The American Republic to 1877 Video The chapter 10 video

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Growth and Expansion


Why It Matters

During the early 1800s, manufacturing took on a stronger role in the American economy. During the same period, people moved westward across the conti­nent in larger and larger numbers. In 1823 the United States proclaimed its dominant role in the Americas with the Monroe Doctrine.

The Impact Today

These developments were important factors in shaping the nation. Today the United States is one of the leading economic and military powers in the world.

The American Republic to 1877 Video The chapter 10 video, "The One-Room Schoolhouse," depicts a typical school day in the nineteenth century.

1790 • First U.S. Census

1792 • Russia invades Poland

1793 • Eli Whitney invents cotton gin

1807 • Robert Fulton designs first practical steamboat

1804 • Haiti claims independence from France


1815 • Battle of Waterloo crushes Napoleon

1819 • Florida ceded to U.S.

1819 • Bolivar defeats Spanish forces at Boyaca

1820 • Missouri Compromise passed

1821 • Peru claims independence from Spain

1823 • Monroe Doctrine issued

1825 • Erie Canal completed

Valley of the Yosemite by Albert Bierstadt Bierstadt's panoramic scenes of the American West capture the vastness of the landscape.


Study Organizer

Cause-and-Effect Study Foldable Make this foldable to help you analyze the causes and effects of growth in the East and expansion into the West of the United States.

Step 1 Fold one sheet of paper in half from top to bottom.

Step 2 Fold it in half again, from side to side.

Step 3 Unfold the paper once. Sketch an outline of the United States across both tabs and label them as shown.

Step 4 Cut up the fold of the top flap only.

Reading and Writing As you read the chapter, list causes and effects of eastern growth and western expansion under the appropriate tabs of your foldable.


Chapter Overview

Visit and click on Chapter 10 Chapter Overviews to pc: view chapter information



Economic Growth

Guide to Reading

Main Idea

The rise of industry and trade led to the growth of cities.

Key Terms

Industrial Revolution, capitalism, capital, free enterprise, technology, cotton gin, patent, factory system, interchangeable parts

Reading Strategy

Organizing Information As you read the section, re-create the dia­gram below and describe in the ovals changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution.

Read to Learn

• how the Industrial Revolution began in the United States.

• how the United States changed as it became more economically independent.

Section Theme

Economic Factors The Industrial Rev­olution changed the way goods were made.

Preview of Events

1793 Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin

1807 Congress passes Embargo Act

1814 Francis Lowell opens textile plant in Massachusetts

1816 Second National Bank is chartered

AN American Story

Both men and women in the early 1800s valued hard work. An English journalist described the farmers of Long Island in 1818: "Every man can use an axe, a saw, and a hammer. Scarcely one who cannot do any job at rough carpentering, and mend a plough and wagon.... " Another European noted the daily activities of American women in 1823: "They take care of everything pertaining to the domestic economy, for example, making candles, boiling soap, preparing starch, canning berries, fruit and cucumbers, baking, and spinning, sewing, and milking the cows."

The Growth of Industry

During the colonial era, workers were in short supply. Americans learned to develop tools that made work easier and more efficient. American methods and inventions won the admiration of Europeans. One observer exclaimed:

“The axe here [in America] ... is a combination axe, wedge, and sledgehammer; what an accomplished woodchopper can do with this instrument! There are some among them who can chop and split five and one-half loads of wood a day, including stacking them.”


People working in their homes or in work­shops made cloth and most other goods. Using hand tools, they produced furniture, farm equipment, household items, and clothing.

In the mid-1700s, however, the way goods were made began to change. These changes appeared first in Great Britain. British inventors created machinery to perform some of the work involved in cloth making, such as spinning. The machines ran on waterpower, so British cloth makers built mills along rivers and installed the machines in these mills. People left their homes and farms to work in the mills and earn wages. The changes this system brought about were so great that this historic development is known as Industrial Revolution.

The Industrial Revolution in New England

The Industrial Revolution began to take root in the United States around 1800, appearing first in New England—Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshire. New England's soil was poor, and farming was difficult. As a result, people were willing to leave their farms to find work elsewhere. Also, New England had many rushing rivers and streams. These provided the waterpower necessary td run the machinery in the new factories.

New England's geographic location also proved to be an advantage. It was close to other resources, including coal and iron from nearby Pennsylvania. New England also had many ports. Through these ports passed the cotton


Textile Mill

The Lowell factory system was designed to bring work and workers together. A typical Lowell textile mill in 1830 housed 4,500 spindles, 120 power looms, and more than 200 employees under one roof.

What type of energy powered the mills?

1. The first steps in textile production clean the raw cotton and turn loose cotton into crude yarn.

2. The spinning process transforms the yarn into thread. 3 At the weaving stage, power looms

3. At the weaving stage, power looms interlace the threads into coarse cloth or fabric.

4. Fabric is measured and batched for dyeing. Vegetable dyes were the earliest known dyes.


shipped from Southern states to New England factories, as well as the finished cloth bound for markets throughout the nation.

Also necessary to strong industrial growth is an economic system that allows competition to flourish with a minimum of government interference. The economic system of the United States is called capitalism. Under capitalism, individuals put their capital or money, into a business in hopes of making a profit.

Free enterprise is another term used to describe the American economy. In a system of free enterprise, people are free to buy, sell, and produce whatever they want. They can also work wherever they wish. The major elements of free enterprise are competition, profit, private property and economic freedom. Business own­ers have the freedom to produce the products that they think will be the most profitable. Buy­ers also compete to find the best products at the lowest prices.

New Technology

Workers, waterpower, location, and capital all played roles in New England's Industrial Revo­lution. Yet without the invention of new machines and technology —scientific discover­ies that simplify work—the Industrial Revolu­tion could not have taken place.

Inventions such as the spinning jenny and the water frame, which spun thread, and the power loom, which wove the thread into cloth, made it possible to perform many steps in mak­ing cloth by machine, saving time and money. Because these new machines ran on water­power, most mills were built near rivers. In 1785, for the first time, a steam engine provided power for a cotton mill.

In 1793 Eli Whitney of Massachusetts invented the cotton gin a simple machine that quickly and efficiently removed the seeds from the cotton fiber. The cotton gin enabled one worker to clean cotton as fast as 50 people work­ing by hand.

In 1790 Congress passed a patent law to pro­tect the rights of those who developed "useful and important inventions." A patent gives an inventor the sole legal right to the invention and its profits for a certain period of time. One of the first patents went to Jacob Perkins for a machine to make nails.

Reading Check Analyzing Why were the first mill in Great Britain built near rivers?

New England Factories

The British tried to keep their new industrial technology a secret. They even passed laws prohibiting their machinery as well as their skill d mechanics from leaving the country. However, a few enterprising workers managed to slip away to the United States.

In Britain Samuel Slater had worked in a fac­tory that used machines invented by Richard Arkwright for spinning cotton threads. Slater


memorized the design of Arkwright's machines and slipped out of Britain in 1789. Once in the United States, Slater took over the management of a cotton mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. There he duplicated Arkwright's machines. Using these machines the mill made cotton thread. Women working in their homes wove the thread into cloth. Slater's mill marked an important step in the Industrial Revolution in America.

In 1814 Francis Cabot Lowell opened a textile plant in Waltham, Massachusetts. The plan he implemented went several steps beyond Slater's mill. For the first time, all the stages of cloth making were performed under one roof. Low-ell's mill launched the factory system, a system bringing manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency. The factory system was a significant development in the way goods were made—and another important part of the Industrial Revolution.

Interchangeable Parts

The inventor Eli Whitney started the use of interchangeable parts. These were identical machine parts that could be quickly put together to make a complete product. Because all the parts were alike, they could be manufactured with less-skilled labor, and they made machine repair easier. Interchangeable parts opened the way for producing many different kinds of goods on a mass scale and for reducing the price of the goods.

Reading Check Describing How did the factory system work?

What Life Was Like…

The Lowell Girls

Cloth for manufactured goods such as shirts and sheets is produced at textile mills (cloth factories).

The mills in Lowell, Massachusetts, drew about 80 percent of their workers from young women, many in their teens, known as the "Lowell girls."

Working Conditions The young women who worked in Lowell's mills endured difficult working conditions. They put in long hours—from sunrise to sunset—for low wages. The volume of the factory machinery was earsplitting and the work was monotonous. The women usually performed one task over and over again.

Magazine The Lowell Offering was a magazine written for and about the mill girls.

On the Job Lucy Larcom started working in the mills when she was 11 years old. She later recalled her life at Waltham:

“We did not call ourselves ladies. We did not forget that we were working girls, wearing aprons suitable to our work, and that there was some danger of our becoming drudges.”


---Refer to NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Population of the United States, 1820.

Geography Skills

The tremendous growth in population helped to spur the growth of industry.

1. Analyzing Information. What states had passed one million in population by 1820?

2. Comparing. Which state had the larger population—Missouri or Alabama?

Agriculture Expands

Although many New Englanders went to work in factories, most Americans still lived and worked on farms. In the 1820s more than 65 per­cent of Americans were farmers.

In the Northeast, farms tended to be small, and the produce was usually marketed locally. In the South, cotton production increased dra­matically. The demand for cotton had grown steadily with the development of the textile industries of New England and Europe. South­ern plantation owners used enslaved workers to plant, tend, and pick the cotton. The cotton gin—which made it possible to clean the cotton faster and less expensively than by hand—encouraged the planters to raise larger crops. Between 1790 and 1820, cotton production soared from 3,000 to more than 300,000 bales a year.

In the West, agriculture also expanded. South­ern farmers seeking new land moved west to plant cotton. Western farmers north of the Oh o River concentrated on raising pork and cash crops such as corn and wheat.

Reading Check Describing How was the Northeast different from the South in what it produced?

Economic Independence

Most new industries were financed ay small investors—merchants, shopkeepers, and farmers. These people invested some of their


money in the hope of earning profits if the new businesses succeeded. Low taxes, few govern­ment regulations, and competition encouraged people to invest in new industries.

Large businesses called corporations began to develop rapidly in the 1830s, when some legal obstacles to their formation were removed. The rise of these new corporations made it easier to sell stock—shares of ownership in a company—to finance improvement and development.

The charter of the First Bank of the United States had expired in 1811. In 1816 Congress chartered the Second Bank of the United States, also chartered for 20 years. The Bank had the power to make large loans to busi­nesses. State banks and frontier people criti­cized the Bank on the grounds that it was a monopoly used by the rich and powerful for their own gain. Those who believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution also criti­cized it because they believed Congress did not have the power to charter such a bank.

Cities Come of Age

The growth of factories and trade spurred the growth of towns and cities. The new industrial towns grew quickest. Many developed along rivers and streams to take advantage of the waterpower. Older cities like New York, Boston, and Baltimore also grew as centers of commerce and trade. In the West, towns like Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Louisville profited from their locations on major rivers. As farmers in the West Chipped more and more of their products by water, these towns grew rapidly.

Cities and towns looked quite different from modern urban areas. Buildings were made of wood or brick. Streets and sidewalks were unpaved, and barnyard animals often roamed freely. There were no sewers to carry waste and dirty water away, so the danger of diseases such as cholera and yellow fever was very real. In 1793, for example, a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia killed thousands of people.

Fire posed another threat to cities. Sparks from a fireplace or chimney could easily ignite a wooden building and spread to others. Few towns or cities had organized fire companies, and fires could be disastrous.

Cities and towns of the period also had advantages, however. Some people left farming because cities and towns offered a variety of jobs and steady wages. As cities grew they added libraries, museums, and shops that were unavailable in the countryside. For many, the jobs and attractions of city life outweighed any of the dangers.

Reading Check Analyzing Why did cities such as Pittsburgh and Louisville grow?


Checking for Understanding

1. Key Terms Use each of these terms in a sentence that will help explain its meaning: Industrial Revolution, capital, technology, cotton gin, patent, factory system, interchangeable parts.

2. Reviewing Facts Describe the rea­sons New England was ideal for the development of factories.

Reviewing Themes

3. Economic Factors How did the cot­ton gin affect cotton production?

Critical Thinking

4. Categorizing Information Re-create the diagram below and describe the characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system.

5. Determining Cause and Effect Was new technology necessary for the Industrial Revolution? Explain.

Analyzing Visuals

6. Geography Skills Study the map and the graphs on page 310. What do the cities shown on the map have in common? Which state had the larger population in 1820—Georgia or Ohio?

Interdisciplinary Activity

Expository Writing Study the map and graphs on page 310. Create a quiz for your classmates based on the information pre­sented. Trade quizzes with a class mate and answer those questions


TIME Notebook

What were people's lives like in the past?

What—and who—were people talking about? What did they eat? What did they do for fun? These two pages will give you some clues to everyday life in the U.S. as you step back in time with TIME Notebook.


SAGOYEWATHA is the great Iroquois leader some call Red Jacket. Why? Because he fought with the British in the Revolutionary War. Sagoyewatha means "He Causes Them to Be Awake." Below is part of a speech Sagoyewatha delivered in 1805 to a group of religious leaders from Boston:

"BROTHERS, OUR (NATIVE AMERICAN) SEATS were once large and yours (colonists) were small. You have now become a great people, and we have scarcely a place left to spread our blankets. You have got our country but are not satisfied; you want to force your religion upon us....

Brothers, continue to listen. You say there is but one way to worship and serve the Great Spirit. If there is but one religion, why do you white people differ so much about it?...

Brothers, we ... also have a religion which was given to our forefathers and has been handed down to us, their children...."



“We are one.”

“Mind your business.”

sayings are on the front and back of the coin minted in 1787

“I die hard, but I am not afraid to go.”

GEORGE WASHINGTON, on his deathbed in 1799

“My mother and myself begged Mr. Carter not to sell this child out of Fredg [plantation], he gave us his word and honor that he would not, but as soon as we left him, he sold the child.”


African American slave of Landon Carter, writing around 1790 about his sister whom he never saw again

“May the Lord bless King George, convert him, and take him to heaven, as we want no more of him.”

REVEREND JOHN GRUBE-, to his Baltimore congregate. during the War of 18.2


Ahoy There!

The U.S.S. Constitution, the world's largest frigate, or warship, was launched in 1797 with a crew of 450 and 54 cannons. Want to join the crew? First, you must prove you can understand a sailor's vocabulary. Match each word or phrase in the first column with its original meaning.

1. Keel over

2. Try a new tack

3. Let the cat out of the bag

4. Mind your p's and q's

5. Shipshape

a. Sailors who do wrong are disciplined with a cat-o'-nine-tails whip that's kept in a red sack

b. Putting a ship in for repair

c. Bartenders keep track of what sailors drink and owe by marking numbers under "pints" and "quarts"

d. The course or direction boats take into the wind

e. Good condition

---Refer to answers on page 312 in your textbook.


NEW HORIZONS: 1790-1820


Sports Story

GEORGE CATLIN is a white man with a strong interest in Native American life. This lawyer has made a name for himself as an artist, painting portraits of Native American leaders, families, and everyday Western life. Here he paints with words, telling us about a game (one the French call lacrosse) played by Choctaw men:

"EACH PARTY (TEAM) HAD THEIR GOAL MADE WITH TWO UPRIGHT POSTS, about 25 feet high and six feet apart, set firm in the ground, with a pole across at the top. These goals were about 40 to 50 rods (660-825 feet) apart. At a point just halfway between was another small stake, driven down, where the ball was to be thrown up at the firing of a gun, to be struggled for by the players ... who were some 600 or 700 in numbers, and were (trying) to catch the ball in their sticks, and throw it home and between their respective stakes.... For each time that the ball was passed between the stakes of either party, one was counted for their game ... until the successful party arrived to 100, which was the limit of the game, and accomplished at an hour's sun.”

---Refer to pictures on page 312-313 in your textbook.

RIGHT: George Catlin painted this pic­ture of a 15-year-old Native American girl. Her name, Ka-te-qua, means "female eagle."

BELOW: Painting by George Catlin of Choctaw athletes playing their version of lacrosse.



30 Number of treaties that took away Native American land or moved their borders. The treaties were between the U.S. and the Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws between 1789 and 1825

$158 million The price the U.S. spent to fight the War of 1812

First Elizabeth Seton founds the Sisters of Charity, a Roman Catholic order, in 1809

First Mary Kies becomes the first woman to receive a U.S. patent in 1809 for a method of weaving straw with silk

$3,820.33 Amount paid to Paul Revere for providing the U.S.S. Constitution with copper parts and a ship's bell in 1797

45 feet Length of the dinosaur dug up by Lewis and Clark on their 1804 expedition



Westward Bound

Guide to Reading

Main Idea

The huge amount of territory added to the United States during the early 1800s gave the country a large store of natural resources and provided land for more settlers.

Key Terms

census, turnpike, canal, lock

Reading Strategy

Taking Notes As you read the sec­tion, re-create the diagram below and describe why each was important to the nation's growth and development.

Read to Learn

• how land and water transportation improved in the early 1800s.

• how settlements in the West affected the nation's economy and politics.

Section Theme

Science and Technology Expansion of transportation systems helped set­tlement spread westward.

Preview of Events

1806 Congress approves funds for national road

1807 Fulton's Clermont steams to Albany

1820 U.S. population stands at 9.6 million

1825 Erie Canal is complete

AN American Story

During the 1800s, settlers poured into the frontier west of the Appalachians. The typical frontier family moved from place to place as the line of settlement pushed ever westward. Their home often consisted of a three-sided shack or a log cabin with a dirt floor and no windows or door. A pile of leaves in the loft of the cabin often served as a bed. Loneliness, poverty, and an almost primitive lifestyle were daily companions to many frontier people.

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