Switzerland and Germany

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Study Guide for Chapters 11 and 12
1. The Reformation broke out first in the cities of:

Switzerland and Germany.
2. Contributing factors to lay criticism of the church included all of the following,

the laity traveled widely, new postal systems and the printing press increased the information at the disposal of the laity, lay people gained greater control over the cultural life of their communities, and the laity in the cities were becoming increasingly knowledgeable about the world.
3. 13th- through 15th-century lay religious movements shared a common goal of:

Religious simplicity in the imitation of Jesus.

4. Name four true statements of the ideology and practice of the Brothers of the Common Life?

They were centered at Zwolle and Deventer in the Netherlands; they fostered religious life outside of formal churches, they embraced a lay religious life of prayer and study without surrendering the world, they stressed individual piety and practical religion.
5. Which writer summarized the philosophy of the Brothers of the Common Life in what became the most popular religious book of the period, the Imitation of Christ?

Thomas a Kempis
6. Who was the son of a successful miner and later became a powerful force in religion?

Martin Luther
7. The medieval church had always taught that salvation was what?

A joint venture
8. Indulgence was:

A remission of the temporal penalty imposed on penitents by priests as a work of satisfaction for their confessed mortal sins.
9. These sparked the Reformation in Germany.

Luther's 95 theses
10. In Luther's Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, he urged the German princes to

Force reforms on the Roman Catholic Church.
11. The Freedom of a Christian, written by Martin Luther, summarized the new teaching of salvation

By faith alone
12. When German peasants revolted in 1524-1525, they didn’t win the support of

The pope, the merchant class, Martin Luther, or John Calvin
13. The Reformation in Zurich was led by

Ulrich Zwingli
14. What was the primary theological point of contention between Luther and Zwingli?

The "presence" of Christ in the Eucharist
15. Anabaptists are the 16th-century ancestors of which modern groups?

16. Anabaptism desired what?

A rapid and thorough implementation of Apostolic Christianity.
17. Lutheranism was introduced into Denmark by whom?

King Christian II
18. What German city became a refuge for persecuted Protestants and the center of Lutheran resistance?

19. The Peace of Augsburg recognized in law what had already been established in practice

That the ruler of a land would determine the religion of the land.
20. The Reformation Parliament met for seven years and determined that:

Henry VIII would rule the church in England "as far as Christ allows."

21. The Act of Succession made whose children the legitimate heirs to the throne?

Anne Boleyn
22. The Book of Common Prayer, written by Thomas Cranmer, was imposed on all English churches by what law?

The Act of Uniformity
23. Recognized by the pope in 1528, this group sought to return to the original ideals of Saint Francis and became popular among the ordinary people to whom they directed their ministry. Who are they?

The Capuchins
24. This influential women's order was founded in 1535 for the religious education of girls from all social classes:

The Ursulines
25. Ignatius of Loyola taught good Catholics to

Submit without question to higher church authority and spiritual direction.
26. The Council of Trent's most important reforms concerned what?

Internal Church discipline
27. The characterization "magisterial reformers" refers to the role of reformers such as

Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin
28. The following are examples of the way the church calendar regulated daily life in the 15th century:

One third of the year was given over to religious observances or celebrations, regulation of the diet of a pious Christian, Saints' days played an important role in popular culture, and frequent periods of fasting.
29. Protestants were more likely than Catholics to

Permit divorce
30. The following statement characterizes Protestant views of the popular anti-woman and anti-marriage literature of the Middle Ages:

They completely disagreed with said sentiments
31. The canonical, or church-sanctioned, age for marriage prior to the 16th century was what age for men?

32. The following reasons did contribute to the wide usage of wet nursing among upper-class women:

Vanity and convenience; The use of wet nurses reflected social standing; The church forbade lactating women from indulging in intercourse; unhappiness with the contraceptive effect of nursing
33. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra spent several years as

A slave
34. Which of the following novels is Cervantes most well known for?

Don Quixote
35. William Shakespeare was a member and principal writer of a famous company of actors known as what?

The King's Men
36. The most successful politique was who?

Elizabeth I of England
37. What sparked the first wave of Protestant persecution in France?

the capture of the French king Francis I at the Battle of Pavia
38. Who were the three powerful families that sought the French monarchy after the death of king Henry II?

the Bourbons, the Montmorency-Chatillons, and the Guises
39. Huguenots made up about__________ of the French population.

40. What event starkly marked the beginning of the French wars of religion?

The duke of Guise surprising a Protestant congregation in Champagne and massacring many worshipers

41. The following is true of the immediate aftermath of the Peace of Saint Germain-en-Laye?

The crown acknowledged the power of the Protestant nobility; The crown granted the Huguenots the right to fortify their cities; The Bourbon faction gained power; The crown granted the Huguenots religious freedoms within their territories
42. King Henry IV stunned France, Spain, and the pope by publicly abandoning the Protestant faith and embracing what religion?

43. The Edict of Nantes was criticized for creating a

State within a state
44. Hostilities between Spain and England reached a climax in 1588 when

the Spanish Armada was sent to invade England
45. The Austrian branch of Philip II's family retained possession of the imperial title and the western and eastern Habsburg lands until what year?

46. The following statement most accurately describes the general state of the Spanish economy in the late 16th and early 17th centuries:

A growing demand and limited supply caused prices and inflation to rise
47. The following adjective most accurately describes Phillip II:

48. During the first half of his reign, Philip II focused on

the Mediterranean and the Turkish threat
49. What did the Perpetual Edict of 1577 do?

provided for the removal of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands within 20 days
50. Despite his wishes, who was Edward VI's successor in England?

Mary Tudor
51. Passed by Queen Elizabeth I, this was a revision of Thomas Cranmer's works that made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England:

39 Articles
52. The following did contribute to the outbreak of war between England and Spain:

England's famous seamen began to prey on Spanish shipping; Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth I of England; England signed a treaty committing soldiers to the Netherlands; England signed a mutual defense pact with France
53. The following event immediately triggered Pope Sixtus V to give public support to Spain?

the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
54. What significant event weakened the Spanish dominance in Europe, from which Spain never fully recovered?

defeat of the Spanish Armada
55. Following the weakening of Spain, which nation dominated Europe approximately in the early 17th century?

56. Sixteenth-century Germany was ruled by separate entities and had their own:

tariffs, tolls, and money
57. Bavaria was a major center of

Catholic power
58. The Thirty Years' War broke out first in

59. Due to its central location, this nation had always been Europe's highway for merchants and traders going north, south, east and west. What nation is this?

60. The term "ecclesiastical reservation" refers to:

The attempt to freeze the territorial holdings of the Lutherans and the Catholics
61. In the 1560s, Heidelberg was an intellectual center for what?

German Calvinism
62. By 1609, Palatine Calvinists headed a Protestant defensive alliance against Spain with the assistance of these nations:

England, France, and the Netherlands
63. Which analogy is most accurate?

Bavaria is to the Counter-Reformation as the Palatinate is to Protestantism
64. The Thirty Years' War began as a revolt of Protestant nobility against:

an unpopular king
65. One of the first actions Ferdinand took as king of Bohemia was to revoke the religious freedoms of whom?

Bohemian Protestants
66. By 1600, the population of the Holy Roman Empire:

was about equally divided between Catholics and Protestants
67. It was during this period of fighting that Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution and struck panic in the hearts of Protestants. What period is this?

Danish Period
68. The battle at Breitenfeld in 1630 marked a turning point in the Thirty Years' War. Who won that battle?

the Swedish
69. This treaty brought the Swedish period of the war to an end. What is the name of this Treaty?

Peace of Prague

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