Study Guide: Chapters 22 and 23

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Study Guide: Chapters 22 and 23

  1. The Crimean War was rooted in the:

Long-standing desire of Russia to extend its influence over the Ottoman Empire

  1. The Crimean War was the first to:

Be covered by war correspondents and photographers

  1. The final military action of the Crimean War was located:

Along the coast of the Black Sea and at the Russian fortress of Sevastopol

  1. On March 28, 1854, France and Britain declared war on ______ in alliance with the Ottomans


  1. At the close of the Crimean War, the image of an invincible Russia that had prevailed across Europe since the close of the ______ Wars was shattered.


  1. Issued in a degree from the sultan, the Hatt-I Sharif of Gulhane, attempted to

Reorganize the empire’s administration and military along European lines

  1. Reforms that were drawn up by administrative councils did all the following except:

Raise taxes on imported goods

  1. During the age of Tanzimat, the Ottoman Empire actually sought to copy ________ legal and military institutions and the secular values flowing from liberalism.


  1. Putting reforms into practice was difficult, especially in Egypt and Tunis where local rulers were virtually independent of _________.


  1. He was the most important nationalist leader in Europe and brought new fervor to the hopes of Italian nationalism and unification in the 1830’s and 1840’s:

Giuseppe Manzzini

  1. The Italian peninsula was transformed into a nation-state under a constitutional monarchy by:


  1. Count Camillo Cavour’s methods to achieve Italian unification would best coincide with which philosopher’s ideology?


  1. Cavour was a:

Strong monarchist

  1. A formal treaty in December 1858 confirmed an agreement between Cavour and Napoleon III which would:

Provoke a war in Italy that would permit them to defeat Austria.

  1. Venetia was gained and added to Italy in exchange for:

Italy’s alliance with Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War

  1. Nationalists had long wanted to unite the small, mostly ______ principalities of the Italian peninsula into a single state


  1. The state of ______, the most independent state on the Italian peninsula, led the country’s unification effort.


  1. Cavour believed that only_____ intervention could defeat Austria and unite Italy.


  1. This was the most important political development in Europe between 1848 and 1914:

German unification

  1. Bismarck is best described as a


  1. The two strongest states in the German Confederation were:

Austria and Prussia

  1. Who declared “Germany is not looking to Prussia’s liberalism but to her power… The great question of the day will not be decided by speeches and majority decisions- that was the mistake of 1848-1849- but by iron and blood?”

Otto von Bismarck

  1. Bismarck embraced the cause of German nationalism:

As a strategy to enable Prussian conservatives to outflank Prussian liberals

  1. The Danish War of 1864 broke out of Denmark’s desire to finally annex:


  1. Prussia excluded Austria from German affairs by:

Defeating Austria in the Seven Years War

  1. The two houses of the North German Confederation were the:

Bundesrat and Reichstag

  1. In 1871 the North German confederation was a :

Military monarchy

  1. Germanic unification was completed as a result of the:

Franco-Prussian War

  1. Bismarck’s values were stereotypically____ later in his political career


  1. After siding with this country against Denmark in 1864, in 1866 Prussia went to war with_____.


  1. The German Empire was proclaimed in 1871 at the Palace of______.


  1. The unification of Germany was a blow to European _____.


  1. The Paris Commune was dominated by:

Petty bourgeoisie members

  1. Chambord refused to become king of France:

If France retained the revolutionary tri-colored flag

  1. Captain Dreyfus was accused of:

Passing secrets to the Germans

  1. The war of 1870 against______ had been the French government’s last and most disastrous attempt to shore up its foreign policy and secure domestic popularity


  1. Emperor Francis Joseph’s scheme for centralized administration of the Habsburg Empire meant that the government was dominated by:

German-speaking Austrians

  1. Austria-Hungary’s formation of a dual monarchy in 1867:

Meant that Austria and Hungary became virtually separate states

  1. Which of the following groups would have supported the Compromise of 1867?


  1. Czech “trialism” was vetoed and argued against because:

Both B and C

  1. Austrian refusal to support Russia during the _____ War meant the new tsar Alexander II would no longer help preserve Habsburg rule in Hungary


  1. The ____of 1867 transformed the Habsburg Empire into a dual monarchy.


  1. He instituted the most extensive restructuring of Russian society and administration since Peter the Great:

Alexander II

  1. This institution was a profound cultural gap that separated Russia from the rest of Europe and was ended in February 1861:


  1. Until the close of WWI, this nation was treated as merely another Russian province:


  1. Refer to the passage “The Arrival of Penny Postage.” How did the changes in the British postal service affect the quantity of mail and the size of the government work force?

Both quantity of mail and the size of the government work force rose

  1. Gladstone’s ministry of 1868 to 1874 witnessed the culmination of:

Classical British liberalism

  1. The Ballot Act of 1872 introduced:

Voting by secret ballot

  1. The leader of Ireland’s movement for home rule was:


  1. Between 1864 and 1932, how many citizens did Europe lose to emigration?

About 50 million

  1. After 1910, population growth in Europe:

Declined or stayed the same

  1. What was a contributory factor to the migration of Europeans?

The emancipation of peasants

  1. Around 150, most European emigrants were from Great Britain, ________, and Scandinavia


  1. The Second Industrial Revolution was characterized by:

The development of new industries on the Continent

  1. The Second Industrial Revolution was associated with:

Steel, chemicals, and electricity

  1. By the early 20th century, Britain saw its huge industrial advantage mitigated by advances made in much of Western Europe. However, the following region remained economically backward:

The Balkans and the Ottoman Empire

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason for a slowing economy in Europe in the last quarter of the 19th century?

The inability to import agricultural goods from overseas

  1. What labor- related term was coined in the latter half of the 19th century?


  1. The first bicycles were made of:


  1. _____ steel production eclipsed that of Britain in 1893.


  1. The British engineer _____ discovered the process of manufacturing steel cheaply in big quantities

Henry Bessemer

  1. Sales techniques used in the 19th century Paris _____ are still in use today.

Department stores

  1. The petite bourgeoisie was made up of:

White-collar workers

  1. During the second half of the nineteenth century, the middle class:

Grew increasingly diverse

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the petite bourgeoisie?

Rejection of middle- class values

  1. The _____ family of Germany received visits from the imperial court.


  1. Starting around mid- century, urban planners devised cities that were dominated by:

Commerce, government, and leisure activities

  1. Who did Napoleon III appoint to redesign Paris, with a partial goal of widening the streets to make for an easier response to insurrections?

Baron Georges Haussman

  1. By 1910, which European city had the highest population?


  1. In the 19th century, cholera struck:

All classes

  1. Middle- class reformers targeted this issue as an impediment to a healthy and politically stable population:

Housing conditions

  1. In Paris, the Roman Catholic Church constructed the _____, as penance for what it held as the origin of France’s defeat in the Franco- Prussian War

Basilica of the Sacred Heart

  1. In the late 19th century, the middle and lower classes started seeking hosing in ____

The suburbs

  1. Progress in Europe that enabled married women to own property came first in:

Great Britain

  1. In late- 19th- century family life, which of the following is NOT true?

Adultery by both men and women was tolerated

  1. Name one of the two major developments affecting the economic lives of women during the Second Industrial Revolution.

A large expansion in the variety of available jobs

  1. Mass- made clothes in Germany were generally tailored:

At home by independent workers

  1. For middle class- Frenchwomen, romantic marriage was viewed as a

Danger to social stability

  1. The obstacles to equality for women included all of the following EXCEPT:

Protestant women were uncomfortable with the views held by radical feminists

  1. The Napoleonic Code made French women legal ______


  1. In Great Britain, _____ led the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies

Millicent Fawcett

  1. In 1894, the _____, was founded to campaign for female suffrage in Germany.

Union of German Women’s Organizations

  1. Following the revolutions of 1848, the experience of and opportunities for Jews in Europe:


  1. The name given to the practice by Russian police and right-wing groups of conducting riots against the Jews was:


  1. During the last two decades of the 19th century, many Jews in Germany began experiencing the effects of:

Organized anti- Semitism

  1. ____ was a wealthy Jewish man from London who was elected to Parliament several times but who failed to be seated because he would not take the Christian oath.

Lionel Rothschild

  1. With relation to labor unions, Napoleon III:

Allowed weak unions as his power was diminished

  1. During the late 19th century, the primary issue that confronted socialist parties throughout Europe was:

Weather socialism should be achieved through revolution or through democratic reform.

  1. The International Working Men’s Association, known as the First International:

Was short- lived but had a profound impact on socialist efforts in Europe

  1. The Fabian Society:

Was Britain’s most influential socialist groups

  1. The socialist movement in France was characterized by an:

Divided effort with two main opposing factions

  1. The origins of the German Social Democratic Party , or SPD, can be traced to the work of:

Karl Kautsky

  1. Which of the following was NOT part of the program put forth in Russia by modernizer Count Sergei Witte?

An end to protective tariffs

  1. In his What is to be Done?, Vladimir Lenin did all of the following EXCEPT:

Praise accommodations made by groups such as the German SPD

  1. Which of the following is considered a strong trigger for the Russian revolution of 1905?

The Bloody Sunday Shootings

  1. When bicycles were first invented, the ride was so rough that they were called


  1. The British feminist ____, along with her daughters, organized the Women’s Social and Political Union in 1903

Emmeline Pankhurst

  1. The participation by socialist in the French cabinet was called _____,


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