Study Guide SHort Answer Short Answer Answer each question with three or four sentences. 1. What was the role of the colonies in the British mercantilist system after the 1650s?
2. What kind of society did William Penn create in Pennsylvania? What was its organizing foundation? How did it differ from New England?
3. Explain the causes and the results of the Glorious Revolution in England and America.
4. What role did mob violence play in early colonial politics between 1650 and 1750?
5. How did Native Americans attempt to turn European rivalries to their advantage in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? How successful were they?
6. In what colonies were enslaved Africans most successful in creating African American communities? Where were they least successful? How do you explain the differences?
7. What was the British policy of salutary neglect? Why did the British follow this policy? What consequences did it have for the British colonies in North America?
8. Did the American colonials benefit economically from their participation in the South Atlantic trade system?
9. What were some of the causes of rising friction between the colonials and the British in the first half of the eighteenth century?
10. By midcentury, the traditional strategies that New England’s farming families had relied on to provide marriage portions for children and security in old age for parents had become problematic. Why? How did farming households respond?
11. What issues divided the various ethnic and religious groups of the middle colonies?
12. How did Quakers maintain their economic and political primacy when Europeans from other cultures and traditions flooded into Pennsylvania during the eighteenth century?
13. What was the significance of the Enlightenment in America?
14. What impact did the Industrial Revolution in England have on the American colonies?
15. How did white women’s roles in colonial America change between 1700 and 1776?
16. Why did the colonists object to the new taxes in 1764 and again in 1765? What arguments did they use?
17. What were the core constitutional principles over which the colonists and the ministers in Parliament disagreed?
18. If Grenville’s and Townshend’s initiatives had been successful, how would the character of the British imperial system have changed?
19. Why did the Tea Act reignite colonial resistance in 1773?
20. Which groups in colonial society most actively supported the rebellion?
21. Who was most to blame for Britain’s failure to win a quick victory over the American rebels: General Howe, General Burgoyne, or the ministers in London? Explain your answer.
22. America’s History states that Saratoga was the turning point of the War of Independence. Do you agree? Explain your answer.
23. How did the French alliance ensure the success of the American rebellion?
24. What were the main differences between conservative state constitutions, like that of Massachusetts, and more democratic constitutions, like Pennsylvania’s?
25. What were the causes of Shays’s Rebellion?
26. How did the Philadelphia convention resolve three contentious political issues: the representation of large and small states, slavery, and state sovereignty?
27. What was Hamilton’s vision of the future? What policies did he advocate to achieve it? How was Jefferson’s vision different?
28. Why did Jefferson and Madison oppose the programs that Alexander Hamilton proposed during his stint as the U.S. secretary of the treasury?
29. Why did President George Washington issue a proclamation of neutrality in 1793?
30. Why did easterners leave their communities and move to the trans-Appalachian West in the early nineteenth century?
31. What were the causes of the War of 1812? Where did Republicans and Federalists stand on declaring and then fighting the war?
32. What new regional tensions did the War of 1812 expose?
33. Why did New England Federalists organize the Hartford Convention in 1814? What was the convention’s impact on American politics?
34. Did the Americans achieve their goals in the War of 1812?
35. How did the development of a market economy change the lives of artisans and farm families?
36. What factors stood in the way of the development of a market economy in the United States in the early nineteenth century? How did the promoters of the Commonwealth System use government at the state and national levels to promote economic growth and the market economy?
37. How did republican ideas shape marital relations and expectations?
38. How did republican ideology change the nature of fathering among middle-class northerners in the early nineteenth century?
39. What compromises over slavery did the members of Congress make to settle the Missouri crisis? How did the compromises over slavery in 1820–1821 compare with those made by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention in 1787?
40. Why did Protestant Christianity and Protestant women emerge as forces for social change? In what areas did women become active?
41. What forces turned America into a capitalist society during the early years of the republic?
42. What effects did the Second Great Awakening have on American society?
43. How did American textile manufacturers compete with British manufacturers? How successful were they?
44. Why was the development of machine tools so important to the Industrial Revolution in the United States?
45. What roles did state and national governments play in the development of America’s transportation networks?
46. Why was the construction of the Erie Canal one of the critical economic events of the first half of the nineteenth century?
47. Why might a middle-class manager join a revivalist church?
48. What were the possible solutions to the problem of the high cost of labor for American manufacturers?
49. How do you explain John Quincy Adams’s great success as secretary of state (see Chapter 7) and his relative lack of success as president?
50. What were Andrew Jackson’s policies on banking and tariffs? How did they evolve? Do you think those policies helped or hurt the American economy? Why?
51. How did the constitutional interpretations of the Taney Court differ from those of the Marshall Court? What changed as a result of the Taney Court’s decisions?
52. Why was Andrew Jackson so popular?
53. How did the ideology of the Whigs differ from that of the Working Men’s Party? How did it differ from that of the Jacksonian Democrats?
54. Explain the rise of the Second Party System. How would you characterize American politics in the early 1840s?
55. On what basis did Americans decide to become Democrats or Whigs in the 1830s and 1840s?
56. What were the main beliefs of transcendentalism? How was transcendentalism an expression of the social changes sweeping nineteenth-century society?
57. How did transcendentalism embody American individualism? What was the relationship between transcendentalism and social reform?
58. What were the origins of the abolitionist movement in the 1830s?
59. How did black social thought change over the first half of the nineteenth century? What role did black activists play in the abolitionist movement?
60. How did the abolitionists’ proposals and methods of the 1830s and 1840s differ from those of earlier antislavery movements? Why did those proposals and methods arouse such hostility in the South and in the North?
61. Why did religious women like Mary Walker Ostram and the Grimké sisters become social reformers in the 1830s and 1840s?
62. What were the principles and the goals of the women’s rights movement? Why did they arouse intense opposition?
63. Why did women’s issues rise to prominence in American culture in the antebellum period?
64. How would you explain the large and expanding domestic trade in slaves between 1800 and 1860? What combination of factors produced this result?
65. How did the domestic slave trade affect slaves in the nineteenth-century South?
66. How did the South’s status as a “slave society” affect the lives of white southerners who did not own slaves?
67. What happened at the Alamo in Texas in 1836?
68. Explain the paradox of southern prosperity, which emerged as a significant phenomenon between 1820 and 1860.
69. Explain the notion that the institution of slavery was a “positive good.” Who made this argument and why?
70. How did slaves resist their circumstances and attempt to negotiate a better situation for themselves in the nineteenth-century South?
71. How do you explain the persistence in America of certain African practices (the ring shout and incest taboos, for example) and the gradual disappearance of others (among them, ritual scarring)?
72. Compare and contrast the lives and status of free blacks in the North and free blacks in the South.
73. How did African slaves create a homogenous African American identity and culture in the nineteenth century?
74. Why did President Polk go to war with Mexico? Why did the war become so divisive in Congress?
75. What issues were resolved by the Compromise of 1850? Who benefited more from its terms, the North or the South? Why?
76. Why did the Compromise of 1850 fail?
77. What did Stephen Douglas try to accomplish with the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854? Was the act any more successful than the Compromise of 1850? Explain your answer.
78. How did Lincoln’s position on slavery differ from that of Stephen Douglas’s?
79. How do you explain northern attempts to circumvent the Fugitive Slave Act with personal-liberty laws and denunciations of states rights’ theory?
80. When and why did the Second Party System of Whigs and Democrats collapse?
81. How might the events of the 1850s have been different if Congress had extended the Missouri Compromise line instead of passing the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
82. Did the Republicans win the election of 1860, or did the Democrats lose it? Explain your answer.
83. After all the compromises enacted to preserve the Union between 1820 and the 1850s, why were there no new compromises over slavery in 1861?
84. Why did most of the border states remain in the Union?
85. What were the main economic policies the Republican-controlled Congress enacted during the war years?
86. Antislavery Republican politicians and thousands of contrabands played a role in President Lincoln’s decision to declare and sign the Emancipation Proclamation. What role did each of them play?
87. What was the effect of emancipation on the politics and military affairs of the North?
88. What were the strengths and weaknesses of Grant’s military strategy and tactics? How was Grant’s way of warfare different from traditional military practice?
89. Why were the battles at Gettysburg and Vicksburg significant? How did they change the tide of war strategically? Diplomatically? Psychologically?
90. Describe Sherman’s hard-war strategy. How did he pursue this strategy? With what results?
91. How did the Civil War change white women’s lives?
92. Lincoln is frequently considered our best president for his handling of the Civil War. How effective were his early attempts at Reconstruction?
93. Why can the enactment of southern Black Codes in 1865 be considered a turning point in the course of Reconstruction?
94. To what extent was President Johnson responsible for the radicalization of the Republican Party in 1866?
95. Why did ex-slaves struggling for freedom after emancipation resist working for wages?
96. Why did the ex-slaves’ struggle for land end with the creation of the sharecropping system?
97. Why did the Redeemers resort to terror in their campaign to regain political control of the South?
98. Do you believe that the failure of Reconstruction was primarily a failure of leadership? Or, to put it more concretely, that the outcome might have been different had Lincoln lived or had chosen a different vice president?
99. Was there any way of reconciling the Republican desire for equality for ex-slaves with the ex-Confederate desire for self-rule in the South?
100. Explain how the contested presidential election of 1876–1877 brought an end to Reconstruction.
Study Guide SHort Answer
Answer Section SHORT ANSWER 1. ANS:
Answer would ideally include: • Summary of Mercantilism: Under mercantilism, the British government used subsidies and charters to stimulate English manufacturing and foreign trade. After 1550 the British government used these policies to stimulate British manufacturing and trade in Europe. In the 1650s, it began to extend these policies to the British American colonies as well through the Navigation Acts.
• Role of British Colonies: Once its American colonies were established and increasingly prosperous, English ministers wanted to ensure that the British Empire would reap the economic benefits. They instituted the Navigation Acts to ensure that American colonial goods were carried on English ships and that they came through English ports. The English government backed these policies with military force, combating colonial trade with Dutch and French shippers, and ultimately taking control of New Netherland from the Dutch and driving Holland out of the Atlantic slave trade. Colonial products such as sugar, molasses, and tobacco helped to build England’s South Atlantic System and to enrich both British and American merchants and shippers.
Answer would ideally include: • Penn’s Vision: King Charles II granted a large tract of land south of New York to William Penn in 1681 as payment for a debt he owed to Penn’s father. Penn was a Quaker and his religious faith served as the organizing feature of his new colony, Pennsylvania. Penn designed the colony as a refuge for Quakers who were persecuted in England. Quakers believed all men and women were imbued with the inner light of grace and understanding, and they were committed pacifists. Quaker society embraced egalitarianism, including a measure of gender equality, and pursued peaceful relations with the Indians. Pennsylvania ensured religious freedom, prohibited a legally established church, and allowed all property-owning men to vote and hold office. Pennsylvania became home to Quakers and also to German immigrants. It was characterized by ethnic diversity, pacifism, and freedom of conscience.
• Comparison with New England: Despite its religious foundations and settlement by family groups, Pennsylvania was dramatically different from New England in that it guaranteed true religious freedom and did not create a state-supported church. It was diverse rather than homogeneous.
PTS: 1 REF: Colonies to Empire, 1660–1713
Answer would ideally include: • Causes: King James II revoked charters of many English towns, rejected the advice of Parliament, and aroused popular opposition by openly practicing Roman Catholicism. In 1688, his new son raised the prospect of a Catholic heir to the throne, giving rise to fears of political persecution.
• Results: In England, as a result of a quick and bloodless coup, James II was forced into exile and Mary, his Protestant daughter by his first wife, became queen. She increased personal liberties and parliamentary powers. The changes in England sparked rebellions by colonies in Massachusetts, Maryland, and New York. The Dominion of New England was broken up, creating the new royal colony of Massachusetts.
PTS: 1 REF: Colonies to Empire, 1660–1713
Answer would ideally include: • Protest Mobs: Once news of the Glorious Revolution came to America, mobs in New England, Maryland, and New York deposed their hated British leaders. Crowd actions were commonly used by the colonists used to keep the power and authority of their assemblies and to keep royal officials in check.
• Crowds as a Way to Exercise the Will of the People: Crowd actions by ordinary citizens could exercise a powerful influence over nonpolitical elements of society as well. New York mobs closed houses of prostitution. In Salem, Massachusetts, they ran people with infectious diseases out of town. In Boston, they defeated an effort to restrict the sale of farm produce to a single public market. Crowd actions made the political system broadly responsible to popular pressure and resistant to British control.
PTS: 1 REF: Colonies to Empire, 1660–1713
Answer would ideally include: • Strategies: Some accepted firearms from one European nation at war with another, hoping for greater control of territory. Several tribes then used the firearms to attack the settlements of their European and other Native American enemies, and sometimes even turned them against the allies who had supplied the guns. Other Native Americans, by maintaining neutral positions, managed to keep up a lucrative trade with both sides.
• Successes: Native Americans were relatively successful in using European alliances to retain their territory, gain greater control of the fur trade, and delay European takeover by one or two generations during the early 1700s.
PTS: 1 REF: Imperial Wars and Native Peoples
Answer would ideally include: • Successful African American Communities in the Chesapeake: In the Chesapeake colonies where more American-born blacks lived, English became the common language, facilitating a more rapid development of African American culture. A lower death rate in the Chesapeake and a more equal sex ratio compared to the Carolinas enabled the development of stable families, also facilitating a more rapid development of African American culture.
• Obstacles to African American Community Development in the West Indies, Carolinas, and Northeast: In places with large African populations, such as the West Indies and the Carolinas, the presence of large numbers of Africans from different tribes facilitated a broad-based African American culture based on a common Africanized language that transcended tribal differences. A high death rate and the relative absence of women, however, worked to slow the development of African American culture compared to in the Chesapeake. In colonies with small black populations, such as the northern English colonies, Africans struggled to make new communities.
PTS: 1 REF: The Imperial Slave Economy
Answer would ideally include: • Salutary Neglect: Salutary neglect was a Whig policy of relaxed supervision of the colonies in favor of defense and trade. It facilitated the rise of self-government in the colonies. Royal appointees increasingly cared little about colonial obedience to the crown and more about making a profit from their office.
• Impact in North America: As Parliament and monarchs focused more on trade and defense, American colonists increased the powers of representative bodies, leading the way for later demands of political equality and independence.
PTS: 1 REF: The New Politics of Empire, 1713–1750
Answer would ideally include: • Benefits: American colonies benefited in that they had an advantage selling to established English markets. They were allowed to build their own ships and were protected by the British Navy. They often smuggled to evade the Navigation Acts.
• Drawbacks: The Navigation Acts legally prevented colonists from competing with many British goods and required them to sell many of their exports to England first. The Currency Act also led to a shortage of currency, which limited economic growth.
PTS: 1 REF: The New Politics of Empire, 1713–1750
Answer would ideally include: • Colonial Assemblies: Following the lead of the English Whigs after the Glorious Revolution, colonial assemblies in America took control of taxation and appointments. The rising planter and merchant classes further empowered the colonial assemblies.
• Growth of Colonial Economies: Despite prohibitions on American manufacture of textiles, hats, and iron products, colonial economies matured over the first half of the eighteenth century and soon controlled a large proportion of the transatlantic trade. Colonies also continued to trade with the French sugar islands. Increasing conflicts over trade and paper money during the period of salutary neglect led Britain to decide to implement more rigorous control.
PTS: 1 REF: The New Politics of Empire: 1713–1750
Answer would ideally include: • Summary of Problem: The increase in population and the tightening supply of farmland prevented new sons and daughters from receiving arable land.
• New England Farming Families’ Responses: Many chose to have smaller families by using birth control. Others petitioned the provincial government for land grants. Some moved inland and created farms, while others replaced traditional English crops with potatoes and Indian corn and engaged in a “household mode of production” by bartering goods and services with neighbors.
PTS: 1 REF: New England’s Freehold Society
Answer would ideally include: • Ethnic Groups in the Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania were home to people of different origins, languages, and religions, including Scots-Irish Presbyterians, English and Welsh Quakers, German Lutherans and Moravians, and Dutch Reformed Protestants. These groups tended to preserve their cultural identity and practices by marrying within their ethnic groups.
• Divisive Issues: Diversity and rapid growth in these colonies strained public institutions and created a dynamic but unstable society. People differed according to language, cultural heritage, religious beliefs, political allegiances, and marriage choices. Conflicts arose over land distribution policies, Indian policy, and cultural norms.
PTS: 1 REF: Diversity in the Middle Colonies
Answer would ideally include: • Means of Quakers’ Dominance: Due to their numbers, Quakers dominated Pennsylvania, and their wealth and social cohesion continued to maintain their economic and political primacy even as other groups moved into the colony. Quakers used their large population, established wealth, and political influence to control the colonial economy, the Pennsylvania representative assembly, and negotiations with local Native Americans for land.
PTS: 1 REF: Diversity in the Middle Colonies
Answer would ideally include: • Summary of Enlightenment: Enlightenment ideas began in Europe, influenced by the scientific discoveries of Copernicus and Newton. Thinkers like John Locke began to stress the importance of environment and experience on human behavior, arguing that individuals and societies could be changed through education, rational thought, and purposeful action. Locke also argued that political authority derived from social compacts that people made to preserve their natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Enlightenment ideas also influenced Christianity, leading some ministers to reject supernatural interventions and a vengeful, omnipotent God.
• Significance of Enlightenment Ideas in America: The ideas of Enlightenment thinkers came to America through books, travelers, and educated migrants, who then shaped influential colonists to provide a scientific rather than religious exploration for natural events. Figures like Benjamin Franklin, among many others, became deists, relying on their innate moral sense to define right and wrong. Franklin and other ambitious printers in the seaport cities began to publish newspapers and magazines that addressed secular and educational topics.