Supernatural Beliefs Multiple-Choice



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CHAPTER 14 / TEST BANK

Chapter 14

Supernatural Beliefs

Multiple-Choice
1. While forms of religion may vary, they all are founded upon a belief
a. in one major deity.

b. that there is life after death.

c. in the supernatural.

d. all of the above

ANS: C

PG: 337-338


2. When we claim that religion, as a belief in the supernatural, is universal, we mean that
a. every person in the world believes in some type of supernatural.

b. every person in the world believes in good and evil.

c. individuals believe in the supernatural but not all cultures contain a belief in the supernatural.

d. all cultures contain a belief in the supernatural but not all individuals believe in one.

ANS: D

PG: 338
3. Which statement is true about the distinction between imitative and contagious magic?


a. Voodoo dolls are an example of contagious magic.

b. Contagious magic is the notion that an object having been in contact with a person retains a magical connection to that person.

c. Imitative magic involves doing harm to a person by performing magic on his finger nail clippings.

d. all of the above

ANS: B

PG: 341
4. Anthony Wallace uses the term “cult” to refer to


a. religious organizations that brainwash their members.

b. a form of religion having its own set of beliefs, rituals, and goals.

c. anti-social religious groups that often encourage their followers to commit mass suicide.

d. small scale religious groups that are opposed to any form of control from the federal government.

ANS: B

PG: 347
5. Both religion and magic


a. are nonrational systems of supernatural belief.

b. deal with one’s spiritual relationship with deities.

d. are group, rather than individual, activities.

d. all of the above

ANS: A

PG: 340-341


6. Magic and religion differ because they do not both
a. deal with major issues of human existence.

b. use prayer and sacrifices to appeal to supernatural powers.

c. use officially recognized functionaries such as priests.

d. all of the above

ANS: D

PG: 340-341


7. Sorcery, involving the use of potions and medicines, is a/an
a. inborn capacity to harm others.

b. involuntary capacity to harm others.

c. often unconscious capacity to harm others.

d. deliberate attempt to bring about harm through the use of supernatural powers.

ANS: D

PG: 342
8. As defined by anthropology, witchcraft


a. is always viewed negatively.

b. can harm through evil thoughts.

c. relies only on psychic power to harm people.

d. all of the above

ANS: D

PG: 342-343


9. Which statement about religion in the United States is true?
a. liberals are more religious than conservatives

b. people under 40 are more religious than people over 40

c. Blacks are more religious than Whites

d. New Englanders are more religious than Southerners

ANS: C

PG: 354
10. Which statement is true about the belief system called Wicca?


a. Wiccans are found mostly in urban areas.

b. Wiccans use their powers for evil purposes.

c. In North America, Wiccans are comprised of mostly women.

d. a and c only

ANS: D

PG: 342-344


11. Anthropologists have evidence of religious ideas existing at least ________years ago
a. 10,000

b. 20,000

c. 50,000

d. 100,000

ANS: D

PG: 339
12. Which statement about religion in the US is true?


a. Roman Catholicism is the largest single denomination.

b. The fastest growing groups are Catholics from Mexico.

c. Approximately 24% of all US residents are Jewish.

d. Men are more likely than women to describe themselves as religious.

ANS: A

PG: 354
13. Separatist Christian churches in South Africa played a role in conflict resolution because Black South Africans


a. gained real political power through their churches.

b. created an illusion of power by manipulating their own set of religious symbols and forming their own unique churches.

c. gained real economic power through their churches.

d. expressed their resentment against the apartheid government in their religious activity.

ANS: B

PG: 345-346


14. Religion intensifies group solidarity because
a. people’s shared religious beliefs, practices, and rituals often create powerful social bonds.

b. people share in the mysteries of their belief system.

c. people are separated by their beliefs from others who do not share the same ideas.

d. all of the above

ANS: D

PG: 346
15. Individuals benefit psychologically from religion because it


a. helps explain the unexplainable.

b. gives us answers based upon scientific authority.

c. provides a rational and logical framework for giving meaning to events and experiences.

d. all of the above

ANS: A

PG: 346-347


16. Which statement about shamanism is false?
a. Shamans are full-time specialists.

b. Shamans are thought to have supernatural powers.

c. Shamans contact spirits while in an altered state of consciousness.

d. Shamans use their powers to heal and tell fortunes of their clients.

ANS: A

PG: 349-350


17. What type of religious organization has groups that perform rites for the community?
a. ecclesiastic

b. communal

c. shamanistic

d. individualistic

ANS: B

PG: 350-352


18. What type of religious organization has full-time religious specialists?
a. individualistic

b. shamanistic

c. communal

d. ecclesiastic

ANS: D

PG: 353
19. The predominant mode of religious organization practiced among food collectors is


a. ecclesiastical cults.

b. shamanistic cults.

c. communal cults.

d. individualistic cults.

ANS: D

PG: 348
20. An individual may become a shaman by


a. having a powerful vision.

b. apprenticing with a practicing shaman.

c. avoiding the use of hallucinogenic drugs through his or her life.

d. a and b only

ANS: D

PG: 349-350


21. Rites of passage with stages of separation, transition, and incorporation are part of
a. ecclesiastical cults.

b. shamanistic cults.

c. communal cults.

d. individualistic cults.

ANS: C

PG: 350-351


22. Rites of solidarity are directed toward the welfare of
a. the entire community.

b. individual members of the community.

c. the group’s shaman.

d. the group’s leader.

ANS: A

PG: 351-353


23. Shamans, among the Reindeer Tungus of Siberia,
a. can be either men or women.

b. can neither control spirits nor stop them from causing harm.

c. never serve as mediums for spirits unlike the shamans of other groups.

d. use no special paraphernalia such as costumes or mirrors.

ANS: A

PG: 350
24. The Kikuyu initiation ritual


a. involves no physical operation other than the scarring of women and men’s elbows.

b. does not involve the separation of the initiates from their former status.

c. involves the incorporation of the initiate back into the society as a whole.

d. all of the above

ANS: C

PG: 351
25. Religion can play an important part in transforming a society when


a. members of the society are well adapted to their environment.

b. there has been a long period of time without social or cultural change.

c. there is cultural stress brought about by rapid change and foreign domination.

d. there has been a successful rejection of an attack by another society.

ANS: C

PG: 359
26. United States society


a. places a high value on organized religion.

b. has a higher percentage of its population affiliated with a religious organization than in c. Western European countries.

d. has a church membership that has grown steadily over the last hundred years.

d. all of the above

ANS: D

PG: 354-355


27. Handsome Lake, a New York state Seneca Indian,
a. prescribed new moral principles and rules of behavior.

b. received a vision to stop drinking and started a revitalizing religion.

c. urged the adoption of European agricultural practices.

d. all of the above

ANS: D

PG: 359
28. African-American churches in the US have played an important role as agents of social change in which of the following ways?


a. They have served as rallying places for protestors and community activists.

b. They helped freed slaves on the Underground Railroad.

c. Black Muslims have been a force for change by encouraging autonomous African-American communities.

d. all of the above

ANS: D

PG: 358-359


29. In an ecclesiastical cult, the laypersons are responsible for
a. performing periodic rituals.

b. performing weekly rituals.

c. supporting the church through their labor and money.

d. engaging in a “vision quest.”

ANS: C

PG: 354
30. Liberation theology, which developed during the 1970s and 1980s in South America,


a. is an activist form of Catholicism.

b. merged theology with an activism for social justice for the poor.

c. led many priests and nuns to lose their lives in political conflict.

d. all of the above

ANS: D

PG: 358
31. Myths, which tell stories of the gods, their origins, their activities, and the moral injunctions they teach, are found


a. only in large-scale industrialized societies.

b. only in peasant societies.

c. only in food collecting societies.

d. in every society.

ANS: D

PG: 344
32. A myth that conveys morals through the stories of anthropomorphized animals is


a. a profane myth.

b. a “trickster myth.”

c. an origin myth.

d. a sacred myth.

ANS: B

PG: 344
33. Which of the following is a major religious trend in the world today?


a. the rise of religious fundamentalism among Islamic nations

b. the dramatic decline in church membership in the United States in recent years

c. the growth of cyber-churches

d. a and c only

ANS: D

PG: 360-363


34. People perform religious rituals as
a. a way of invoking supernatural beings to control those forces over which they feel they have no control.

b. with as little emotion as possible, because they seldom really believe rituals are effective.

c. a way of demonstrating the strong control they have over their own lives.

d. b and c

ANS: A

PG: 347
35. Marx argued that the working class


a. would use religion to overthrow the owners.

b. understood the nature of their relationship with factory owners because of the lesson of religion.

c. was blinded by religion to the fact that they were being exploited by the ruling class.

d. a and b

ANS: C

PG: 346
36. The Crow vision quest is


a. an example of a nativistic movement.

b. an example of a cargo cult.

c. an example of a millenarian movement.

d. a normal way of dealing with the stresses and strains of everyday life.

ANS: D

PG: 348
37. The Amish of rural Pennsylvania, Indiana, or Ohio are one of the oldest and most visible religious minorities in the United States and


a. they practice strict exogamy.

b. they maintain a highly disciplined church-community and excommunicate and/or shun any erring members.

c. they use modern agricultural techniques while avoiding modern technology within their households.

d. they insist that their children attend Catholic high schools run by Jesuit priests.

ANS: B

PG: 356-357


38. In the Wisconsin v. Yoder court case over Wisconsin’s requirement that Amish children attend public school beyond the eighth grade, anthropologist John Hostetler explained that
a. Amish teenagers could separate the ideas they learned about society and religion in the public high schools from the lessons learned in their homes.

b. schooling alone would not cause alienation between Amish parents and their children.

c. Amish teenagers would suffer great psychological harm if kept from the public high schools attended by their peers.

d. Amish teenagers would suffer great psychological harm in public high schools, which foster radically different social and religious values from their own.

ANS: D

PG: 356-357


39. Wicca, as practiced in North American cities,
a. has a matriarchal character.

b. emphasizes fertility.

c. does not perceive magical powers as supernatural.

d. all of the above

ANS: D

PG: 342-344


40. Wicca’s contemporary popularity
a. has stimulated book sales.

b. is evident in the teenage market.

c. results from its connection with Satanism.

d. a and b

ANS: D

PG: 342-344





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