Rise of Nazism in Germany

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Rise of Nazism in Germany

In November 1918, Germany signed an armistice and the Treaty of Versailles. This treaty was harsh toward Germany and outlined conditions under which Germany was pushed into economic depression and national humiliation.

  1. Germany must pay the cost of the war: ________ billion

  2. Germany’s border with France was to be demilitarised.

  3. Loss of overseas colonies

  4. Loss of Alsace Lorraine to France. Coal rich _________ valley was given to France for 15 years.

  5. Surrender of 1/8 of its territory to __________, Denmark, Poland and Czechoslovakia

  6. Navy was cut to three ships, no air force, army maximum of 100,000 men

  7. Accept full responsibility for causing _________ (known as the “War Guilt Clause”)

Germany was given a democratic government known as the _________ Republic, with the chancellor as head of state. To many Germans, this government was weak. It did not effectively deal with ____________, political instability, and was blamed for signing the Treaty of Versailles.

Germany began to recover economically in 1924 but the onset of economic depression offered the perfect conditions for the emergence of totalitarian ____________ parties.

The Germans longed for a strong leader to lead them out of economic crisis and restore German greatness. The Germans blamed the communists and ________ for Germany’s problems. They turned to Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party.

Adolf Hitler

  • Born in Braunau, Austria in 1889

  • Left school at 16; rejected by the Vienna Art Academy

  • Lived in poverty doing odd jobs in Vienna

  • Moved to Munich, Germany in 1913

  • Volunteered to join the German army in 1914

  • Wounded twice, won six medals for bravery, running messages between the trenches

  • Bitter and angry when Germany surrendered

  • Blamed the surrender on Jews and socialist politicians; nicknamed “November Criminals”

  • Worked spying on political groups following the war

  • Joined the German Workers’ Party in 1919; then became their leader and changed the name to the National Socialist German Worker’s Party – NAZI Party for short

  • The symbol of the party became the swastika

  • Established Stormtroopers (SA) to _____________ political opponents (usually socialists and communists)

  • In 1923, Hitler organized the _______________ (revolt); it failed and he was _________ for high treason

  • During his year in prison, he wrote ___________________ - My Struggle, describing his political ideas and visions for a future Germany

  • When the ___________ depression hit Germany in 1929, unemployed workers began to listen to his ideas (previously people had shown little interest)

  • His ideas focused on:

    • The __________ Principle – that Germany needed to be ruled by a single, strong __________

    • Lebensraum (Living Space) – Germans needed more land to live ________ on

    • Race - The __________ race was seen as superior to all other races

    • Anti _____________ - Hitler blamed Jews for the defeat in WWI and preached that they should be destroyed

    • Anti-Communism – the political system in ______________ was seen as dangerous so all communist supporters must be destroyed

    • Treaty of Versailles – the peace treaty was unfair to Germans and must be cancelled; as well, lands lost must be returned and ____________ destroyed

  • The NAZI party was extremely successful in gathering support from the German people

    • In 1928, only 12 Nazi party members were elected to the Reichstag (parliament)

    • In 1933, 298 Nazi party members were elected. They became the largest party and Hitler was appointed chancellor.

  • In 1933, Hitler passed the Enabling Act which granted him full and complete power over Germany (brought an end to democracy in Germany)

  • Germany became a very oppressive place if you disagreed with government policy – Night of Long Knives, June 1934

Hitler and the Jewish People

  • Hitler began an active policy of anti-Semitism – introduced a package of laws called the Nuremburg Laws which limited the freedoms of the Jewish people living in Germany

  • These laws were the first step in Hitler’s overall plan to rid Germany of the Jewish race

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