constitutional right to privacy

  • This case remains one of the most controversial decisions ever rendered by the court

Effects of the Women’s Movement

  • By the end of the 1970s the number of women holding professional jobs increased, but most still had low wages

  • 1970 5% of lawyers women and by 1980, 12% of lawyers women

  • Women started running for and winning seats in Congress

  • Many perceived the movement as only benefiting white middle and upper class women


The Lives of Native Americans

  • Native Americans did not share in the prosperity of most Americans in the 1950s and had the highest ____________________________________________ in the nation

  • Most lived in poverty and rates of disease and alcoholism were high as well

  • During the Eisenhower administration, the federal government tried end the reservation system through a policy called _______________________________: ended the reservation system and encouraged Native Americans to move to cities and join mainstream society

  • Was a failure because the government did not provide services to support them; they often ended up worse off

  • Native Americans met in 1961 to organize a movement to oppose termination and other polices that harmed Native Americans


Native Americans Fight for Fairness

Occupation of Alcatrez & AIM

  • President Johnson supported self-determination for Native Americans (created National Council on Indian Opportunity)

  • 1969 Native American activists tried to reclaim Alcatrez Island, an abandoned federal prison (held for 18 months and forcibly removed by police)

  • Led to the creation of _______________________________________________: wanted a renewal of traditional culture, economic independence, and better education) led by Russell Means

  • Most of the protests were nonviolent, but some like an occupation of Wounded Knee ended violently

Other Organizations & Assessing Progress

  • Other groups emerged to work towards other needs for Native Americans

  • There were many legislative victories (increased health care, education, religious freedom, and educational opportunity)

  • Despite these accomplishments, unemployment remained high as was the high school drop-out rate

NOTES-Chapter 30 Section 2: Latinos Fight for Rights

MAIN IDEA: In the 1960s Latinos struggled to achieve social justice.
The Lives of Latinos

  • 1960: 900,000 Latinos lived in the US

  • Immigration increases because the ________________________________________________ gave preference to immigrants with relatives already in the US

  • 1/3 lived below the poverty line; 80% worked in low-paying unskilled work like farm labor, construction, and factory work

  • There was discrimination in schools and 75% of Latino students dropped out of high school

  • District lines were drawn to limit the political power of Latinos and they were often excluded from juries

Launching the Struggle for Social Justice

  • Latinos began organizing for _____________________________: fair distribution of advantages in society

  • Migrant farm workers are the first to organize

  • 1965 farmer workers led by ______________________________ led a strike and a national boycott on grapes to force the farm owners to recognize the farm workers’ union

  • They wanted better pay and better working conditions

  • Their strike was successful and encouraged other Latino Americans to fight for rights


Movements for Latino Rights

Defining the Chicano Movement

  • Some Latinos adopted rhetoric like the Black Power movement and called themselves ______________________ (a shortened form of Mexicanos) to convey ethnic pride and political activism

  • They thought the term Mexican American indicated assimilation

Alianza

  • Some leaders focused on land issues

  • Alianza Federal de Mercedes worked to get land that had been seized from Mexican Americans by the federal government at the end of the Mexican American War

  • Their leader was arrested and the movement broke up

Movements for Latino Rights

The Crusade for Justice

  • Led by _____________________________________________, the Crusade for Justice promoted Mexican American nationalism

  • They provided legal assistance, cultural awareness, a Spanish language newspaper, and ran a school with free bilingual and culture classes

MAYO

  • 1967 College students in Texas form _______________________________________________

  • They wanted economic independence, local control of education for Hispanic children, and power for Latinos through a 3rd party

  • They organized mass walkouts in schools to protest discrimination

  • Many ___________________ began to reform as a result of the protests


Movements for Latino Rights

La Raza Unida

  • After working with MAYO, ______________________ formed La Raza Unia (the United People)

  • They campaigned for bilingual education, public services, education for children of migrant workers, and an end to job discrimination

  • It spread throughout the Southwest and some branches were able to elect members to __________________________________

The Brown Berets

  • Formed in the late 1960s, the Brown Berets were the most militant of the groups that formed

  • Founded by working-class Latinos in LA in 1967, they focused protest on __________________ and later adopted other causes like ending discrimination in schools

  • They disbanded in 1972 after a series of violent demonstrations


Movements for Latino Rights

The Boricua Movement

  • Boricua is a term for _______________________________

  • This term also expresses ethnic pride and support for political activism

  • Many Puerto Ricans migrated to mainland US after ________________________ (9% of NYC population by 1964)

  • Their goals included ___________________________ for Puerto Rico, but that did not gain much support, even among Puerto Ricans

  • They fared better with antidiscrimination goals

Cuban Americans

  • After the communist revolution, many well-to-do Cubans fled to the US and many more continued to flee Cuba

  • Most came to the US for _____________________ reasons, not economic ones

  • Most of their movements focused not on social justice, but for the overthrow of Castro and an end to communism in Cuba

NOTES-Chapter 30 Section 3: Culture and Counterculture

MAIN IDEA: The counterculture that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s left a lasting impact on American life.

Rise of the Counterculture

The Youth Culture

  • _____________________________: a rebellion by teens and young adults against mainstream American society

  • They viewed American values as hollow and misplaced & turned their back on the ________________________ (mainstream culture)

  • Developed due to the large number of youth (Baby Boom)—up 50% between 1960 and 1970

  • Blamed their parents for all of the societal problems (Vietnam, racism, nuclear war, pollution)

Rising Student Activism

  • College students began by protesting against policies they viewed as restrictive and unjust

  • University of CA-Berkley protested new bans on free speech and demonstrations (called the ________________ ____________________________) and these demonstrations spread to college campus’ throughout the nation

Life in the Counterculture

Hippie Culture

  • Thousands of teens and young adults abandoned mainstream culture and became hippies

  • Some formed communes and the ______________________________________________ of San Francisco became the center of hippie culture

  • Major values were peace and love (shared what they had)

  • Had a reputation for drug use (esp. LSD) and colorful clothes

  • Sometimes referred to as _______________________________________

The Counterculture’s Decline

  • Height of the movement was the 1967 __________________________________________

  • _____________________________ (1969) major concert celebrating the counterculture

  • Movement declined due to drug use/abuse and a lack of support (many parents refused to keep funding the lifestyle)

Mainstream Society Reacts

  • Many mainstream Americans viewed hippies as disrespectful, uncivilized, and threatening

  • They feared it was a sign that America was losing its sense of right and wrong

  • TV show _________________________________________ highlighted the conflict between hippies and mainstream society


The Counterculture’s Legacy

Attitudes/Art

  • America became more permissive and causal

  • Sexual activity and violence on TV and in movies became more prevalent

  • ____________________ began appealing to wider audiences

  • _________________________________ did art of mass produced culture (Marilyn Monroe, Campbell’s Soup)

  • Ratings system for movies was developed

Music

  • Music became more political

  • Artists like Bob Dylan, the Beatles, and Joan Baez wrote songs focused on criticism of the government and society in general


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