Sectionalism, Civil War and Reconstruction Test Review

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Sectionalism, Civil War and Reconstruction Test Review

  1. List characteristics of the 3 eras:

  1. Sectionalism: Protective Tariffs, Increasing divide between North and South, Manufacturing society vs. Plantation society, strong central gov’t vs. states’ rights, Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott decision, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Election of 1860

  2. Civil War: Secession, slavery and states’ rights, Abraham Lincoln, Confederate States of America, Union.

NORTH: Union, Yankees, Yanks; color: blue SOUTH: Confederacy, Confederates, Rebels, Johnny Reb, color: gray

  1. Reconstruction: process of restoring, reorganizing or repairing (1867-1877). Divided the South into military reconstruction districts. Was good and bad—Freedman’s Bureau helped distribute food and supplies. But the Black Codes were like slavery in disguise—forced former slaves to work for white plantation owners to pay off “debts” and “fines”.

  1. Explain the significance of the following date, 1861-1865. Years that the Civil War was fought.

  1. Analyze the impact of tariff policies on sections of the United States before the Civil War.

  1. North: high tariffs help the industrial North by making their prices more competitive against cheap imports; North liked the tariffs because it caused Americans to buy more American-made products from their industry.

  2. South: had little industry and imported most non-agriculture goods; saw the high tariff as a burden imposed by the more industrialized and populated North. The tariffs hurt Europe so Europe imported less Southern cotton—so the income of Southerners went down, while the cost of goods went up b/c of the tariffs—so a lose-lose situation for the South.

  3. West: the West backed government spending on internal improvements such as new roads and canals, and those improvements were financed by money made from the tariffs—so they generally supported tariffs.

  1. Analyze the impact of slavery on different sections of the United States.

  1. North: Slavery was illegal since the Revolution. Abolitionist societies, newspapers, and Underground Railroad. Many were unaware of the difficulties faced by slaves/free blacks.

  2. South: Slavery was an economic issue; slaves were viewed as property and a labor supplyan economic necessity. Trying to maintain a way of life. Considered it a state’s rights issue. Fugitive slave laws.

  3. West: Fight over whether or not to extend slavery into the new western territories. Maintain the balance of free v. slave states in the senate. After Mo.Co. was a popular sovereignty issue (new states voted to decide)

  1. Compare the effects of political, economic, and social factors on slaves and free blacks.

    1. Political: Missouri Compromise sought to maintain political balance between slave and free states; Compromise of 1850 also sought to achieve political compromises b/w North and South regarding slavery

    2. Economic: Southern plantation system—slaves made up 1/3 of the Southern population and were needed for work on plantations—Southerners felt this labor was an economic necessity. Northern industrial economy—slavery was outlawed so blacks living in the North were free and earned wages for their work. These free African Americans could also own property and had some rights, whereas slaves had no rights at all.

    3. Social: Religion brought slaves together for support and entertainment—sang spirituals, etc. Racism still existed in North as well as the South.

  2. Identify the provisions and compare the effects of congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War:

  1. Missouri Compromise: Sponsored by Henry Clay, allowed for Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state, this maintained the balance in the Senate. Est. the 36-30 line.

  2. Compromise of 1850: Sponsored by Henry Clay, California is admitted as a free state, the slave trade is banned in Washington DC, New Mexico and Utah would be allowed to have popular sovereignty (choose to have slavery or not), and a stronger fugitive slave law is passed. (Texas gives up claims to NM, etc.)

  3. Kansas-Nebraska Act: Passed to encourage settlement of the west, ignored the 36-30 boundary of the Missouri compromise by allowing Kansas and Nebraska to have popular sovereignty. Led to a rush from both the North and South to occupy the territories so that each could sway the opinion/vote=>led to “Bleeding Kansas”!

  4. Nullification Crisis: 1828 Tariff of Abominations was passed resulting in a high tariff, angering South Carolinians. South Carolina declares the tariff to be null and void. Jackson passes Force Act. To prevent secession and a civil war, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise Tariff of 1833.

  1. Explain the causes of the Civil War, including sectionalism, states’ rights, and slavery:

  1. Missouri Compromise

  • Reawakened old southern fears that the North would abolish slavery since the North was putting limitations on which states could have slaves

  1. Compromise of 1850

  • North didn’t like fugitive slave law saying that holding or helping slaves escape is against the law while the South did. South threatened to secede if it wasn’t followed

  1. Kansas-Nebraska Act => Bleeding Kansas

    • Angered North that Missouri Compromise was violated; people came from all over to vote to make Kansas a free/slave state and there was a lot of violence

  2. Dred Scott v. Sandford -- ruled slaves were property, not citizens, therefore could not bring a case to court

  1. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • Motivated North to join abolitionist movement since it explained the horrors of being a slave, but South hated it since they believed they took care of their slaves

  1. Harper’s Ferry and John Brown

  • Worried many Southerners when John Brown tried to raid a weapon store so that he could arm the slaves

  1. Explain the roles of the following individuals in relation to congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War

  1. John C. Calhoun: South Carolina Senator (before was John Quincy Adams’ Vice-President and Andrew Jackson’s Vice-President) favored states’ rights and led opposition to the Tariff of Abominations of 1828—passed Nullification Act and threatened to secede!

  2. Henry Clay: Senator from Kentucky and known as the “Great Compromiser” for his ability to smooth sectional conflict through balanced legislation. Sponsored the Missouri Compromise (1820), Compromise Tariff of 1833, and the Compromise of 1850.

  3. Daniel Webster: Senator from Massachusetts known as the “The Great Orator”, worked to create compromises with the southern states that would delay the start of the Civil War.

  1. Explain constitutional issues arising over the issue of states’ rights, including the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War. Revolved around the ability of a state to declare federal laws unconstitutional. Issue came about over the Tariff Debate and South Carolina being strongly against the high tariff passed in 1828 (Tariff of Abominations) and declaring it null & void. To prevent a civil war, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise Tariff of 1833. The Civil War brings the issue of state’s rights to a close, giving the federal gov’t the dominant authority and restoring the Union.

  1. Evaluate the impact of selected landmark Supreme Court decisions, including Dred Scott vs. Sanford, on the life of the United States. Confirmed the status of slaves as property rather than citizens—so declared slavery legal. Also, Congress had no authority over slavery in the territories, and upon statehood, each territory would determine whether it would be a slave state or a free state.

  1. Explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Civil War:

  1. Jefferson Davis: President of the Confederacy during the Civil War.

  2. Ulysses S. Grant: Commanding General of the Union Army.

  3. Robert E. Lee: Commanding General of the Confederate Army.

  4. Abraham Lincoln: 16th President of the United States.

  1. Explain the roles played by heroes, such as congressional Medal of Honor recipients:

  1. William Carney: served in the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (Union) during the Civil War, he was the first black soldier to receive the Medal of Honor.

  2. Phillip Bazaar: born in Chile, was in the Union navy, won the Medal of Honor for his distinguished service in the Civil War—first Hispanic to win the Medal of Honor.

  1. Describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Stonewall Jackson. Confederate General in the Civil War, earned his nickname “Stonewall” at the Battle of Bull Run, gifted tactical commander and led troops in the 1st and 2nd Battles of Bull Run (Manassas) and Antietam. Robert E. Lee’s right-hand man. Killed at Chancelorsville by “friendly fire”.

  1. Explain the significant events of the Civil War:

  1. Firing on Fort Sumter: First shots of the Civil War, the North surrenders the fort, no deaths.

  2. Battle of Bull Run (South called it Battle of Manasas): First real battle—outside Washington, D.C.—“the picnic battle”. North thought would be over here.

  3. Union Blockade: aka “Anaconda Plan”/“The Great Snake”—blockaded Southern ports and harbors to cut off supplies to South

  4. Battle of Antietam: Battle happened in the North, the bloodiest single day battle, North won.

Over 23,000 casualties in 12 hours.

  1. Emancipation Proclamation: Freed the slaves in the Confederacy, Lincoln was waiting for a victory to announce this and Antietam was as close as he could get. Makes the Civil War a war against slavery. In doing so, he guarantees that the Confederacy wouldn’t receive any foreign support during the war.

  2. Battle of Vicksburg: After months of a siege (surrounding the city and cutting off all resources) Grant and the Union win, gaining control of the Mississippi river and cutting the South in half.

  3. Battle of Gettysburg: 51,000 casualties, the second battle to take place in the North. Viewed as a turning point of the war, because after the Union victory the South was never able to invade the North again during the war.

  4. Gettysburg Address: Lincoln gave a 2-minute speech that addressed what the war had come to mean. It was very meaningful and helped war-weary Americans to look beyond the war and focus on their shared ideals.

  5. Sherman’s March to the Sea: Sherman led his army away from its supply lines and lived off of the resources they passed through as they marched into the South. They burned, killed, and tore up anything useful to the Confederates. It became known as “total war” / “scorched earth” strategy

  6. Appomattox Courthouse: Place of Lee’s surrender to Grant, ending the Civil War.

  7. Assassination of Abraham Lincoln: Shot and killed by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater.

  1. Analyze the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of the United States such as Abraham Lincoln. Honesty, Courage, Inspirational, Thoughtful. Through his leadership the Union was preserved and slavery eventually abolished after his assassination in 1865.

  1. Analyze Abraham Lincoln’s 1st and 2nd Inaugural Addresses and the Gettysburg Address, explain his ideas about the following:

  1. Lincolns First Inaugural Address:

    1. Liberty: “I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists.” No plan to invade, attack or interfere with slavery!

    2. Equality: Promised to not interfere with the rights of states and the institution of slavery. No reason to fear his election!

    3. Union: Argued that the Union could not be dissolved—No state can just leave on its own and any resolution saying they can is void. Also…all this threat of war is “in your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine.…”

    4. Government: Federal gov’t will not use force, will not use violence unless forced to—“The gov’t will not assail you”! Also said…the South has not taken an oath to destroy the gov’t but he had taken an oath to “preserve, protect, and defend it.” (oath of office as president)

  1. Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address:

    1. Liberty: War will continue until slavery ceases to exist.

    2. Equality: Denounces slavery

    3. Union: Healing, restoration and peace for the nation—“With malice toward none; with charity for all.”

    4. Government: Gov’t would do everything it could to have lasting peace. Also, Lincoln stated that there were people trying to destroy the government with or without war.

  1. Gettysburg Address:

    1. Liberty: Principles of liberty and equality based on the Declaration of Independence

    2. Equality: “… all men are created equal”

    3. Union: Restore peace and keep the nation united

    4. Government: “….government of the people, by the people, and for the people”.

  1. Contrast them with the ideas contained in Jefferson Davis’ Inaugural Address:

  1. Liberty: Cites the Declaration of Independence, Preamble to the Constitution, and Bill of Rights as basis for the South seeking the same liberty as the patriots of the American Revolution did when their rights and liberties were abused by the British.

  2. Equality: Explains liberty and equality from the point of view of the South’s desire for freedom from the North’s oppression of the South. (Also said: “It is joyous in perilous times to look around upon a people united in heart, who are animated and actuated by one and the same purpose and high resolve, with whom the sacrifices to be made are not weighed in the balance against honor, right, liberty and equality.”)

  3. Union: Explained that for years the South had endeavored (tried) to have peace with the North, but it was all in vain (no use/didn’t work). So, breaking from the Union was a “necessity, not a choice”. Also said they wanted peace and were willing to do business with the North, but beyond that “a reunion with the states from which we have separated is neither practicable nor desirable”.

  4. Government: The Confederacy had a goal of establishing a government system similar to the U.S. Constitution. “The Constitution formed by our fathers is that of these Confederate states….” “We have changed the constituent parts, but not the system of government.” Did increase states’ rights some but otherwise very similar gov’t system.


  1. Radical Republicans: Lincoln was a Republican who wanted to heal the nation and embrace the South again with forgiveness and generosity. But the Radical Republicans wanted to treat the South more harshly. They were against some of Lincoln’s plans for Reconstruction such as allowing Southern states to come back into the Union after ratifying the 13th amendment, requiring only 10% of white voters to take an oath of allegiance, and compensation of slaveowners

  2. Scallawags: Southerners who worked with Republicans during Reconstruction—were viewed as traitors by the South

  3. Carpetbaggers: Northerners who went down South during Reconstruction to take advantage of things—hated by South

  1. Evaluate legislative reform programs of the Radical Reconstruction Congress and reconstructed state governments:

  1. Freedmen’s Bureau: provided food, clothing and education to freedmen (former slaves) and refugees; greatly expanded educational opportunities for newly freed slaves—built lots of schools

  2. Civil Rights Act of 1866: Granted citizenship to persons born in the United States (except Native Americans)

  3. Reconstruction Act of 1867: separated the South into 10 states—then divided into 5 military reconstruction districts. Gave African males the right to vote.

  4. 13th Amendment: abolished slavery

  5. 14th Amendment: guarantees citizenship and rights to all people born or naturalized in the United States

  6. 15th Amendment: guarantees the right to vote to all citizens regardless of race

  1. Describe the impact of 19th-century amendments, including 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, on life in the United States. Freed all slaves without compensation to slave owners. Led to greater freedom and opportunities for African-Americans. Also led to economic depression in the South and widespread settlement of the West.

  1. Evaluate the impact of the election of Hiram Rhodes Revels. The first African-American Senator. Spoke out against racism.

  1. Explain the economic, political, and social problems during Reconstruction and evaluate their impact on different groups:

  1. Black Codes: Laws passed in the South during Reconstruction to limit the opportunities for blacks—designed to restrict freedmen’s activity and ensure their availability as a labor force now that slavery was abolished. While the Freedmen’s Bureau was trying to ensure fair wages, economic opportunity and education for former slaves, the Black Codes sought to limit progress (ex: limited to agricultural work, could not assemble without a white person present, could not marry person of another race, etc.)

    • B/c work was limited to agriculture, but they had no money to buy land, farm animals or tools, freedmen had to go back and work for plantation owners (who had no workers now)—led to freedmen becoming sharecroppers and tenant farmers and being taken advantage of by plantation owners…again!

  2. Jim Crow Laws: Laws passed by the South to bypass laws created by the Radical Republicans to aid freedmen and any other federal law that Southerners did not agree with concerning African-Americans.

    • Segregated blacks from whites—separate everything => separate but equal

  3. Ku Klux Klan: Secret society that gained support in 1868 and sought to destroy the Republican Party in the South; used harsh intimidation tactics on African Americans and other groups that helped African Americans. Goal was to terrorize freedmen so that they would be afraid to exercise their newly won rights.

  1. Identify the effects of legislative acts:

  1. Homestead Act: Granted adult heads of families 160 acres of public land for a minimal fee. Had to “improve” the land by building a dwelling and cultivating the land and after 5 years you were entitled to the property.

IMPACT: Accelerated the settlement of the West—gov’t provided federal land for settlers

  1. Morrill Act: Made it possible for new western states to establish colleges for their citizens—higher education possible for settlers in West. Geared towards institutions which emphasized agriculture and mechanic arts.

IMPACT: Accelerated the settlement of the West—gov’t provided federal land to build colleges. University of Nebraska, Washington State, Clemson, Cornell, University of Texas and Texas A&M—all chartered as land grant schools.

  1. Dawes Act: Law allowed gov’t to break up Indian reservation land, which was held in common by the members of a tribe, into small allotments to be parceled out to individuals. Plus, the land usually given to the Indians was desert-like conditions unsuitable for farming.

IMPACT: This was intended to break up American Indian tribes and force them to assimilate into American culture.

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