Technology has produced weapons leading to terrible casualties. Both sides are evenly matched. With senseless suicidal charges encountered on both sides, the armies create _______________ from Belgium to Austria.
Identify some of the weapons and how they were used.
U.S. foreign policy since the time of President Washington has been ______________________.
A foreign population might favor which side in the war?
Most Americans want what at this time?
The political left and socialists blamed the war on_____________________________________.
Identify leading Americans who opposed our entry into the war.
The Road to War
The US financially benefitted by providing _______________________________to both sides.
A naval blockade limits trade with the ____________________ but trade with _______________ and _________________ grows.
US Banks lent out far more money to which side?
Germany uses submarines in their blockade of Great Britain. In May 1915 the Germans sink the passenger liner ________________________ off the coast of Ireland. ____________Americans are killed. The Germans continue to sink ships. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan resigns over how the President handled this crisis. In May 1915 the President makes an ultimatum that the Germans stop this method of war, or else the US will join the Allies. The Germans issue the Sussex Pledge:Passenger ships would not be targeted; merchant ships would not be sunk until the presence of weapons had been established and would not be sunk without provision for the safety of passengers and crew.
Wilson won re-election (November 1916) on a slogan, “He kept us out of ___________.”
On January 3, 1917 Germany revokes the Sussex Pledge and resumes _____________________.
The public is further outraged over the Zimmermann Telegram that stated if _______________ declared war on the US, Germany will help reclaim territory lost in the ____________________.
Specifically why does President Wilson ask Congress for a declaration of war? What does he say to Congress and the American people?
The Dough Boys
The US had _____________ in uniform when war was declared. After war is declared, _______________Americans volunteer. Congress passes the _________________________ that drafts another _______________________ into the military.
Of those inducted into the military, _____% were foreign born; 400,000 were ________, 1/3 ____________ their physicals; _________ were illiterate. Concern of ignorance about the war, the President’s ________________________ in each soldier’s knap sack.
How was the selective service sold to the American People?
What happened to saloons and alcohol production due to the war? What was the justification for this policy?
America at War, A Total War: Complete mobilization of all available resources and population.
To pay for the war
2. War Bonds:
Movie Stars helped:
War Industries Board: Business leaders to supervise the transformation of the ________ _______________ economy to a wartime economy. The close relationship between business and government continues after the ________________.
Railway War Board:
Food Administration: Wheat acreage from ____________ to ___________ in 1919. Popular slogans to encourage changing domestic consumption: Meatless _______________, _________________________________________, puts cheaper food on plates and sends surplus food to ________________.
National War Labor Board: handles disputes between ________________________. It establishes an _____ hour work day for defense jobs and equal pay for __________________. US industrial war production _________________.
The Great Migration
Due to the War cutting off immigration, there was an increased need for workers. Industrialist sought ____________ labor for the first time. These new opportunities led to the __________ _____________________. About 400,000 left the ________________ from 1917 through the 1920s.
Women at Work
During the War ____ million women join the labor force for the first time. About 8 million go from low paying domestic service to higher paying ________________________. Women’s employment pushes women’s ________________ to conclusion.
Mind Mobilization (Propaganda)
The Wilson Administration creates the Committee of Public Information (CPI). It contributes to the anti-German hysteria forbidding anything German being celebrated. Social pressure is intense to rename anything with a German name.
Four Minute Men
American Protective League
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Government crackdown on dissenters leads to __________ people prosecuted under these new laws. Eugene Debs was sent to prison for _____ years for speaking against the war.
The American Expeditionary Force was led by John “Black Jack” Pershing. US troops arrive as Russia pulls out of the war. Germany focuses on a major offensive, and by May the Germans are only ________ miles from Paris. It is here Americans see their first action at Chateau Thierry and Bateau Wood. Germans are pushed back. In July Americans take part in a major offensive at the Meuse Argonne Forest. Fresh US troops turned the tide of war.
By the time the war is over, it claims _____million soldiers and close to _________ million civilians. Around ___________ Americans are killed in action in the 18 months at war. ________ die of other causes, mainly the _______________________. Around ___________ million Americans will die from this pandemic in the United States.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
At the _____th hour, ______ th day, _____th month of 1918 the war came to an end. President Wilson has a blue print plan to bring lasting peace.
1. A call for the end of ___________ diplomacy/treaties.
2. Freedom of the _______________.
3. Elimination of _____________ barriers.
4. _______________ reduction.
5. The right of nations controlled by ______________ nations to political self-determination.
6. The last point, the 14th point, called for the creation of a ______________________________, a forum where nations can meet to discuss their differences, so they do not go to war.
Britain and France are offended by Wilson’s self-righteous moralizing. They seek ___________________. In order to get his League of Nations, he accepts the ___________________________. Germany is to accept blame for the war and pay reparations to Britain and France of ________________billion dollars.
Wilson sends troops to Russia to overthrow the Bolsheviks and will stay until ______________. The US will place an economic and political blockade on Russia until 1934.
When Wilson returns home he meets stiff opposition from the _______________ over the Peace Treaty. To get the treaty ________________he traveled the country, but the schedule is too much for him and he collapses from a ___________________ that left him paralyzed. The US will not ratify the treaty. The video states that it was Wilson’s _________________________ that got in the way of the treaty ratification.
Post War World
___________________________ were treated with respect in France and England during the war. When they return they face hostility and targeted violence, including lynching.
The transition of the country to a peace time economy was difficult for Americans to the United States. The economy slumped in 1918 – 19. This culminated with Red Summer when _________ of workers went on strike. It was the ____________ labor disturbance in US history. In Chicago economic strife turned into racial riot leaving _______ dead. The economy began to improve and then a more severe recession hit the United States in 1920 and 1921.
Dock workers, the garment industry, coal miners and steel workers go on __________________. Capitalists depict the labor disturbances as the product of ________________, and much of the labor was immigrant. When bomb explodes outside the home of Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, he stages raids on anyone who questions the government. The government rounds up _______________, _______________________, subversives or anyone perceived to be causing problems.
Nativists are repulsed at the large number of immigrants from ___________________________.
A National KKK
White Protestants fear of losing their political and cultural identity with____________________.
Super American Societies
Americans join societies with an exaggerated sense of ___________________ to express their love of this country’s past. (Organizations such as the DAR, SR, Society of Mayflower Descendants)
The fear of foreigners goes unchallenged through the __________________.