The Supreme Court also became involved in sectional and states' rights issues at this time. The state of Maryland imposed a tax on the Baltimore branch of the Second Bank of the United States—a federal institution. The Bank refused to pay the state tax, and the case, McCulloch v. Maryland, reached the Court in 1819.
Linking Past & Present
In the mid-1800s, a visit to the doctor's office was viewed with suspicion.
Faced with "cures" that were often fatal, people started using patent medicines—hose they could buy in stores. One popular remedy, Snake Oil, was a mixture of wintergreen and white gasoline.
---Today artificial hearts, cameras that move through veins, and other products have greatly improved Americans' health.
Analyzing Political Cartoons
English cartoonist James Gillray shows European leaders carving up the world (above). American cartoonist David Claypoole Johnston portrays Andrew Jackson as a ruthless general (right). What opinions are the cartoonists expressing?
Speaking for the Court, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Maryland had no right to tax the Bank because it was a federal institution. He argued that the Constitution and the federal government received their authority directly from the people, not by way of the state governments. Those who opposed the McCulloch decision argued that it was a "loose construction" of the Constitution, which says that the federal government can "coin" money—gold, silver, and other coins—but the Constitution does not mention paper money. In addition, the Constitutional Convention had voted not to give the federal government the authority to charter corporations, including banks. (See page 625 of the Appendix for a summary of McCulloch v. Maryland.)
Gibbons v. Ogden
Another Supreme Court case, Gibbons v. Ogden, established that states could not enact legislation that would interfere with Congressional power over interstate commerce. The Supreme Court's rulings strengthened the national government. They also contributed to the debate over sectional issues. People who supported states' rights believed that the decisions increased federal power at the expense of state power. Strong nationalists welcomed the rulings' support for national power. (See page 624 of the Appendix for a summary of Gibbons v. Ogden.)
Reading Check Examining Why was the Court's decision in Gibbons v. Ogden significant?
The War of 1812 heightened Americans' pride in their country. Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams, wrote from England to her sister back in Massachusetts:
"Do you know that European birds have not half the melody of ours? Nor is their fruit half so sweet, nor their flowers half so fragrant, nor their manners half so pure, nor their people half so virtuous.”
At the same time, many Americans realized that the United States needed peace with Britain to grow and develop. It had to put differences aside and establish a new relationship with the "Old World."
Relations With Britain
In the years following the War of 1812, President Monroe and his secretary of state, John Quincy Adams, moved to resolve long-standing disputes with Great Britain and Spain.
In 1817, in the Rush-Bagot Treaty, the United States and Britain agreed to set limits on the number of naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes. The treaty provided for the disarmament —the removal of weapons—along an important part of the border between the United States and British Canada.
The second agreement with Britain, the Convention of 1818, set the boundary of the Louisiana Territory between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. The convention created a secure and demilitarized border—a border without armed forces. Through Adams's efforts, Americans also gained the right to settle in the Oregon Country.
Relations With Spain
Spain owned East Florida and also claimed West Florida. The United States contended that West Florida was part of the Louisiana Purchase. In 1810 and 1812, Americans simply added parts of West Florida to Louisiana and Mississippi. Spain objected but took no action.
In April 1818, General Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish East Florida, seizing control of two Spanish forts. Jackson had been ordered to stop Seminole raids on American territory from Florida. In capturing the Spanish forts, however, Jackson went beyond his instructions.
Luis de Onis, the Spanish minister to the United States, protested forcefully and demanded the punishment of Jackson and his officers. Secretary of War Calhoun said that Jackson should be court-martialed —tried by a military court—for overstepping instructions. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams disagreed.
Although Secretary of State Adams had not authorized Jackson's raid, he did nothing to stop it. Adams guessed that the Spanish did not want war and that they might be ready to settle the Florida dispute. He was right. For the Spanish the raid had demonstrated the military strength of the United States.
Already troubled by rebellions in Mexico and South America, Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819. Spain gave East Florida to the United States and abandoned all claims to West Florida. In return the United States gave up its claims to Spanish Texas and took over responsibility for paying the $5 million that American citizens claimed Spain owed them for damages.
The two countries also agreed on a border between the United States and Spanish possessions in the West. The border extended northwest from the Gulf of Mexico to the 42nd parallel and then west to the Pacific, giving the United States a large piece of territory in the Pacific Northwest. America had become a transcontinental power.
Reading Check Identifying What areas did the United States obtain from Spain?
Latin American Republics
While the Spanish were settling territorial disputes with the United States, they faced a series of challenges within their empire. In the early
1800s, Spain controlled a vast colonial empire that included what is now the southwestern United States, Mexico and Central America, and all of South America except Brazil.
In the fall of 1810 a priest, Miguel Hidalgo (ee• DAHL•goh), led a rebellion against the Spanish government of Mexico. Hidalgo called for racial equality and the redistribution of land. The Spanish defeated the revolutionary forces and executed Hidalgo. In 1821 Mexico gained its independence, but independence did not bring social and economic change.
Bolivar and San Martin
Independence in South America came largely as a result of the efforts of two men. Simon Bolivar, also known as "the Liberator," led the movement that won freedom for the present-day countries of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia, and Ecuador. Jose de San Martin successfully achieved independence for Chile and Peru. By 1824 the revolutionaries' military victory was complete, and most of South America had liberated itself from Spain. Portugal's large colony of Brazil gained its independence peacefully in 1822. Spain's empire in the Americas had shrunk to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and a few other islands in the Caribbean.
The Monroe Doctrine
In 1822 Spain had asked France, Austria, Russia, and Prussia—the Quadruple Alliance —for help in its fight against revolutionary forces in South America. The possibility of increased European involvement in North America led President Monroe to take action.
The president issued a statement, later known as the Monroe Doctrine, on December 2, 1823. While the United States would not interfere with any existing European colonies in the Americas, Monroe declared, it would oppose any new ones. North and South America "are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers."
In 1823 the United States did not have the military power to enforce the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine nevertheless became an important element in American foreign policy and has remained so for more than 170 years. (See page 676 of the Appendix for an excerpt from the Monroe Doctrine.)
Reading Check Evaluating How did the Monroe Doctrine affect foreign policy?
Student Web Activity Visit tarvol1.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 10—Student Web Activities for an activity on the democratic movements in the Americas.
On a sheet of paper, create a crossword puzzle using the following terms. Use the terms' definitions as your crossword clues.
1. Industrial Revolution
2. factory system
Reviewing Key Facts
7. What problems did cities face as a result of rapid growth during the Industrial Revolution?
8. How did the landscape of New England affect how and where people lived in the late 1700s and early 1800s?
9. How did canals boost the economy of the Great Lakes region?
10. How did North and South differ on the issue of tariffs?
11. Identify factors in the United States that made it ideal for the free enterprise system.
12. What was the American System?
13. Explain the debate involved in McCulloch v. Maryland and the final decision in the case. Why was the decision significant?
14. How did James Monroe change the nation's foreign policy?
15. Analyzing Themes: Economic Factors How did the Industrial Revolution help to make the United States more economically independent in the early 1800s?
16. Analyzing Themes: Global Connections Why did Secretary of State John Quincy Adams allow General Jackson's invasion into Spanish East Florida in 1818?
17. Determining Cause and Effect How did the development of roads boost the growth of the United State! Use a diagram like the one shown to organize your answer.
Geography and History Activity
In 1819 Spain ceded Florida to the United States in the Adams-Onis Treaty. The Spanish had established colonies in Florida beginning in the 1500s. Study the map and answer the questions that follow.
---Refer to NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Acquisition of Florida, 1819 image on page 329 in your textbook.
18. Region When was the largest portion of Florida acquired from Spain?
19. Location What body of water blocked further expansion of Florida to the west?
20. Movement In what direction did the United States acquire the various parts of Florida?
Reading a DiagramStudy the diagram of the textile mill on page 307. Use the diagram to answer these questions.
21. What is the first step in the production of textiles?
22. At what stage does the thread become cloth?
23. What process turns the yarn into thread?
24. When would a cotton gin be necessary in this process?
25. Now choose one of the inventions mentioned in the chapter. Prepare a diagram that traces the development of that invention to a similar device in use today. For example, you might diagram the development of a modern cruise ship, showing all the improvements made from start to finish.
Visit tarvol1.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 10-Self-Check Quizzes to prepare for the chapter test.
Citizenship Cooperative Activity
26. Exploring Your Community's Past Working with two other students, contact a local historical society to learn about your community's history. Then interview people in your neighborhood to learn about their roots in the community. Find out when their families first settled there. Write a history of the community and give a copy of it to the historical society.
27. Using the Internet Search the Internet for information about how to apply for a patent for an invention. Create a step-by-step list of directions describing the process.
28. Portfolio Writing Activity Review Section 2 of the chapter for information about what it was like to live in the West in the early 1800s. Record your notes in your journal. Use your notes to write a postcard to a friend describing your social life.