Sol review Packet (United States & Virginia History)

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SOL Review Packet (United States & Virginia History)

Tuscarora High School Social Science Department

Name: _____________________________________________________________

  1. Explain how arrival of colonists impacted the lives of Native Americans.

Driven off their land and wiped out by disease


  1. How did the Pilgrims form a covenant community?

Formed Mayflower Compact agreeing to stick together on religious principles


  1. What is the significance of Jamestown?

First permanent English colony in North America


  1. What was the Virginia House of Burgesses?

  The House of Burgesses was the first assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America.


  1. What was the major area of conflict between the Europeans and Native Americans?



  1. Why were Africans brought to Jamestown in 1619?



  1. What are cavaliers?

Aristocrats who supported the King of England


  1. Define colonization.

  When one country takes control of another territory


  1. What were the major impacts of Europeans on the Native Americans?

Lost culture, loss of land, disease, introduction of Christianity


  1. Describe the colonial economy in New England.

Shipbuilding, fishing, trade


  1. Describe the colonial economy of the Middle Colonies (Breadbasket).

Agriculture (food), livestock, shipbuilding

  1.  Describe the colonial economy of the Southern Colonies.

Plantation system – tobacco and cotton


  1. Describe the social characteristics of New England.

Religious roots - Puritans


  1. Which colonial area was known for religious tolerance? What groups settled there?

Middle Colonies – William Penn and the Quakers


  1.  Which colonial area was known as Royalist and had the strongest ties to the Anglican Church?



  1. What was the major cash crop of the Southern colonies?



  1. Describe the system of mercantilism and the purpose of the Navigation Acts?

Mercantilism – colonies exist to provide resources for parent country

Navigation Acts – forced the colonies to purchase British goods


  1. What was the Middle Passage?

Slave Trade


  1. What was The Enlightenment?

The use of reason and the scientific method to gain knowledge


  1. What was the Great Awakening?

The revival of religion in the colonies


  1. What were the causes/effects of The French and Indian War?

Cause: Britain and France fought over land in America

Effect: British and Colonists defeated French and Indians and took Frances land in America


  1. What is the significance of the Proclamation of 1763?

After the F & I War, it regulated trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier


  1. What was the main purpose of the Stamp Act? What was the effect?

Direct tax on colonial documents – designed to hit every colonist hard

Effect – led to protests in colonies and formation of the Sons of Liberty


  1. What is the significance of the Boston Massacre?

Colonists killed by British soldiers is scuffle about loss of colonial jobs – source of propaganda


  1. What is the significance of the Boston Tea Party?

Colonists dressed as Natives and dumped tea in Boston Harbor

Effect – led to British passing Intolerable Acts and punishing colonists – cause of War


  1. What is the First Continental Congress?

Colonies sent delegates to discuss response to Intolerable Acts and to declare colonies rights


  1. Who were the minutemen? What happened at Lexington and Concord?

Minutemen – Militia formed in the New England colonies

Lexington and Concord – first battles in American Revolution (“shot heard ‘round the world”)


  1. When writing the Declaration of Independence, what ideas did Thomas Jefferson borrow from John Locke? What did Richard Henry Lee introduce?

Locke – natural rights > “life, liberty and property (pursuit of happiness)” Lee: VA resolution for D of I


  1. Who wrote Common Sense and why is it significant?

Thomas Paine – said independence was America’s destiny – spread like wildfire among colonists


  1. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Continental Army and the British Army?

British – well trained, well equipped, more money and supplies

Colonists – new geography, fighting for freedom, help of French

  1.   What was the significance of each of the following battles?

Trenton: Washington crossing Delaware – much needed boost in morale

Saratoga: First major colonist victory – convinced French to support colonists

Yorktown: Cornwallis surrendered


  1. What is the difference between Loyalists (Tories) and Patriots? 

Tories – supported British Patriots - independence


  1. What was Ben Franklin’s role in the Revolution?

Secured the alliance with France


  1.  What was a significant challenge facing the United States at the end of the American Revolution?

Forming a new government and the relationships of the new states


  1. What kind of government did the Articles of Confederation create?  What were its strengths and weaknesses?

Confederation – states would control most of their affairs

Strength: states were comfortable with ruling themselves and protecting own interests

Weaknesses: Congress couldn’t tax; money; couldn’t settle disputes between states


  1. What was the Land Ordinance of 1785?

Congress sold western lands for settlement to raise money


  1. What was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?

Creation of Northwest territory (Ohio River Valley)


  1. Who wrote the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom? Significance?

Thomas Jefferson – set forth First Amendment rights (religion and separation of church and state)

  1. Who wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights? Significance?

George Mason – influenced the Bill of Rights


  1. Who is called the “Father of the Constitution”? What role did Washington play?

James Madison – principal author of Constitution – wrote Federalist Papers


  1. What issue did Federalists and Anti-Federalists disagree most strongly over during the debates over ratification of the Constitution?

Federalists – strong central government Anti-Federalists – strong state governments


  1. What was the VA Plan, the NJ Plan, the 3/5 Compromise, the Great (CT) Compromise?

VA Plan – 2 houses based on state population

NJ Plan – 1 house with state having one vote

3/5 Compromise – slave counted as 3/5 person for population

Great Compromise – 2 houses (bicameral legislature) pop & equal rep 


  1. Why were the The Federalist Papers important in U.S. history?

Advocated the ratification of the Constitution


  1. Why was the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution?

Appease Anti-Federalists and protect people’s rights from strong central government

  1. Name some precedents that Washington set, which guided later presidents.

Created cabinet (not just Pres & VP)


  1. Explain how the rise of political parties in the United States came about.

Hamilton – strong central gov’t

Jefferson – strong state gov’ts


  1. What is the significance of the election of 1800?

Jefferson won election – wanted to minimize federal gov’t > more of a common man


  1. Why was the Louisiana Purchase a difficult decision for President Thomas Jefferson to make?

Only tried to make a small purchase not $15mill – Napoleon willing to sell it all


  1. What is the significance of Marbury v. Madison? McCulloch v. Maryland?

Marbury: created judicial review

McCulloch: Congress had “implied powers” not in Constitution


  1. What was the result of the War of 1812?

Americans believed British hurting US trade – war ended with no settling of disputes


  1. How did we acquire Florida?

Purchase from Spain


  1. What is the Monroe Doctrine?

Kept American continent free of European colonization


  1. Who invented the cotton gin and what is its significance?

Eli Whitney – made cotton king – expansion of plantations and slavery


  1. Why did Americans move into Texas and what conflicts occurred there?

Mexico could not settle or control area

  Texans ultimately wanted independence (Texas Revolution and Alamo)

Texas Annexation (1845)


  1. What was the spoils system and who originated it?

Putting loyal people in office – Andrew Jackson


  1. How did democracy expand during the Age of Jackson?

Jackson eased voting requirement to benefit his election


  1. What was Jackson's policy toward the Native Americans?

Removal Act of 1830 – move tribes west (Manifest Destiny)


  1. What was the Panic of 1837?

Jackson distrusted banks and vetoed renewal of National Bank – started run on banks


  1. What is sectionalism?

Areas became concerned with local or regional issues instead of Federal issues


  1. What advantage did the railroad have over canal travel?

Faster and not limited to natural waterways

  1. How did the slogan “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight” come about and what does it refer to?

Polk’s slogan over latitude line in Oregon Territory – would go to war in order to expand.


  1. How did Texas become part of the United States?

Texas Revolution (Alamo) and then Annexation


  1. Explain the significance of the Missouri Compromise?

Maine admitted as free state and Missouri as slave to keep balance – LA Territory was split


  1. What was the tariff of abominations and how did it relate to the nullification crisis?

Protective tariff passed to protect industry in Northern US

Nullification – caused Southerners to push for refusal to obey a federal law 


  1. What was the Gadsden Purchase?

Final acquisition of land in Continental U.S. (1853)


  1. What is the significance of Manifest Destiny?

U.S. destiny to expand our lands to the Pacific – led to westward expansion of Native lands


  1. What two issues dominated U.S. politics between 1820 and 1860?

Expansion & Slavery (Federalism)


  1. What is popular sovereignty?

Idea that people are the source of all political power (state’s rights argument)


  1. What were the terms of the Compromise of 1850?

CA became a free state and passed new fugitive slave laws 


  1. What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act? In effect, what did it repeal?

Created territories of Kansas and Nebraska – Repealed Missouri Compromise


  1. Who wrote the anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin?

Harriet Beecher Stowe


  1.  Who helped over 300 slaves escape slavery in the south via the underground railroad? Who was Nat Turner? Who was Gabriel Prosser?

Harriet Tubman

Turner - slave who led rebellion in VA Prosser- literate slave who planned rebellion in Richmond


  1. Who turned to violence in the fight over slavery and took part in the “Pottawatomie Massacre” and the “raid on Harpers Ferry”?

John Brown – abolitionists killed settlers in Kansas (Bleeding Kansas) & raided armory in W.V.


  1. What was the major aim of the Free-Soil Party?

Opposed the extension of slavery

  1. Explain the Dred Scott decision and its significance.

Slaves don’t have rights of citizens – Congress couldn’t tell states what to do


  1. What is the significance of the Lincoln-Douglas debates?

Made Lincoln a national figure – advocated end to slavery (not equality)

  1. What event was the immediate cause for the secession of several states in 1860?

Lincoln won election without a majority of any Southern state


  1. What were the causes of the Civil War?

Federalism; protective tariffs; slavery


  1.  What were the advantages of the North?  The South?

North: factories (supplies), weapons, people

South: money (cotton), generals, motivation 


  1.  Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired?

Fort Sumpter, SC


  1. What is the significance of Bull Run? Antietam? Gettysburg?

Bull Run: 1st major conflict; won by South (Stonewall Jackson)

Antietam: bloodiest single day battle

Gettysburg: 3-day battle considered turning point of war 


  1. What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?

Freed slaves in Southern states – gave people moral ground to fight war


  1. What was Lincoln’s primary goal at the outset of the Civil War?

Preserve the Union


  1. Who was the Union general who led the famous march to the sea from Atlanta to Savannah?

General Sherman


  1. On April 9, 1865, where did Lee surrender to Grant?

Appomattox Courthouse, VA


  1. During Reconstruction, what happened to the power of the federal government?

Expanded power of Federal government over the states


  1. Describe Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan.

South never officially seceded – put Union back as fast and peacefully as possible


  1. What are the effects of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments?

13th: Abolished slavery

14th: Equal protection of laws 

15th: Right to vote to all races 


  1. What prohibitions did black codes set up?

Denied blacks in South civil liberties


  1. Why did westward movement intensify after the Civil War?

Railroads, cattle industry, land


  1. What is the Homestead Act?

Offered 160 acres of land to head of household 


  1. Describe the “real cowboy”.

Hard life working sun up till sundown - cattle drives

  1. When and why did Reconstruction end?

Compromise of 1877 – Radical Republicans lost interest – couldn’t change morals of South


  1. What were poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses?

Poll tax – pay to vote Literacy test – must read

Grandfather Clauses – if father could vote, you could vote 


  1. What were Jim Crow laws?

Ways to continue segregation in the South


  1. What was sharecropping?

Farmed the land, but forced to give a share of the crop to the owner – never got ahead


  1. What did WEB DuBois and Booker T. Washington believe?

DuBois: education meaningless without equality

  Washington: Af. Am. Needed to show their value in the labor market


  1. Who is Ida B. Wells?

Anti-lynching crusader and women’s rights advocate


  1. What is the significance of Plessy v. Ferguson?

Permitted segregation > “separate but equal” doctrine


  1. What is the Bessemer process?

New way of making steel – led to construction of skyscrapers


  1. Who is Thomas Edison and what contributions did he make?

Light bulb and distribution of electrical power


  1. Who is Alexander Graham Bell and what contributions did he make?

Invented the telephone


  1. Who is Henry Ford and what contributions did he make?

Model T – revolutionized automobile industry and the assembly line process


  1. Who are the Wright Brothers and what contributions did they make?

First to fly an airplane


  1. What was the goal of the Interstate Commerce Act?

Regulated RR industry and monopolies


  1. What does laissez-faire mean?

Government should keeps its hands off the economy


  1. Why was Andrew Carnegie such a successful businessman?

Steel industry giant – used vertical and horizontal integration to create monopoly



  1. Who was John D. Rockefeller?

Merged oil companies into Standard Oil Company (monopoly)


  1. Who was J.P. Morgan?

Investment banker who organized large trust companies in the banking industry


  1. Who was Cornelius Vanderbilt?

Giant in the railroad industry


  1. What was the Sherman Antitrust Act?

Regulated monopolies and made illegal to form trusts that interfered with free trade


  1. What was collective bargaining used for?

Strategy for gaining rights for workers


  1. Who are the Knights of Labor?

Largest labor union in America that fought for shorter work days and more pay


  1. Who is Samuel Gompers and what is the AFL?

Labor union leader who founded the American Federation of Labor for skilled workers


  1. Who is Eugene Debs?

Union leader who ran for President as a Socialist


  1. Describe the Haymarket Affair.

3,000 workers united in Chicago to support striking workers – turned violent (bombs)


  1. What was the Homestead Strike?

Strike against Carnegie steel – one of most dispute in U.S. History 


  1. What was the Pullman Strike?

Strike between labor unions and railroads 


  1. Who were scabs?

Workers who worked during a strike (immigrants)


  1. What kind of support did labor unions have in the late 1800s?

Received little support from the Federal government or the Courts


  1. Why did most immigrants come to America?

Escape hardship; new opportunities; religious persecution


  1. What was Ellis Island?  Angel Island?

Immigration processing centers – Ellis (NY) - Angel (SF)


  1. What were the requirements to pass through Ellis Island?

No disease; not a felon; capable of working


  1. What was the Chinese Exclusion Act?

Closed the door on Chinese immigrants


  1. What is a tenement?

Substandard, multi-family urban dwelling


  1. What is urbanization?

Movement of people to the cities


  1. What is patronage? What was the Gilded Age?

Rewarding individuals for their political support Gilded Age – post Civil War rapid econ. growth


  1. What was the Progressive Movement concerned with? (Goals)

Protect social welfare; promote moral improvement; economic reform; foster efficiency



  1. What are the 16th and the 17th Amendments?

16th: income tax

17th: popular election of senators 


  1. What is initiative, referendum, recall, and primary elections?

Referendum: people vote on initiative; Initiative: bill originated by people

  Recall – people could remove politicians; Primary: select candidate for party



  1. Who are muckrakers? Who is Upton Sinclair and what did he expose in The Jungle?

Journalist who wrote about corrupt side of business. Jungle: Meatpacking industry


  1. What was the 19th Amendment?

Women’s suffrage


  1. Why did the US want to build a canal across Panama?

Shorter trade route for commercial and military ships


  1. What is the Open Door Policy?

All nations would share trading rights with China


  1. Describe U.S. imperialism in Hawaii and the Philippines.

Hawaii: U.S. supported revolution to overthrow Queen Liliukulani and put in Stanford Dole

Philippines: Gained from Spanish-American War > Philippine-American War followed

  1. What is the significance of the Spanish-American War?

Cuban Independence & U.S. acquired Puerto Rico, Guam and Philippines


  1. What is dollar diplomacy?

Efforts of U.S. in to further aims using economic power (loans) in Latin America and Asia


  1. What were the causes of World War I?

Nationalism; Imperialism; Militarism; Alliances; Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand



  1. What was US foreign policy at the outset of WWI?



  1. Why did the US get involved in WWI? What was the overt act?

Strong economic ties to Allies; Sinking of Lusitania; Zimmerman Note was overt act

  1. Describe conditions in the US at home, during WWI.

Mass Production; Propaganda; The Great Migration; Women entered workforce


  1. What did Wilson’s Fourteen Points call for?

No secret alliances; free trade; self-determination; league of nations



  1. What was the purpose of the League of Nations?

Settle disputes between nations and promote peace


  1. What was adopted in the Treaty of Versailles?

German reparations and War Guilt clause – created league of nations


  1. What contributed to the stock market crash of 1929?

Overpriced stocks; buying stock on margin; too much speculation; panic



  1. What caused the Great Depression?

Overproduction; buying on credit; wealth gap; no trade with Europe; no regulation of banks and stocks


  1. What was the impact of the Great Depression?

25% unemployment – loss of everything – distrust of economy and banks – emotional damage


  1. What was the New Deal? What is the WPA, AAA, FDIC?

FDR’s policies to alleviate depression

WPA – Works Progress Admin. – created 8 mill jobs

AAA – Agri. Adust. Acts – tried to increase crop prices

FDIC- Federal Deposit Ins. Corp – insure bank deposits and regulate banks 


  1. What problems were farmers having during the Depression?

Couldn’t pay dept. – crop prices were too low (overproduction)


  1. What was the purpose of the Social Security Act?

Old-age insurance; unemployment Compensation; dependent children / disabled


  1. Who did Germany invade in 1939 to start WWII?

Poland - Blizkrieg


  1. What were Cash and Carry and Lend-Lease?

Cash and Carry – sold goods to Allies

Lend-Lease – way of supporting the Allies when they couldn’t pay 


  1. What were the significant events in the European theatre of the war?

Stalingrad – turning point in Russia

D-Day – invasion of Normandy, France 

  Battle of the Bulge – last German offensive


  1. What were the significant events in the Pacific theatre of the war?

Pearl Harbor; Midway Island – turning point

Island Hopping (MacArthur’s strategy); Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Atomic Bomb)

  1. What were the contributions of African Americans?

Most served supporting role > wanted to fight > Tuskegee Airmen


  1. What were the contributions of the Navajo?

Navajo Code Talkers – unbreakable code


  1. What were the contributions of women?

Worked in factories (Rosie the Riveter) > joined military in non-combat roles


  1. How were the Japanese Nisei treated?

Over 100,00 American-born Japanese were placed in “internment” camps (concentration camps)


  1. What is Koramatsu v. U.S.?

Said executive order of Japanese into camps was constitutional to protect national interests


  1. Describe the stages of the Holocaust.

Nuremburg laws – Ghettos – Labor Camps – “Final Solution” (Death Camps)


  1. What was the purpose of the Nuremberg Tribunal?

Prosecute Nazi war criminals


  1. What is the U.N.?

  International organization to set international law, security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace.


  1. What was the Cold War?

Conflict between U.S. (West) and USSR (East) over Communism vs. Democracy


  1. What was the significance of the Truman Doctrine?  The Marshall Plan?

Truman: aid to Turkey and Greece to promote democracy

Marshall: aid to any country in need > aimed to stop spread of Communism


  1. What happened in China in 1949? Why was the Korean War fought?

Mao Zedong founded People’s Republic of China

Korean War: N. Korea invaded S. Korea – U.S. aided to fight spread of communism 


  1. Why was NATO formed?

Alliance between Western European countries and U.S. for mutual support in military conflict


  1. Who was Senator Joseph McCarthy?

Made widespread accusations against Communist sympathizers


  1. Who is Alger Hiss? The Rosenbergs?

Convicted spies during the Cold War

  1. Who is Jonas Salk?

Developed polio vaccine


  1. Who is John Foster Dulles? What is brinkmanship?

Dulles: Sect. State advocated strong stance against communism

Brinkmanship: Threatening to use nuclear strike if necessary

  1. What is the significance of Brown v. Board of Education?

Officially ended “separate but equal” doctrine > separate is inherently unequal

  1. Why kind of protest did Martin Luther King, Jr. advocate?

Civil Disobedience


  1. Who is Thurgood Marshall? Oliver Hill?

Civil Rights attorneys > Marshall was first African American on U.S. Supreme Court


  1. What is the significance of the 1963 March on Washington?

United 250,000 people > “I have a dream” speech


  1. What is the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

  Outlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women


  1. What is the Voting Rights Act of 1965?

  Outlawed discriminatory voting practices


  1. What was the Bay of Pigs invasion? The Cuban Missile Crisis?

Pigs: U.S. supported exiled Cubans attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro

Cuban Missile: Showdown over presence of nuclear weapons in Cuba 



  1. What is the significance of the Vietnam War?

U.S. tried to stop spread of communism, but lost support of U.S. people in process



  1. What is détente?

  General easing of relations between the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1970s


  1. What is Watergate?

  Political scandal in 1970s resulting from the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex > Nixon admin was implicated > Nixon resigned


  1. What is affirmative action? What is the Bakke Case?

Giving employment and enrollment opportunities to groups who suffered discrimination

Bakke: Affirmative action is unconstitutional > race can be a factor


  1. What is glasnost? Perestroika? Who is Mikhail Gorbachev?

Glasnost: openness and transparency in political process (USSR)

  Perestroika: Soviet policy of restructuring political and economic system

Gorbachev: last head of state of USSR  


  1. Who is Sandra Day O’Connor? Sally Ride?

O’Connor: 1st female member of Supreme Court

Ride: 1st American female to enter space


  1. What are some examples of major changes in technological advances?

Cable TV / 24 hour news; personal computers; internet; cellular phones

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