Segment 1 Exam Practice Test and Study Guide



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Segment 1 Exam Practice Test and Study Guide

Directions for the review: Read the notes on each concept and complete the questions in preparation for your segment 1 exam.



View the segment 1 exam review video here: https://youtu.be/BWWi8Sgb48g

*If you are an HONORS student, you will be responsible for the regular material in the course PLUS the honors material. Along with viewing the exam review video for the regular portion of the course, you can view a video review of the honors material here: https://youtu.be/C2Mn1mF1ujg

Colon:


  • Use a colon if you have a complete sentence that comes before your quotation.

    • Simon and Garfunkel’s use of a simile creates a dreary image: “But my words, like silent raindrops fell."

  • Use the colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list of items when introductory words such as namely, for example, or that is do not appear.

    • You may be required to bring many items: sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.

    • I want the following items: butter, sugar, and flour.

Rewrite the following sentence, so the colon is used properly:

On the exam, I must know the following concepts paraphrasing, using context clues, and identifying plot techniques.

1. Type your revision here:

Semicolon:


A semicolon connects two independent clauses (sentences).

    • Grandma still rides her Harley motorcycle; her toy poodle balances in a basket between the handlebars.

Rewrite the following sentence, so the semicolon is used properly:

Dad is going bald his hair is getting thinner and thinner.



1. Type your revision here:

Subordinate Conjunction


A subordinate conjunction is used after a comma to join 2 independent clauses (sentences). A subordinate conjunction is one word or short phrase.

    • Examples of subordinate conjunctions: where, unless, until, because, even though, than, since, etc.



    • Example sentence: We looked on top of the refrigerator, where Jenny will often hide a bag of chocolate chip cookies.

Fill in the blank with a subordinate conjunction:

I’m not going, _________ it is raining.



1. Type your revision here:

Paraphrase and Summary:


A summary is an explanation of the main points or ideas of a text written in your own words.

Summarize the following excerpt: In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.”

1. Type your summary here:

A paraphrase is a rephrasing of the original text or idea using your own words.



Paraphrase the following sentence from John F. Kennedy in your own words:

In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course”



1. Type your paraphrase here:

Absolute Phrase


An Absolute Phrase is a phrase that modifies or changes an entire clause (sentence).

Example:

"The school bus drove over the hill." – This sentence is bland and doesn't tell you anything about the bus other than where it is going.

Use an absolute phrase to add more details. It builds a more interesting and informative sentence. – "The school bus drove over the hill, its lumbering yellow form full of raucous students." 



Add an Absolute Phrase to add more details to this sentence:

The dog walked out the door.



1. Rewrite your sentence using an Absolute Phrase here:


Theme:


Theme is the message of a work, not the subject.

  • Theme is not one word such as “friendship,” “peace,” “heartbreak,” or “disappointment.”

  • Themes should be stated in complete sentences such as:

    • Friendship helps us through all stages of life.

    • Although conflicts surround us, peace is something that all humans desire.

    • Heartbreak, while difficult, can be an opportunity to grow emotionally.

    • Disappointment can cause us to become bitter and angry.

  • A text can have multiple themes.

Questions to ask yourself to determine the theme:

  1. What happens in the text?

  2. Why is this included in the story?

  3. What is the message?

Determine the theme of the following fable:

A City Mouse and a Country Mouse were acquaintances (friends), and the Country Mouse one day invited his friend to come and see him at his home in the fields. The City Mouse came, and they sat down to a dinner of roots. The fare was not much to the taste of the guest, and presently he broke out with "My poor dear friend, you live here no better than the ants. Now, you should just see how I fare (live)! You must come and stay with me, and I promise you, you shall live on the fat of the land." So when he returned to the city he took the Country Mouse with him, and showed him into a pantry containing flour and oatmeal and figs and honey and dates. The Country Mouse had never seen anything like it, and sat down to enjoy the luxuries his friend provided: but before they had well begun, the door of the larder opened and someone came in. The two Mice scampered off and hid themselves in a narrow and exceedingly uncomfortable hole. Presently, when all was quiet, they ventured out again; but someone else came in, and off they scuttled again. This was too much for the visitor. "Good-bye," said he, "I'm off. You live in the lap of luxury, I can see, but you are surrounded by dangers; whereas at home I can enjoy my simple dinner of roots and corn in peace."

1. Type the theme of the fable here:

Tone:


Tone is the author’s attitude, stated or implied, toward a subject. Some possible examples of tone are: Anxious, Excited, Worried, Foolish, Smart, and Depressing. An author’s tone can be revealed through choice of words and details.

Example: Read the following line excerpt to determine the tone: And the trees all died. They were orange trees and beautiful once. I can’t believe they all died. The tone of this excerpt could be unhappy, depressing, or melancholy.
Tones often shift throughout a text. Certain words can signal a shift: but, on the other hand, however, on the contrary, in contrast, etc.
Read the excerpt and answer the following questions:
(1)There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. (2)Its hazards are hostile to us all. (3)Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation many never come again. (4)But why, some say, the moon? (5)Why choose this as our goal? (6)And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain?”
1. What is the tone?

2. Which line signifies a shift in tone?

3. What word signals the shift?


Figures of Speech (Figurative Language)


Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language. Figures of speech are any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject.


  • Hyperbole – Hyperbole is a figure of speech which exaggerates. For example: "I nearly died laughing," "I was hopping mad," and "I tried a thousand times." Such statements are not literally true, but people make them to sound impressive or to emphasize something, such as a feeling, effort, or reaction.

  • Metaphor – A Metaphor is making a comparison without using like or as. For example, “The man is a doormat.” This says the man gets walked on by comparing him to a doormat.

  • Simile – Simile is a comparison of two different things using "like" or "as.” Example: "She was mad as a hornet."

  • Personification – Personification is when a non-living thing is given human characteristics. Example: “The waves danced upon her sandy toes.”

1. Create your own hyperbole:

2. Create your own metaphor:

3. Create your own simile:

Plot Structure


Plot Structure is the way a story is setup. Plot structure is made up of 5 key elements: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution. Make sure you review what happens in each key element of plot structure.

Type your notes for each key element in plot structure:

Exposition-

Rising Action-

Climax-

Falling Action-

Resolution-

Author’s Techniques to Enhance the Plot Structure


Authors use different techniques to create effects in their stories such as mystery, tension, and surprise to shape the plot to enhance the plot structure.

  • Flashback- Through the narrator’s memory, the reader gets a glimpse into his/her through processes and experiences. Example: “She thought back to that time in third grade when she was in the spelling bee. That was her first experience with stage fright.”



  • Flash Forward- where the author interrupts the regular flow of the story to provide a glimpse of something that will happen in the future. By using a flash-forward, the author piques the readers' interest by making them wonder, "How is that going to happen?" "Why does that happen?” Example: “Little did he know he would meet his mortal enemy face-to-face later in the day.”



  • Fast-pace: To create the sense that time is going quickly and to make hearts race, an author might use fast-paced writing.

To create a sense that time is going quickly and to make hearts race, an author might use:

  • Repetition of words

  • Short sentences

  • Short phrases separated by commas



  • Slow pace: To create the sense that time is going slowly and to build suspense, an author uses slow-paced writing.

An author may deliberately slow the pace by using:

Read the passage and answer the following questions:

Marco raced through the airport, weaving in and out of the crowd. He had to reach Gate 72 before the passengers boarded and the plane took off for the other side of the world, leaving him all alone in the world. Run and breathe. Run and breathe. As Marco narrowly missed knocking down an elderly couple moving slowly towards their gate, Marco stopped. Looked around and ran around the corner.


1. What technique does the author use to begin the story?

A. Flashback

B. Fast pace

C. Flash forward

D. Slow Pace

2. Why is this excerpt the technique that you chose?

Context Clues and Synonyms:


Context clues are hints that an author gives to help define or figure out the unknown meaning of a word.

Synonyms are two different words or phrases that mean the same thing. Happy = Joyful



Read the following passage:

The young woman pressed and prodded the wasted muscles, resting her body on her knees, her bowed head hidden as in a cloud by her black wealth of hair.

1. What does the author mean by saying “wealth of hair”?

2. What words or phrases could you use to substitute for “wealth of hair” in this sentence to mean the same?

Read the following passage:

“There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its hazards are hostile to us all.” John F. Kennedy – “We Choose to go to the Moon”



1. What does Kennedy mean when he says “There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet”? (Hint: What does “no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict” suggest? Is this positive or negative?)

2. What is the purpose of the sentence “Its hazards are hostile to us all”? (Hint: What does “us all” suggest? Is this positive or negative?)

Module 2 Novel of Your Choice


Make sure you review your novel of choice from Module 2. On your exam, you will be asked to provide examples from your novel to support your opinion. Here are some points for you to review:

1. Type your notes for each element:

Title of Novel-

Main characters -

Protagonist -

Antagonist -

Plot details -

Conflict -

Analyzing “Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech, 1961”

This text will be featured on the final exam

What effect does Kennedy hope to have on his audience through his speech?




What is a possible theme from the speech?




What is Kennedy’s tone?




Read Kennedy’s speech and break down the paragraphs:

Example: …In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty.
The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe.


Example:

Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:



  • It’s in the hands of the people of the United States to see if the US will be successful or not.

  • He is using a hyperbole to describe the number of Americans who have died defending our country.

Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation"—a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.


Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:





Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?
In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.


Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:








And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.
My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.


Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:








Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.

Give a summary of the paragraph and identify a figure of speech (hyperbole, metaphor, allusion, etc.) Kennedy is using:









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