Indo-Europeans- The earliest people living in Southern Russia and what is now Ukraine . Spread in all directions, and their original language has been found to be the basis for many modern languages.
Alexander the Great- King of Macedonia and the conqueror of the Persian Empire . Was considered to be one of the greatest military strategists of all time. First gained power in Macedonia at the age of 16, and at 18, destroyed the Greek army during the Macedonian invasion of Greece .
Julius Caesar- A Roman General and Later Dictator. He made his early career in military and political endeavors, including managing Spain and Gaul and conquering most of central Europe . Declared himself emperor in 49 BCE, and had a rather large army to back it up. However, he was killed a month later.
Constantine- Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Replaced the former king, Diocletian, and removed the persecutions set on by him. Was the first Roman Christian emperor, and issued the Edict of Milan, which proclaimed religious tolerance of Christianity throughout Rome . Also, transformed the Greek colony of Byzantium into the capital city of Constantinople .
Magnentius- A Roman soldier who originally served under Constantine . During the rule of the unpopular Constans, he took power, and the army aligned himself with him. Went to war with Constantius 2 . After marching from Gaul to Atrans, he was defeated by Constantinus 2.
The Huns (Attila)- A powerful empire that conquered and attacked much of Asia, Eastern Europe, and Southern Russia . Attila came into power 445 CE. In 447 CE, they invaded Rome and Constantinople, forcing Rome to pay them large sums of gold for peace. Attila also went on a conquest throughout Gaul (Modern-day Europe and France ) to claim the Roman Princess Honoria as his bride. Though the battle in France was inconclusive, Attila continued his conquest with the invasion of Italy , which ended poorly due to disease and famine. Attila died in 453 after his wedding to another girl, and the Huns collapsed sixteen years later.
Aetius- Roman General who fought Attila at the Catalaunian Fields. Had Attila won, Christian Europe might have been forever extinguished.
Justinian- Ruler of the Justinian empire. Although he was easily manipulated by his wife, followers and the Persians, he did rebuild Constantinople in a large building conquest and put in place more Eastern laws and customs.
Greece and Ancient Rome- Home of the Roman empire, which ruled over much of Europe and Asia until its gradual decline and fall, ending around 476 CE
Gaul- Modern-day France . Though they originally defeated the Roman Army, the Romans took control of them after the Batter of Alesia. After breaking off from the Roman Empire and becoming part of the Gallic Empire, Rome (yet again) took control of Gaul . Roman rule finally ended after the Romans were defeated by the Franks. Gaul was the site of many battle, involving the Romans, Huns, Celtics, and various temporary rulers.
Constantinople – Formerly Byzantium . Capital of the Eastern Roman Empire for a thousand years, beginning under the rule of Constantine .
Gaul ( France ) - Was the place of Attila the Hun's conquest to take the Roman Princess Honoria as his bride.
CatalaunianFields- Site of the battle in Gaul where Attila the Hun fought the Roman General Aetius. The battle ended inconclusively.
Italy - Attila the Hun's final invasion attempt to claim his bride. His troops succumbed to starvation and rampant disease.
336 BCE- Alexander the Great ascends the throne.
323 BCE- Alexander the Great dies from an illness in Babylon at the palace of Nebuchadnezzar the Second.
49 CE- Julius Caesar marches his armies into Rome and declares himself dictator. A month afterwards, conspirators kill him.
258 CE- Gaul breaks off, along with Britain and Spain , to form the Gallic Empire.
306 CE- Constantine comes into power, replacing the old ruler, Diocletian and his persecutions.
337CE- After being baptized, Constantine dies, but not before the Roman Empire is split into three by his sons- Constantine the Second in the West, Constans in the middle, and Constantius in the East. This prompts another “civil war”.
350 CE- The unpopular rule of Constans comes to an end after the Roman soldier Magnentius stages a revolt and takes control of the army.
447 CE- Attila the Hun invades the Eastern Roman Empire and threatens Constantinople . In return for peace, the Romans were forced to pay thousands of pounds of gold and return Hun fugitives. This weakens the Roman Empire further.
453 CE- Death of Attila the Hun
476 CE- Fall of Rome (More of a gradual process, but this is a good end date)
527- 565 CE- Justinian Empire- Marked the end of the Roman empire and the beginning of the New Byzantine Empire. Began to shift from a Roman-based system of customs and laws to a more Eastern approach. Was weakened economically through payments of gold to the Persians, and eventually collapsed under them.
Hallstatt Civilization urges the Iron Age
Location: Northern Europe
Sets the pattern to Urban civilization in Northern Europe .
Greek Alphabet is Developed
Greek Alphabet is the ancestor of all modern European Alphabets including English.
The Olympic Games
Location: Olympia , Greece
Established one of the four Pan-Hellenic (all Greek) games to unify the isolated city-states in Greece . (Theodosius the Great)
Greek Physicians develop Scientific Practice of Medicine
Hippocrates (Greek Physician) developed a rational way of looking at medicine.
Buckle, Buckle, 2nd century b.c.; European Iron Age
Leaded bronze, silver, iron
Fashion accessory for upper class
Chariot, late 6th century b.c.
Etruscan; From Monteleone, Italy
Fresco wall painting in a cubiculum (bedroom) from the Villa of P. Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale, ca. 40–30 b.c.; Late Republican
Stater, ca. 560–546 b.c.
Greek, Lydian; Excavated at Sardis
1. Chief power is based on heredity or the next in line. They don’t really have a power they just keep the people unified. There’s no contract. No real government structure. No significant wars. Sometimes people are given power by the “gods”.
2. Kings and Queens are in charge. Power is based on heredity. There is a democratic government. Government structure is complex.
1. They earn their food by hunting and gathering. It is mostly based on small trades. They don’t have a money system yet. The valued and traded were pottery, stones, and hunting weapons. No real technologies that defined the cultures.
2. They earn their food by farming. The economy is based on agriculture, commerce, profession and industries. Money is based on innovations with metal for military. Bronze and iron are valued commodities.
1. a. Surrounded by nature gods. It just appeared. They live in the afterworld with the gods. They spend their lives devoted around serving the gods. Priests speak to the gods.
b. They believe that everyone is equal. They communicate via sign language. Genders are equal. There is no social classes. They live in villages.
2. a. meaning of life is to serve god. They go to heaven. Devote their life to their god. Priests talks to god. Basic beliefs are that there is one god. Bible.
b. social class is very complex.
More patriarchal. Social classes are separated by living in different areas.
1. a. The Chiefs are the “thinkers”. The privileged were educated. Knowledge is transferred from the elders.
b. They express themselves through pottery.
c. They learn forging metals to make them stronger.
2. a. The thinkers are the nobles. The high classes are given the chance to learn. Knowledge comes from the elders.
b. They use statues.
c. chariots and weapons.
1.There is no real political system.
2. Starts to be a more of a chiefdom, but still pretty disorganized.
3. People start to develop civilizations, societies, and empires.
4. One unified ruler rules an area.
Mostly just small nick knack trading (trading beads for shells)
Again, small trading. (I want to trade you a loaf of bread for your piece of meat).
3. Most people trade on some trade routes instead of farming themselves. However, some people do still subsistence farm.
1.No real sense of religion.
3. Everyone is equal because everyone contributes to the community equally.
Much of eastern Europe is Christian.
The social class gets much more complex and segregated.
2. Pottery/ education of survival/complex settlement, and weapons.
3. Tablets/writing/small amount of agricultural technology.
4. Statues, or monuments/highly educated/ highly developed/highly developed agriculture methods and technological innovations.
Conquer - to acquire by force of arms; win in war;
to overcome by force; subdue.
Colony - a group of people who leave their native country to form in a new land a settlement subject to, or connected with, the parent nation.
Dictator - a person exercising absolute power; a ruler who has absolute, unrestricted control in a government without hereditary succession.
Conquest - the act or state of conquering or the state of being conquered; vanquishment.
City-states - a sovereign state consisting of an autonomous city with its dependencies.
Mythology - a set of stories, traditions, or beliefs associated with a particular group or the history of an event.
Conversion – change in character, form, or function.
Empire - a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government: usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom.
Invade - to enter forcefully as an enemy; go into with hostile intent.
Civilization - an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached.
Baptize - to immerse in water or sprinkle or pour water on; to cleanse spiritually; initiate or dedicate by purifying.
Bently, Jerry, and Herbert Ziegler. "Early Societies in Southwest Asia and the Indo-European Migrations." In Traditions Encounters A Global Perspective on the Past. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006. 31-58.
Haywood, John. "The Ancient World and The Classical World." In Atlas of World History. New York: Fall River, 2009. 4-28.
Powell, John. Chronology of European History . New York: Salem Press, Inc., 1980.
Rathbone, Dominic. "Other Civilization." In The Grammer of The Ancient World. New York: Fall River, 2009. 292-295.
TimeMaps Ltd.. "Timeline of Ancient World History: 3500BC - AD1." TimeMaps Atlas of World History. http://worldhistory.timemaps.com/ancient-world/1500BC.htm (accessed August 20, 2010).