Sayyid Qutb, The America I have Seen {{{



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Sayyid Qutb, The America I Have Seen {{{
``The America I Have Seen": In the Scale of Human Values (1951)
Sayyid Qutb
SAYYID QUTB was Egypt's most prominent Islamic activist and the most famous member of the Muslim Brothers organization until his execution by Nasser's regime in 1966. One of his biographers compares his overall standing as an Islamic thinker and activist to that of Ayatollah Khomeini. He is the author of several works on Islamist ideology including his radical Milestones (1964) for the publication of which he was hanged. In 1948, he was sent by the Egyptian Ministry of Education to the United States to study American pedagogical methods. He studied at Wilson's Teachers' College (now the University of the District of Columbia); the University of Northern Colorado's Teachers' College, where he earned an M. A. in education, and at Stanford University. Upon his return to Egypt in 1950, he published an account of his stay in the United States in the Egyptian magazine Al Risala under the title, ``The America I Have Seen.'' The same account was later included in a book edited by Abd al Fattah al Khalidi under the telling title, Amrika min al Dakhil bi Minzar Sayyid Qutb (America from the Inside through the Eyes of Sayyid Qutb). The title page has a drawing of the American flag shown partly folded with a blood stained, black striped flag beneath it. America may appear to be one thing, but inside it is something else totally.
# First Episode
America: Location and Privilege
America, the New World, is that vast, far flung world that occupies in the mind's eye more space than it really does on this earth. Imaginations and dreams glimmer on this world with illusion and wonder. The hearts of men fall upon it from every valley, men from every race and color, every walk of life, and every sect and creed.
America, the vast expanses of land that stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific. America is the inexhaustible material resources, strength and manpower. It is the huge factories, unequaled in all of civilization. It is the awesome, incalculable yields, the ubiquitous institutes, laboratories, and museums. American genius in management and organization evokes wonder and admiration. America's bounty and prosperity evokes the dreams of the Promised Land. The beauty that is manifested in its landscape, in the faces and physiques of its people is spellbinding. America conjures up pleasures that acknowledge no limit or moral restraint, dreams that are capable of taking corporeal shape in the realm of time and space.
America's Share of Human Values
This great America: What is its worth in the scale of human values? And what does it add to the moral account of humanity? And, by the journey's end, what will its contribution be?
I fear that a balance may not exist between America's material greatness and the quality of its people. And I fear that the wheel of life will have turned and the book of time will have closed and America will have added nothing, or next to nothing, to the account of morals that distinguishes man from object, and indeed, mankind from animals.
The Measure of Civilization
The true value of every civilization that man has known lies not in the tools man has invented or in how much power he wields. Nor does it lie in the yields his hands have harvested. Most of the value of civilizations lay in what universal truths and worldviews they have attained. These achievements elevate feelings, edify consciences, and add depth to man's perception of the values of all life, and human life in particular. They increase the distance between man and animal in feelings and behavior, through man's estimation of life and things.
As for the invention of tools, the wielding of powers, or the making of objects, these things are in and of themselves weightless in the scale of human values. They serve merely as indicators of another fundamental value, that is the extent to which the human element of man is elevated, how far his steps have taken him from the world of things and the world of animals and what has been added to his human account of wealth and reflections on life.
So, in his feelings for this life, this fundamental value is the place of comparison and balance between one civilization and another and one philosophy and another. Moreover, it is the lasting account and is relevant to future civilizations whereas tools break down and objects perish, only to be replaced by newer tools and objects from one moment to another anywhere on this earth.
The Field of American Innovation
It appears that all American ingenuity is concentrated in the field of work and production, so much so that no ability remains to advance in the field of human values. America's productivity is unmatched by any other nation. It has miraculously elevated life to levels that cannot be believed. But man cannot maintain his balance before the machine and risks becoming a machine himself. He is unable to shoulder the burden of exhausting work and forge ahead on the path of humanity, he unleashes the animal within.
America: The Peak of Advancement and the Depth of Primitiveness
The researcher of American life will stand at first puzzled before a wondrous phenomenon, a phenomenon that exists nowhere else on earth. It is the case of a people who have reached the peak of growth and elevation in the world of science and productivity, while remaining abysmally primitive in the world of the senses, feelings, and behavior. A people who have not exceeded the most primordial levels of existence, and indeed, remain far below them in certain areas of feelings and behavior. But the confusion vanishes after scrutinizing the past and present of this people, and the reason that this zenith of civilization has combined with this nadir of primitiveness is revealed.
The Balanced Composition of Man
In the ancient world, man first believed in the unknown power of nature and around it wove myths and legends. Then, he believed in religion, and his soul was flooded with its lights and revelations. Then, he believed in art, and his yearnings materialized as colors, tunes, and rhythms. And finally, after his self had been torn between a myriad of faiths, colors of feelings, differing manifestations of life's images, and the exaggerations of imagination, he believed in science. This belief in science took place only after his soul had been tamed by religion, his senses edified by art, and his behavior pruned by convocation and after his values and principles had been shaped by the reality of history and his free yearnings. And while these principles and values may or may not have been fulfilled in daily life, at least they found echoes in the conscience and in feelings. There was hope of fulfillment because the mere presence of these principles and values in the abstract world was a great step for mankind on the path to humanity, and a luminous beam of hope for their eventual realization in daily life.
The Deformed Birth of the American Man
In America, man was born with science, and thus believed in it alone. In fact, he only believed in one kind of science, and that was applied science. Since he received nature as an untamed, stubborn virgin, and fought to build his homeland with his bare hands, applied science was his greatest ally in his violent struggle. Applied science reached out to him with effective tools for creating, building, organizing, and producing.
America as a Virgin Land
The American has not yet finished with the building stage, for there remain interminable, incalculable expanses of virgin land, untouched by any hand, and virgin forests un trodden by any foot, and mines that have neither been excavated nor depleted. There remains for the American the continuation of his first construction effort, in spite of his having achieved the peak of organization and production.
The Psychological State of the First Americans
And we would do well not to forget the psychological state that wave after wave, and generation after generation of Americans brought to this land. For they brought a blend of discontent with the life of the Old World and the desire for freedom from its rigid traditions whether they were onerous, corrupt traditions or sound and necessary ones. This psychological state springs from an enduring desire for wealth by any means, and for the possession of the largest possible share of pleasures and compensation for the effort expended to acquire wealth.
The Origin of the Americans
And we would do well also not to forget the social and mental state of the majority of these first waves of immigrants who formed the seeds of this new nation. For these waves were composed of groups of adventurers, and groups of criminals. The adventurers came seeking wealth, pleasure, and adventure, while the criminals were brought to this land from the lands of the British Empire as labor for construction and production.
Applied Science and Human Values
These combinations of entanglements and of waves of people naturally encouraged and fostered primitive characteristics in this new nation, and ignored and resisted the elevated characteristics of some of the nation's individuals and groups. So the primal urges were revitalized, as if man retraced his first steps, with one difference, in the case of America, primitive man is armed with science, with which he was born, and which guided his steps. And science in itself, and especially applied science, plays no role in the field of human values, or in the world of the soul and feelings. And this narrowed his horizons, shrank his soul, limited his feelings, and decreased his place at the global feast, which is so full of patterns and colors.
The Struggle of the First American with Nature
And one may be amazed when reading the stories of the first pilgrims to America in its early days, and imagine their epic, amazing struggles against a defiant nature in far flung, desolate lands, and even before this, braving the ocean's horrific squalls and its conquering waves, in their small, fragile vessels. As soon as these pilgrims landed upon the rocks, with their vessels destroyed or damaged, they faced the uncharted forests, the tortuous mountain mazes, the fields of ice, the thundering hurricanes, and the beasts, serpents, and vermin of the forest. One may be amazed at how all this did not leave a shadow upon the American spirit and inspire a belief in the majesty of nature and that which is beyond nature, opening for the American spirit a window on things that are more than matter and the world of matter.
The Secret of the Deformed American Character
However, this amazement vanishes when one remembers that mixture of the early American pilgrims and their surrounding conditions. They tackled nature with the weapons of science and the strength of the muscle, so nothing existed within them besides the crude power of the mind and the overwhelming lust for the sensual pleasure. No windows to the world of the spirit or the heart or tender sentiment were opened to the Americans as they were opened to the first humans. A great deal of this world of spirit, heart, and tender sentiment was preserved by the first humans, and much of this continued to be preserved even in the age of science, and added to the account of human values that endured through time.
And when humanity closes the windows to faith in religion, faith in art, and faith in spiritual values altogether, there remains no outlet for its energy to be expended except in the realm of applied science and labor, or to be dissipated in sensual pleasure. And this is where America has ended up after four hundred years.
# Second Episode
The American Primitiveness
Despite his advanced knowledge and superlative work, the American appears to be so primitive in his outlook on life and its humanitarian aspects that it is puzzling to the observer. This clear contradiction may make the Americans appear as an eccentric nation in the eyes of foreigners who observe the life of this nation from afar and are at a loss to reconcile such an industrial civilization, with its precise order and organization of labor, with such primitiveness of feeling and manner, a primitiveness that reminds one of the days when man lived in jungles and caves!
Primitiveness in Athletics
It seems the American is primitive in his appreciation of muscular strength and the strength of matter in general. To the extent that he overlooks principles, values, and manners in his personal life, in his family life, and in his social life, except in the realm of work, and economic and monetary relationships. This primitiveness can be seen in the spectacle of the fans as they follow a game of football, played in the rough American style, which has nothing to do with its name (football), for the foot does not take part in the game. Instead, each player attempts to catch the ball with his hands and run with it toward the goal, while the players of the opposing team attempt to tackle him by any means necessary, whether this be a blow to his stomach, or crushing his arms and legs with great violence and ferocity. The sight of the fans as they follow this game, or watch boxing matches or bloody, monstrous wrestling matches.\ldots is one of animal excitement born of their love for hardcore violence. Their lack of attention to the rules and sportsmanship to the extent that they are enthralled with the flowing blood and crushed limbs, crying loudly, everyone cheering for his team. Destroy his head. Crush his ribs. Beat him to a pulp. This spectacle leaves no room for doubt as to the primitiveness of the feelings of those who are enamored with muscular strength and desire it.
American Love for Peace An Illusion
And with this primitive spirit the American people follow the struggles of groups and parties, and the struggles of nations and peoples. I cannot fathom how this strange illusion that Americans love peace took root in the world, especially in the East.
The American and the Hunger for War
Indeed, the American is by his very nature a warrior who loves combat. The idea of combat and war runs strong in his blood. It is evident in his manner and this is what agrees with his history. For the first waves of people left their homelands, heading for America with the intention of building and competing and struggling. And once there, some of them killed others, as they were composed of groups and factions. Then they all fought against the original inhabitants of the land (the red Indians), and they continue to wage a bloody war against them until this very moment. Then the Anglo Saxons killed the Latinos and pushed them south toward central and southern America. Then these Americanized people turned against their mother country, England, in a destructive war led by George Washington until they obtained their independence from the British crown.
The True Motivations for the Manumission of American Slaves
Then the North fought the South under the command of Abraham Lincoln in a war that was called ``the freeing of the slaves.'' But its true motivation was economic competition. The slaves that had been captured from central Africa to work in the land were fragile and could not withstand the cold climate of the North, so they were moved to the South. The result was that the builders of the South found cheap labor that was unavailable in the North. So they achieved economic superiority. For this reason, the Northerners declared war for the manumission of the slaves!
// he's insane!
America Emerges from Isolation
The period of isolation passed, and its politics ended, when America entered the First World War. Then it entered the Second World War. Now it is starting a war in Korea, and a third world war is not far behind! I really cannot understand how this illusion came into being, given this nation's history with warfare.
The American View of Death
Physical vitality is sacred to the American, and weakness, no matter what its cause, is a crime: a crime that cannot be atoned for in any way, a crime that remains undeserving of compassion or care. The matter of morals and rights are an illusion in the conscience of the American, he cannot taste it. Be strong, and you will have everything. Or be weak and no ideology can help you, and there will be no place for you in the great realm of living. As for him who dies, he has committed, naturally, the crime of death. He loses all his rights to care and respect! Did he not die?
Americans Joke About the Injured
I was at George Washington Hospital in the capital city, and it was evening. Suddenly there was some commotion of unknown origin that drew much attention. And the patients who were able to move began leaving their beds and their rooms and coming into the hallway to take a closer look. Then they began to gather together inquiring about the source of this spectacle in the hospital's usually quiet life. We learned after a while that one of the hospital's employees was injured in an elevator accident and was in critical condition, indeed, he was in the final round of death. One of the American patients went to see for himself, and returned to tell those gathered in the hallway what he had seen. When the ghost of death lingers in a place, there is no greater reverence to it, nor more solemnity than in a hospital. But here was this American who began laughing and chuckling while he mimicked the appearance of the injured, dying man, and the way his neck was struck by the elevator, his head crushed, and his tongue dangled from his mouth on the side of his face! And I waited to see signs of disgust or disapproval from those listening, but the vast majority of them began laughing joyously at this odious act.
Laughing beside the Corpse of a Loved One
For this reason I am not surprised when some of my friends relate what they see and hear about death and its impact on the American consciousness. A friend once told me that he was attending a funeral when the body of the head of the household was presented in a glass coffin---according to American custom---so that the friends of the deceased could pass by his body to bid him the final farewell and gaze upon him for the last time, one after another in a long line. When the procession ended, they all gathered in the reception room. What struck him was that there was no respect as they began mocking and making jokes about the deceased and other individuals. His wife and family took part in this, giving rise to joyful laughter in the cold silence of death, around the body that was shrouded in burial cloths.
An American Woman Carouses while Her Husband's Corpse Lies at Home
The Director of the Egyptian State scholarships in Washington was invited to a party with his wife. Before the engagement, his wife fell ill, so he called up to apologize for not being able to attend because of this emergency. But the hosts replied that there was no need to apologize as he could attend the party alone, which would actually be a good stroke of luck, since one of the women invited to the party had lost her husband suddenly before the party. She thus would have been alone there, so it was her good fortune that she could now have a companion!
An American Woman Speaks of Her Recently Deceased Husband
I once entered the house of an American woman who was helping me with my English during the first period of my stay in America. So I found there one of her female friends, and they were having a conversation that I caught the end of. This friend said, ``I was lucky because I had taken out insurance on his life. Even his treatment cost very little because I had insured him with the Blue Cross,'' and she smiled.
Then she excused herself and left. I remained with the woman of the house and I assumed that her friend had been talking about her dog, and I was amazed that she did not exhibit any signs of distress at his death! But no sooner had I observed this than she said, without my asking, ``She was speaking of her husband. He died three days ago.''
And it appeared to her that I was stunned that her friend could speak this matter of factly about her husband merely three days after his death. Her seemingly sound and convincing excuse was, ``He was ill! He had fallen sick more than three months before his death!''
The Funeral of the Birds in Egypt
My memory took me back to a scene that had a very profound emotional effect on me. Indeed, the effects have lasted on my mind for many years. I had in mind to write down this thought under the title, ``The Funeral of the Birds.'' This was a scene of a group of chickens we raised in our home. The chickens gathered silently, spellbound and shocked around a chicken that had been slaughtered. It was an emotional surprise for everyone who had been in the house. A surprise unexpected from birds as low on the evolutionary scale as these chickens. Indeed, the shock was so great that we did not dare slaughter another chicken within the sight of this group of birds!
The Sadness of the Ravens over Their Dead
And the sight of the ravens when one of their own dies is a sight that many are accustomed to seeing. It is a sight that is hard to describe without mentioning that these birds must know ``sadness,'' ``emotion,'' and ``kinship"! For a group of ravens will hover in circles, shrieking and wailing, until they carry the body of the deceased one and fly away. All this points to the gravity of death in the world of birds!
The Drought in American Life
The sanctity of death may be a natural instinct. So it is not the primitiveness of feeling that has erased the sanctity of death in the American soul. Rather, it is the drought of sentimental sympathy in their lives, and the foundation of their lives upon monetary and material measures, and sheer physical gratification. Americans intentionally deride what people in the Old World hold sacred, and their desire is to contrast themselves with the customary ways of the people there. Otherwise, the Americans would say, what merit does the New World have over the Old World?
The Feelings of Americans toward Religion Are Primitive
And what is said about their feelings toward death may also be said about their feelings toward religion.
Churches without Life
There is no people who enjoys building churches more than the Americans. To the extent that I once stayed in a town with no more than ten thousand inhabitants, yet within it I found over twenty churches! And most of them do not go to church on Sunday mornings and evenings, but instead on general holidays and holidays for local saints, who far outnumber the ``saints'' of the common Muslims in Egypt. All this notwithstanding there is no one further than the American from appreciating the spirituality of religion and respect for its sacraments, and there is nothing farther from religion than the American's thinking and his feelings and manners.
Churches for Carousal and Enjoyment
If the church is a place for worship in the entire Christian world, in America it is for everything but worship. You will find it difficult to differentiate between it and any other place. They go to church for carousal and enjoyment, or, as they call it in their language ``fun.'' Most who go there do so out of necessary social tradition, and it is a place for meeting and friendship, and to spend a nice time. This is not only the feeling of the people, but it is also the feeling of the men of the church and its ministers.
The Clubs of the Church and Their Attractions
In most churches there are clubs that join the two sexes, and every minister attempts to attract to his church as many people as possible, especially since there is a tremendous competition between churches of different denominations. And for this reason, each church races to advertise itself with lit, colored signs on the doors and walls to attract attention, and by presenting delightful programs to attract the people much in the same way as merchants or showmen or actors. And there is no compunction about using the most beautiful and graceful girls of the town, and engaging them in song and dance, and advertising.
A Church's Party Program
This is an example of the text of an advertisement for a church party that was posted in the student's union of one of the colleges.
``Sunday, October 1st, 6: 00 P .M. snacks, magic games, puzzles, contests, fun''
There is nothing strange in this, for the minister does not feel that his job is any different from that of a theater manager, or that of a merchant. Success comes first and before everything, and the means are not important, and this success will reflect on him with fine results: money and stature. The more people that join his church, the greater is his income. Likewise, his respect and recognition is elevated in the community, because the American by his nature is taken with grandeur in size and numbers. It is his first measure of the way he feels and evaluates.
A Hot Night at the Church
One night I was in a church in Greeley, Colorado, I was a member in its club as I was a member in a number of church clubs in every area that I had lived in, for this is an important facet of American society, deserving close study from the inside. After the religious service in the church ended, boys and girls from among the members began taking part in chants, while others prayed, and we proceeded through a side door onto the dance floor that was connected to the prayer hall by a door, and the Father jumped to his desk and every boy took the hand of a girl, including those who were chanting.
The dance floor was lit with red and yellow and blue lights, and with a few white lamps. And they danced to the tunes of the gramophone, and the dance floor was replete with tapping feet, enticing legs, arms wrapped around waists, lips pressed to lips, and chests pressed to chests. The atmosphere was full of desire. When the minister descended from his office, he looked intently around the place and at the people, and encouraged those men and women still sitting who had not yet participated in this circus to rise and take part. And as he noticed that the white lamps spoiled the romantic, dreamy atmosphere, he set about, with that typical American elegance and levity, dimming them one by one, all the while being careful not to interfere with the dance, or bump into any couples dancing on the dance floor. And the place really did appear to become more romantic and passionate. Then he advanced to the gramophone to choose a song that would befit this atmosphere and encourage the males and the females who were still seated to participate.
And the Father chose. He chose a famous American song called ``But Baby, It's Cold Outside,'' which is composed of a dialogue between a boy and a girl returning from their evening date. The boy took the girl to his home and kept her from leaving. She entreated him to let her return home, for it was getting late, and her mother was waiting but every time she would make an excuse, he would reply to her with this line: but baby, its cold outside!
And the minister waited until he saw people stepping to the rhythm of this moving song, and he seemed satisfied and contented. He left the dance floor for his home, leaving the men and the women to enjoy this night in all its pleasure and innocence!
The Minister and the Huntresses of Men
Another minister spoke to an Iraqi who was a close friend of mine. The minister asked him about Mary, his classmate at the university, ``Why does she no longer come to church?'' The minister, apparently, would not care if all the women were absent as long as Mary attended! The Iraqi friend asked the minister about his concern and he answered: ``She is attractive, and most of the boys attend only to see her!''
I was speaking to one youth, one of those immoral Arab youths who study in America whom we called ``Abu al Atahiya'' after the famous Arab poet of the past, and I do not know whether this angered the old poet or pleased him, and he told me of his girlfriend, as there is a girl for every boy in America, and how she would tear herself from his arms at times to go and sing in the church. If she was late, she would not be spared from the minister's glances and insinuations that ``Abu al Atahiya'' played a role in her tardiness in attending the prayer services. This would occur if she attended by herself, without him, but if she were able to bring him along, she would not be blamed nor faulted!
For Them, the End Justifies the Means
And these ministers would say to you: ``But we are unable to attract this youth by any other means!''
But none of them asks himself: ``What is the value of attracting them to the church, when they rush to it in this way, and spend their time in this manner? Is church attendance a goal in and of itself? Is it not for the edification of feelings and manners? From the minister's point of view, which was made clear by the preceding events, merely going to church is the aim. And this situation makes sense to those who live in America!
But I return to Egypt, and I find those who speak or write about the church in America, even if they have not seen America for a moment, and its role in societal reform, and its activities in purifying the heart and edifying the soul.
But what can I say? Strange things can happen in this world! For God has created all kinds of people and things.
Sexual Primitiveness in America
The American is very primitive in his sexual life, and in his marital and familial relationships. For during my studies of the Holy Bible I have come across a verse in the Old Testament that deals with God's creation of man for the first time and it says: ``Males and Females He created them.'' I came across this verse many times, but it never held for me so nude and lucid a meaning as it did during my time in America.
Sex and Decadence
Human society has long struggled to build and forge sexual mores. It has regulated these relations, emotions, and feelings, and struggled against the coarseness of sensation and the gloominess of natural impulse, in order to let genuine relationships fly about, and free ranging longings soar high unfettered, along with all the strong ties around these relationships, in the feelings of individuals, in the life of the family, and in society at large.\ldots
This struggle was isolated from life in America at once, and it rose devoid and destitute from every beautification: (males and females) as they were created the first time. Body to body, and female to male. On the basis of bodily needs and motives, relationships are based and ties are established. And from them stretch the rules of behavior, the mores of society, and the ties of families and individuals.
With the temptation of the body alone, devoid of any cover, stripped of all modesty, girls meet boys, and from the strength of the body and its muscles the boy obtains the submission of the girl. And the husband obtains his rights, and those rights disappear completely the day that the husband fails to ``perform'' for one reason or another.
The Appearance of the American Temptress
The American girl is well acquainted with her body's seductive capacity. She knows it lies in the face, and in expressive eyes, and thirsty lips. She knows seductiveness lies in the round breasts, the full buttocks, and in the shapely thighs, sleek legs and she shows all this and does not hide it. She knows it lies in clothes: in bright colors that awaken primal sensations, and in designs that reveal the temptations of the body---and in American girls these are sometimes live, screaming temptations! Then she adds to all this the fetching laugh, the naked looks, and the bold moves, and she does not ignore this for one moment or forget it!
The American Dream Boy
The American boy knows well that the wide, strapping chest is the lure that cannot be denied by any girl, and that her dreams do not fall upon anyone as much as they fall upon the cowboys. A young nurse in a hospital told me very frankly, ``I want nothing in the man of my dreams but two strong arms he can really squeeze me with!'' And Look magazine ran a survey of several girls of different ages and levels of education and classes around what it called ``ox muscles'' and the overwhelming majority declared their open attraction for boys with ox muscles!
Sex and the Materialism of Life in America
There is no doubt that this fascination with physical strength is indicative of the vitality of this nation and its sensuality. If this fascination were tamed and sublimated, it could lead to the creation of a great art that would remove the gloominess of life and infuse the human spirit with fragrance, and bind the sexes with ties higher and more beautiful than the ties of thirsty bodies, burning passions, and eye popping sex that beckons through the limbs, and is embodied in motions and gestures. But the nature of life in America, and the circumstance that conditioned the formation of the American people, does not help with any of this, instead it resists and fights it.
The Matter of Sex is Biological in America
The word ``bashful'' has become a dirty, disparaging word in America. For Americans sexual relations have always conformed to the laws of the jungle. Some Americans philosophize about it, such as one of the girls in the university who once told me: ``The matter of sex is not a moral matter at all. It is but a question of biology, and when we look at it from this angle it becomes clear that the use of words like moral and immoral, good and bad, are irrelevant.'' It may appear that Americans are not only strange, but amusing. Some of them excuse themselves and justify it as one doctoral student did: ``We here are occupied with work, and we do not wish to be hindered from it, and we do not have time to invest in feelings. Moreover, books try our nerves, so we wish to do away with this worry to free ourselves for work with relaxed nerves!''
The Americans' Nerves
I did not wish to comment on these statements at the time, for my concern was with knowing how they thought about the matter. But there is nothing in America that indicates relaxed nerves, despite every easy means of life, and all its guaranteed assurances, and every ease and means of expending extra energy.
The Americans Are Free of Humanity
Some of them call this freedom from hypocrisy and facing the truth, but there is a fundamental difference between freedom from hypocrisy and freedom from the components of humanity that separate man from animals. Humanity in its long history was not unaware that sexual desires are normal and true, but it, consciously or unconsciously, struggled to control them, escaping its slavery and distancing themselves from its primitive levels.
Yes, it is a need, so why does humanity shy away from realizing its need? Because it feels inherently that controlling such desires is testament to freedom from slavery and to going beyond the first rungs of humanity's evolution, and that a return to the freedom of the jungle is a gripping slavery and a relapse to the first primitive levels.
# Third Episode
Artistic Primitiveness in America
The American is primitive in his artistic tastes, whether in his judgment of art or his own artistic works. Jazz music is his music of choice. It is this music that the savage bushmen created to satisfy their primitive desires, and their desire for noise on the one hand, and the abundance of animal noises on the other. The American's enjoyment of jazz does not fully begin until he couples it with singing like crude screaming. And the louder the noise of the voices and instruments, until it rings in the ears to an unbearable degree, the greater the appreciation of the listeners. The voices of appreciation are raised, and palms are raised in continuous clapping that could deafen ears.
Americans and the Opera
But the American people enjoy the opera, are attracted to the symphony, crowd the ballet, and watch classic theatrical performances to the extent that one might not find a spare seat. It happens that sometimes you may not find a place unless you reserve it days in advance, paying high prices for these shows.
Films and More Films
The cinema is the art of the masses, for it is the art of skill, polish, craft, and accuracy. It is by its nature more dependent upon skill than it is upon artistic spirit, you may be amazed at the American genius in it. Despite this the English, French, Russian, and Italian films remain more elegant than American films, even though they are less skillfully crafted.
The great majority of American films clearly possess simplistic story lines and primitive emotions. They are generally police films and cowboy films. Elevated, brilliant films like ``Gone with the Wind,""Wuthering Heights,""Singing Bernadette,'' and so on, are exceptional in relation to the rest of American production, and what is seen of American films in Egypt or the Arab countries does not illustrate this proportion, because most of them are from the finest, rarest movies of America. Those who visit the theater in America understand this small proportion of quality films.
Natural Scenery in American Art
There is another art in which the Americans have distinguished themselves, for it is more a matter of skill in production than of authentic, elevated art: it is the art of representing natural scenery with colors, as if it were an accurate, true photograph. It is in the museums of marine and land biology, creatures or their preserved bodies are displayed in their natural habitats as if they were real, and the artist's brilliant portrayal of these habitats, combined with artistic design of the scenes, surpasses the limits of amazement.
Primitiveness in Tastes and Preferences
Now we leave these elevated levels of art and feelings to descend to the colors of clothing and the taste of food.
The Clothes of the Americans
Primitiveness of tastes cannot be illustrated more clearly than in these screaming, loud colors, and elaborate large patterns, a lion or a tiger leaping on the chest, an elephant or wild ox prostrating on the back, a naked girl stretched on a necktie from top to bottom, or a palm tree that climbs up it from bottom to top.
So often our commentators do speak of ``holiday clothing'' in the villages, or the wedding dresses in the village, with their garish, primitive colors that do not match except for the fact that they are the most explosive of colors. I wish these commentators could see the shirts of the boys in America, let alone the clothes of the girls! And as long as commentators speak of tattoos on the gypsies, or in Central Africa, I wish they could see the arms of the American youths and their chests and backs, defiled with green lines, snakes and serpents, naked girls, and trees and jungles. Remember this is happening in modern America, in the New World, in the new universe.
The Food of the Americans
As for their food, that too is very strange. You will attract attention, and cause disbelief, if you request another cube of sugar for the cup of coffee or tea that you drink in America. Sugar is reserved for pickles and salads, while salt, my good sir, is saved for apples and watermelons.
On your plate you will find combined a piece of salted meat, some boiled corn, some boiled peas, and some sweet jam. And on top of all this is what Americans call gravy, which is composed sometimes of fat, vinegar, flour, broth, apples, salt and pepper, and sugar, and water.
Sayyid Qutb Makes Fun of the Americans
We were at the table in one of the cafeterias of the University, when I saw some Americans putting salt on their watermelon. And I was prepared to see these strange fads and also to play jokes on them from time to time. And I said, faking innocence, ``I see you sprinkling salt on the watermelon.'' One of them said,'' Yes! Don't you do the same in Egypt?'' I said, ``No! We sprinkle pepper!'' A surprised and curious girl said,'' How would that taste?'' I said, ``You can try for yourself!'' She tasted it and said approvingly,'' It's tasty!'' and so did all the others.
On another day in which watermelon was served, and most of the same people were at the table, I said ``Some of us in Egypt use sugar at times instead of pepper.'' One of them tried it and said, ``How tasty!'' and so did all the others.
The American Haircut
In summary, anything that requires a touch of elegance is not for the American, even haircuts! For there was not one instance in which I had a haircut there when I did not return home to even with my own hands what the barber had wrought, and fix what the barber had ruined with his awful taste.
America's Role in the World
America has a principal role in this world, in the realm of practical matters and scientific research, and in the field of organization, improvement, production, and management. All that requires mind power and muscle are where American genius shines, and all that requires spirit and emotion are where American naivet\'{e} and primitiveness become apparent.
For humanity to be able to benefit from American genius they must add great strength to the American strength. But humanity makes the gravest of errors and risks losing its account of morals, if it makes America its example in feelings and manners.
Of the Virtues of America
All this does not mean that Americans are a nation devoid of virtue, or else, what would have enabled them to live? Rather, it means that America's virtues are the virtues of production and organization, and not those of human and social morals. America's are the virtues of the brain and the hand, and not those of taste and sensibility.
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Supplement: Said Qutb on the Arts in America by Daniel Burns, Translator
Published on Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Current Trends in Islamist Ideology vol. 9
Translator’s note[1]
The Egyptian Said Qutb was one of the leading intellectual lights of 20th Century Islamic radicalism when he was executed in 1966 for his involvement with the illegal Muslim Brotherhood. He is best known for his lengthy Quranic commentary In the Shade of the Qur’an and his book Milestones, in which he makes the case that allegedly Muslim regimes like that of Egypt should be understood as jahiliy (pagan) and therefore the proper target of military jihad.
Years before writing these radical works, Qutb spent two years studying in America (1948-1950). Upon his return to Egypt, he published the three-part article “The America That I Have Seen: In the Scale of Human Values” in the Egyptian journal Al-Risala (Vol. 19 [1951]; no. 957, 959, 961; pp. 1245-7, 1301-6, 1357-1360). A translation of this article appears in the anthology America in an Arab Mirror (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000), but that translation is missing a considerable block of text for no reason that I can see. Here I have translated the section of the article’s third part that contains that missing block. All but the first three and the last three paragraphs below are therefore appearing in English for the first time.
The article as a whole contains Qutb’s observations on American life and chiefly on how American citizens rank “in the scale of human values.” He judges Americans on a range of social and moral characteristics---including their sexual mores, their political history, and their attitudes towards religion, sports, art, and death---and generally finds them wanting. Most striking about the article is Qutb’s adherence to a standard of “human values” rather than specifically “Islamic values.” Qutb never elaborates this standard explicitly, but in general his theme seems to be that human beings should strive to attain high-minded, civilized, and spiritual values rather than bestial, primitive, and sensual ones. American society, in Qutb’s view, tends toward the latter.
Wherever possible, I have translated a single Arabic word with a single English word. Words in [square brackets] are my additions or clarifications. I have used Qutb’s punctuation as a guideline but have not been able to reproduce it fully in English; in particular, I have used parentheses, long dashes, sentence breaks, and other means to translate the versatile Arabic particle wa. I have however retained the author’s strange use of quotation marks and ellipses.
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Said Qutb: On the Arts in America
The American is primitive in his artistic taste, both in what he enjoys as art and in his own artistic works.
“Jazz” music is his music of choice. This is that music that the Negroes invented to satisfy their primitive inclinations, as well as their desire to be noisy on the one hand and to excite bestial tendencies on the other. The American’s intoxication in “jazz” music does not reach its full completion until the music is accompanied by singing that is just as coarse and obnoxious as the music itself. Meanwhile, the noise of the instruments and the voices mounts, and it rings in the ears to an unbearable degree.\ldots The agitation of the multitude[2] increases, and the voices of approval mount, and their palms ring out in vehement, continuous applause that all but deafens the ears.
But despite this, the American multitude attends the opera, listens to symphonies, crowds together for the “ballet,” and watches “classic” plays---so much so that you will hardly find an empty seat. It will happen sometimes that you do not find a place unless you reserve your seat days beforehand, and that at the high price of the fares for these performances.
This phenomenon misled me at first; I even rejoiced at it, down to the depths of my soul. For I had been feeling constantly “begrudging” at the fact that this people, which produces marvels in the world of industry and of science and of research, should have no store of the other human values. I had also been terribly afraid on behalf of humanity that its leadership will pass into the hands of this people that is altogether poor in those values.
Therefore I rejoiced when I saw this phenomenon. For the public that takes an interest in refined art is not to be despaired of no matter what its faults may be, and when this window on its feelings has been opened, there is great hope that many other rays may diffuse from it.
The importance of this phenomenon pushed me to investigate everything about it, in different surroundings and in numerous cities. But when I tracked the expressions on faces, and conversed with a great many of the men and women[3] who visit these places (those I knew and those I did not know), all this revealed to me---with regret---how wide a chasm still separates the spirit of such humane art from the spirit of the Americans. Indeed, their feelings about it[4] are even concealed in all but rare cases; they only look at the matter from a purely social angle. For the cultured American must of necessity see these sorts [of shows] and go to these places in case there should be a conversation about them in any group of people taking part in conversation together. For it is a matter of the greatest shame in America that anyone should fail to take part in the conversation---especially in the case of young women, since what is demanded of them is that they should always find subjects for conversation. So if young women visit these places, they add new subjects to the perpetual American subjects [of conversation], i.e., ball games, names of films and of actors and actresses, cases of divorce and marriage, markings and prices of cars.\ldots This is the very spirit in which the crowds visit the art museums, passing rapidly through the halls and the exhibits in a way that does not suggest any enjoyment or love of these works [of art]. In just the same way they go (individually and in groups) to get a rapid view of natural spectacles. Passing by places and spectacles at the cars’ top speed, they collect conversational material and also comply with the natural American inclination toward collection and enumeration.
At the beginning of my stay in America, I would hear that one of them had visited X cities and countries and sights and spectacles and had gone X miles in his tourist journeys and knew X friends, so that I was astonished at this capacity for producing such things and wished that I were capable of any of it! Then I discovered afterward how all these marvels took place.\ldots One of them drives his car on a journey, alone or with his family or friends. He races it at top speed, taking it through cities and over distances, passing by sights and spectacles, while recording in his notebook the names and the mileage.\ldots Then he returns, and see! he has seen all of it, and he has the right to converse about it! As for friends, it is enough that one be invited to get-acquainted parties. There he encounters their faces for the first time, and the host acquaints him with the attendees one by one (men as well as women)[5], and he asks whoever of them wish to do so to write down their names and addresses, and so they in turn do with him. After some time, his notebook is full of names and addresses. And see! he has a great number of friends (men and women)[6], and perhaps he is even victorious in the competition undertaken in pursuit of this goal. How great, how strange are the competitions here!
Thus your knowledge and your culture[7] are often measured by how much you have read and watched and heard. It is the same as the way that your material riches are calculated by the quantity and amount of the cash and real property that you own: without any distinctions!
And this is not the mentality of the multitudes only, but it is also very much the mentality of the thinkers and the researchers. For it had occurred to the thinkers in America that it was not right that their country should be the richest country in the world, and their people the greatest people on earth in terms of industrial civilization and scientific civilization, while they should have no artistic wealth like that of poorer peoples such as the Italians and the Germans.
They have money---and money works wonders---so it was only a matter of years before they had museums of drawing and sculpture more magnificent and larger than those other peoples’. These museums have accumulated for themselves works of art from everywhere and have filled up with the rare and the costly among these works, which they[8] have not been stingy about buying with money. These are all foreign works save a few, since American works are primitive and plain to the point of being laughable next to those splendid worldly treasures.
Likewise, [it was only a matter of years before] they had some performing orchestras and some dance troupes of the “ballet,” most of which [demonstrate] expertise and proficiency. And most of the conductors of these orchestras and the directors of these troupes [demonstrate] genius and originality.\ldots and all of them[9] save a few are foreigners.
Thus there emerged[10] precise enumerations that indicate what America possesses in the way of great artistic riches, purchased by money. But there remained one little matter: Does the American soul have any share in these riches? Does she even have mere artistic enjoyment of this costly human inheritance!
It occurred to me to examine these points in the art museums just as I examined them at the opera houses and such.
I went for the tenth time to the museum of art in San Francisco and made one of the picture halls of French art the subject of my examination. I distributed my attention over all the pictures inside it, but I concentrated on one outstanding picture named “Fox in the Chicken House.”[11] There are no words that could relate to the reader the beauty of this ingenious picture, in which the artist depicted several profound, complex feelings in a painting where there is no human face to make it easy for the artist to depict those feelings.\ldots A fox is in the chicken house, the sky is suffocatingly dark, and the fox has just attacked a chicken, a nesting mother, who appears in distress and exhausted in the claws of the wild beast baring his teeth; her little ones are terrified and the eggs remaining beneath her are scattered; her fellow hens meanwhile are scattered throughout the space of the painting, and the rooster---the man of the house---stands helpless, at a loss to find any salvation for his spouse in distress, although he is her guardian! As for the other hens, one is anxious and taken by surprise, another is despairing and disgusted that there should be all this atrocity in life, while a third is at a loss, asking: “How did this happen?” And the entire sky and the colors in this ingenious painting depict that which words cannot grasp.
I took a rest on one of the seats that the halls do provide with singular[12] courtesy for those visitors who are tired of looking and of walking around to rest on, and I rested, inspecting the features and expressions [of faces] and listening to the remarks and comments.
Four full hours passed over me in my seat, during which 109 persons passed by me, singles and couples and groups, of whom the majority were among the [many] young women and young men[13] who make appointments to spend some time in the museum’s garden and then in the museum itself, since it is proper for the social young woman to share in conversation and to find subjects for conversation.
On [the faces of] how many of these 109 did it appear that they were feeling anything of what they were seeing? Only one lingered for about two minutes in front of the picture I had selected, and he lingered in the whole hall for about five minutes.\ldots then he flew off.
I repeated the experiment in the other halls of the museum, and then repeated it in other museums in several cities. Again I arrived at the point where [I could say that], out of the great mass of visitors comprised in my enumerations, only a rare minority comprehended anything of these tremendous artistic riches that the dollar has gathered from all the places on earth; all that remained for the dollar to do was to create artistic sensation, but apparently that does not respond to the dollar’s charms!
The only art in which the Americans are proficient---although there are other [peoples] who still surpass them in it as far as artistry goes---is the art of the cinema. This is natural and logical given the phenomenon that makes the American unique: the height of industrial proficiency combined with primitiveness of artistic feelings. In the cinema this phenomenon is very much manifest.
By its nature, the cinematic art does not rise to the loftiest regions of the arts---music, drawing, sculpture, and poetry---nor for that matter to the [level of the] art of the theater, although in the cinema the possibilities for artistic craft[14] and the possibilities of production are much greater. And in terms of originality, the art of production in the cinema has gotten only as far as the farthest point reached by the art of photography. Moreover, some distance remains between it and (for example) the art of the theater, just as some distance remains too between depiction by photography and depiction by a [painter’s] brush. In the latter is expressed genius of feelings; in the former, expertise of craft.
The cinema is the popular art of the multitudes, so it is the art in which one finds expertise, proficiency, magnification, and approximation. By its nature it relies more on expertise than on the artistic spirit.\ldots in it the American genius[15] can exercise creativity.\ldots yet despite this, English, French, Russian, and German film all remain superior to American film, although they are inferior to it in craft and expertise.
In the great majority of American films, one sees manifestly primitive subjects and primitive excitement; this is true of police/crime films and cowboy films. As for high, skillful films, such as “Gone with the Wind,” “Wuthering Heights,” “The Song of Bernadette,” and such, they are few in comparison with what America produces. Such American film as does reach Egypt or the Arab countries does not resemble this family, since the majority of it comes from among the superior, rare American films.[16] And those people who visit the regions of the land in America are those who reach that tiny family of valuable films.
There is another art in which the Americans are skillful, because in it there is more of expertise in craft and production than there is of high, genuine art.\ldots It is the art of depicting natural spectacles in color as if [the depictions] were photographic, true and exact[17]. This can be seen in the museums of land and water animals, since these animals or their embalmed bodies are displayed [there] in the likeness of their natural habitats, just as if they were real. The artist’s brush is skillful in depicting these habitats in cooperation with the spectacle’s artistic design; it reaches the point of creativity.
Notes
[1] I am grateful to the Ernest Fortin Memorial Foundation for a summer grant that allowed me to work on this translation, to Michael Montalbano for his relentless editing, and to Prof. Martha Bayles, Prof. Nasser Behnegar, Dr. Hillel Fradkin, Prof. Dennis Hale, Prof. James Nolan, and Zander Baron for reading drafts.
[2] The word consistently translated “multitude” (jamhour) appears a few times in this passage and has political connotations: it is the root of the Arabic word for “republic.” It means something like hoi polloi.
[3] Here and elsewhere Qutb uses two forms, a masculine and a feminine, where Arabic grammar only requires one (since the masculine is taken to include both sexes). Literally this passage says “a great many [m.] and a great many [f.] of those who visit these places.” Qutb seems to want to emphasize that both sexes are included, perhaps because he finds this immodest or perhaps because his audience would not otherwise know whether the social events being described were single-sex.
[4] The nearest possible antecedent is “spirit,” but the earlier “this phenomenon” seems likelier. The gender of the pronoun makes it impossible that it could be “art”.
[5] Literally “one by one and one (f.) by one (f.).” See note 3.
[6] Literally “male-friends and female-friends,” or “friends and female friends.” See note 3.
[7] In the sense of “the state of being cultured,” not “cultural identity.”
[8] The gender of the pronoun means that it most likely refers to, not “museums,” but the antecedent from earlier in the paragraph: “Americans,” or possibly “the thinkers in America.”
[9] Since the entire paragraph is one sentence in Arabic, it is not clear whether this word refers only to the conductors and directors or to the performing groups’ members as a whole.
[10] This is a bit obscure, but Qutb seems to mean that these enumerations became easily available in the course of his own investigations.
[11] Jean-Baptiste Huet’s Fox in the Chicken Yard (1766) meets most of Qutb’s description. I can only see two “other hens,” though.
[12] The ambiguity is present in Arabic as in English: this may be a backhanded compliment.
[13] Literally “female-youths and male-youths,” or “female-youths and youths.” See note 3.
[14] The word is a recurrent theme in the entire article and has been translated “industry” or (as an adjective) “industrial.” From here on it will be translated “craft.”
[15] This phrase does not refer to particular American people that we would call “geniuses,” but to something more abstract, like the previous “artistic spirit.”
[16] The antecedents are hard to follow in this sentence, but the sense seems to me to require: “Such American film as does reach us in Egypt or the Arab countries does not resemble the (generally low-quality) family of American films as a whole, since the majority of what does reach us consists in those high-quality films that make up only a tiny minority of the whole family.”
[17] Qutb seems to mean this as something of a compliment, but on the other hand, that meaning would seem to be at odds with his disparagement of photography three paragraphs earlier.

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