The Data-based questions are designed to facilitate learning and teaching, assessment for learning and assessment of learning. Teachers may adapt the questions and answers to address the diverse needs of students.
Study Source A.
The following cartoon is taken from a British magazine dated 1 October 1947.
Source: “Neighbours ‘Come on, Sam! It's up to us again. – Punch magazine cartoons website” (http://punch.photoshelter.com/image/I0000iA0JCbgMlYk) (Accessed on 14 January 2014).
Describe the economic condition of western Europe after the Second World War. Support your answer with two clues from Source A. (1+2 marks)
What was the view of the cartoonist regarding the possible response of the United States to western Europe? Explain your answer with reference to Source A and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)
Does Source A adequately reflect the American response toward the economic conditions in western Europe during the late 1940s? Explain your answer with reference to Source A and using your own knowledge. (5 marks)
Suggested answers and reference for assessment
Describe the economic condition of western Europe after the Second World War:
Description of economic condition:
European countries’ self-help measures of economic recovery were not strong enough.
The wall labeled “Western Europe” was about to fall and crumble.
The pillar marked “self-help” was too thin and could hardly support the crumbling house.
View of the cartoonist regarding the possible response of the United States to western Europe:
L1 General explanation of cartoonist’s view without due reference to the Source or one’s own knowledge
L2 Cartoonist’s view explained with due reference to the Source and use of own knowledge
Cartoonist’s view about US response to western Europe:
Providing financial support to western European countries through the Marshall Plan.
Man on left hand side lifting up the thicker supporting pillar labeled “American aid”;
Caption of the Source ‘Neighbours “Come on, Sam! It’s up to us again” meaning that the U.S. might want to help
[max. 2] [max. 4]
Whether Source A adequately reflects American response to economic conditions in western Europe:
L2 Comprehensive answer focusing on BOTH usefulness AND limitations
The United States could readily provide financial aid to western European countries since her economy was much stronger than that of the western European countries.
Source A cannot show that the American financial aid originated from her willingness to offer financial aid to Greece and Turkey through the Truman Doctrine (1946).
Source A cannot show the name of the financial aid to western Europe (i.e. Marshall Plan), its contents, amount of money provided (US$13 billion), forms of aid (e.g. cash grants, subsidy in kind, etc.) and various conditions of subsidy (e.g. European consumption of American products), etc.
It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace. Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. Its purpose should be the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist.
Source: “The ‘Marshall Plan’ Speech at Harvard University, 5 June 1947 – OECD website” (http://www.oecd.org/general/themarshallplanspeechatharvarduniversity5june1947.htm) (Accessed on 17 January 2014).
The following cartoon entitled “Can He Block It?”, was published in the United States in 1947.
Source: “Soviet Opposition to the Marshall Plan – Library of Congress website” (http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/marshall/images/stalinbb.jpg) (Accessed on 17 January 2014).
Refer to Source B. what was the ultimate aim of the Marshall Plan offered by the United States? Support your answer with one clue from Source B. (2 marks)
Refer to Source C. How would the Soviet Union respond to the Marshall Plan? Explain your answer with reference to Source C and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)
What was the impact of the response of the Soviet Union you pointed out in part (b) on the economic development of Europe in the 1950s and 1960s? Explain your answer with reference to Sources B and C, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)
Suggested answers and reference for assessment
Ultimate aim of the Marshall Plan offered by the U.S.:
To boost European economic recovery
The words “European recovery” appear above the basketball net which is the target of the basketball labeled “Marshall Plan”
Response of the Soviet Union to the Marshall Plan:
L1 General description of Soviet response to Marshall Plan without due reference to the Source
L2 Explanation of Soviet response to Marshall Plan with due reference to the Source and relevant historical facts
Response of Soviet Union:
Joseph Stalin tried to catch the basketball labeled “Marshall Plan” and block it from the target of “European recovery”.
The Soviet Union started some propaganda against the Marshall Plan, accusing it as “dollar imperialism”, i.e. an attempt of building American economic hegemony across Europe.
The Soviet Union discouraged communist countries in eastern Europe from receiving aid through the Marshall Plan. Later, it even offered its alternative Molotov Plan to eastern European countries.
[max. 2] [max. 4]
Impact of the response of the Soviet Union on European economic development in the 1950s and 1960s
L1 general answer covering only part of the given period/geographical area, and/or without due reference to the Source/own knowledge
L2 comprehensive answer covering the whole given period/geographical area, with due reference to the Source and own knowledge
The US claim of her purpose in starting the Marshall Plan in Source B led to a strong response from the USSR in Source C. The key issue was whether Joseph Stalin in the cartoon could block the basketball “Marshall Plan” from hitting the target of “European recovery”. (Source C)
USSR successfully banned eastern European states from accepting the Marshall Plan, thus depriving them of prosperous economic growth. Because of this, eastern European states remained poor and backward, and lagged far behind western Europe throughout the 1960s.
However, it could not obstruct the acceptance of Marshall Plan by western European states, which therefore underwent successful economic recovery in the 1950s and considerable growth in the 1960s. Their economic performance greatly surpassed that of eastern European states.
[max. 4] [max. 7]
Study Sources D and E.
The following extract is adapted from the ‘Marshall Plan’ speech of 5 June 1947.
The truth of the matter is that Europe's requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential products - principally from America - are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character.
George Marshall, 5 June 1947
Source: “The ‘Marshall Plan’ speech at Harvard University, 5 June 1947 – OECD website” (http://www.oecd.org/general/themarshallplanspeechatharvarduniversity5june1947.htm) (Accessed on 14 March 2014).
The following cartoon is taken from a British magazine dated June 18 1947.
Source: “The Rival Buses – Punch Cartoon Prints from Punch Magazine website” (http://punch.photoshelter.com/image?&_bqG=3&_bqH=eJxtkFtPxCAQhX_N9mVfurq4SRMeKIPNuC2YAZr0iVRt9uJGE.sl8dcLzUYbdR6G75zhQGC13myvHj6FFZeUb3asfHbVY93n1H4U6.KC5cUqj1VgACu52w9LOrz3p2X5Ng5jhsGCcGrByqZZMOAzAyAZADOri5XMtEZb_Y6qv1H1f1Si66bLXBwnkMZrR11Aa5I0hErHGRqdJNpAqlbCKjjL27m2hhwnobfZ9MogNPDXyN4qCgjcpx843hwPjO6eTriLoxbJeVEHUSktu7QpC7IMGA.O0TP6b6TrH2wSCun4OPQv9_usndLV1GXqXymhc2A-&GI_ID
(Accessed on 12 March 2014).
Refer to Source D. Explain why the United States offered the Marshall Plan in 1947. (2 marks)
Does Source E provide the same reason for the United States to offer the Marshall Plan, as you pointed out in part (a)? Explain your answer with reference to Source E and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)
Do Sources D and E sufficiently reflect the historical background of European economic cooperation after the Second World War? Explain your answer with reference to Sources D and E and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)
Suggested answers and reference for assessment
Reason for the U.S. to offer the Marshall Plan in 1947
L1 General answer without due reference to the Source
L2 Well explained answer with due reference to the Source
European countries badly needed additional help in terms of foreign food and other necessities. If the U.S. did not provide these, European countries could suffer from serious economic, social and political disruptions.
Whether Source E provides the same reason as in part (a)
L1 General answer without due reference to Sources D and E
L2 Well explained answer with due reference to Sources D and E
Source E does NOT provide the same reason as in part (a):
Reason shown in Source D: to assist European countries in economic recovery and solving economic needs.
Reason shown in Source E: to counter the expanding influence of the USSR in eastern Europe (represented by Joseph Stalin pushing passengers “Hungary” and “Bulgaria” to board the bus to “Pension Russe” in Source E).
Implication of Source D: If the U.S. did not provide the Marshall Plan, European countries would fall into hopelessness in their material life.
Implication of Source E: If the U.S. did not provide the Marshall Plan, European countries would entirely fall under the hegemony of the USSR.
Whether Sources D and E sufficiently reflect the historical background of European economic cooperation after WWII
L1 Lopsided answer focusing on either usefulness or limitations
L2 Comprehensive answer covering both usefulness and limitations
(Source D) the necessity of helping European countries solve their urgent economic problems and boost economic growth
(Source E) the necessity of winning support from European countries so as to counterbalance the expanding influence of the USSR
(own knowledge) the U.S.’s realization of the importance of helping countries suffering from serious economic setbacks so as to avoid the outbreak of another world war
Study Sources F and G.
The following cartoon entitled “Step on it, Doc!” is adapted from a journal published in the United States in 1947.
Source: “Step on it, Doc! – History Tunes website” (http://www.historytunes.com/images/cartoons/43-1.png) (Accessed on 17 January 2014).
The following excerpt is adapted from Harry Truman’s address before a joint session of Congress on 12 March 1947.
I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.