The Industrial Revolution(s):
1750 to 1910 CE
Directions:Using a classroom laptop, desktop computer, or your own device, complete the WebQuest located at http://tinyurl.com/njojbz8 . Follow the instructions on the webpage and continue step by step through the Quest. You will need to complete this packet as your proceed. Your completed packet is due at the start of class on Monday, November 10th.
Please note: You will need a steady internet connection to complete this assignment. If you anticipate having difficulties obtaining the necessary technology to complete this WebQuest, please speak to Ms. Galloway and she will arrange an alternate means of you completing the assignment.
Task One: The Agricultural Revolution 1. So What’s the Industrial Revolution, Anyway? Answer the following questions as you watch:
A. What are some of the things which exist today as a result of the Industrial Revolution(s)?
2. The Agricultural Revolution and Enclosure. Please answer the following questions after reading the article, “The Four Field System.”
A. What are some of the benefits of crop rotation?
B. What was enclosure? Why was this useful for large-scale landowners?
C. Who was Richard Townshend, and what did he have to do with enclosure?
Please answer the following after viewing the illustrated video titled “The English Enclosures” by Geof Glass.
D. What arguments, according to Glass, were used as justifications for the enclosing of the commons? What were some of the consequences of the elimination of the commons?
3. Cottage Industry. After reading the article, “The Domestic System” and watching the video of the linen loom in action, please answer the following questions:
A. What was the domestic system (or putting-out system or cottage industry)? What was the primary industry involved? Who usually participated in the work?
B. What was good about the domestic system? What was bad about it?
C. What do you notice about the technique of weaving shown in the video? How would you describe it?
Task Two: Why Britain? 1. Beginning at the End. After watching at least the first ten minutes of the “Pandemonium” section of the 2010 Opening Ceremonies of the Olympic Games, answer the following questions:
A. How would you describe the scene you just saw? What were your impressions of this representation of the Industrial Revolution(s)?
B. Why do you think that the director chose to represent this portion of British history instead of any other period?
C. What major events or social changes were represented in this segment?
D. Do you think the director of this performance has a positive or negative view of the Industrial Revolution(s)? Why? Defend your answer.
2. Major Reason #1: Population Growth First, read the article “Overview: Empire and Seapower, 1714-1837: Population Explosion.” Answer the following questions:
A. What were some of the reasons the British population doubled between 1721 and 1821?
B. What effects did this population growth have on Great Britain?
Then, examine the population and life expectancy graphs included on the WebQuest. Answer the following questions:
A. Does the graph in Figure 2.1 support or disprove the information contained in the previous article?
B. Examine the life expectancy of French subjects in Figure 2.4. How does it differ from the life expectancy for the British during the same period? Why might this difference exist?
C. Examine Figure 2.4. You’ll notice that there is a drop in the life expectancy of individuals in England, France, and Sweden between 1780 and 1790. What potential historical reason could you give for this temporary drop in life expectancy? (Consider material we have already covered in this unit of study.)
3. Major Reason #2: Finance and Property. Please watch the Crash Course video on capitalism and socialism and answer the following questions:
A. What is mercantile capitalism? How is it different from industrial capitalism?
B. What particular factors led to the development of capitalism?
C. What is socialism, and how was it a response to industrial capitalism?
D. What is Marxian socialism (sometimes called communism, although that’s super inaccurate)? What does Marx argue regarding class struggle?
After watching the Crash Course video, please read the passage from Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, and answer the following questions:
A. According to Adam Smith, what is the “ultimate object” of the mercantile system?
B. What does Smith view as the sole purpose of manufacturing and production?
C. Based on what you’ve learned from this passage as well as the previous video, would Smith be considered an industrial capitalist, or a mercantile capitalist?
4. Major Reason #4: Natural Environment. Examine the two maps of natural features provided on the WebQuest. Use these to answer the following questions:
A. What is the first map detailing? Why might this particular feature be useful during the Industrial Revolution?
B. What does the second map detail? Again, what on this map might prove useful during the Industrial Revolution?
C. Compare the two maps. Do you notice any patterns as to where the waterways are most common? Why do you think the canals and waterways are constructed where they are?
Now examine the last map two maps on the page. Use it, as well as the two previous maps, in order to answer the following questions:
D. What happens to population density in Great Britain between 1801 and 1851 CE? What might be some of the reasons for the transformation displayed in the two maps?
E. Where is the population density most noticeable on the 1851 map? What might be a reason for those areas having denser populations than other parts of Great Britain?
5. What Do You Think? Please respond to the poll on the WebQuest page.
Task Three: First Industrial Revolution (1750 to 1850 CE) 1. Innovations in Textile Production. Using the Advanced Search option on Google, research the following inventions and fill in the chart. You may wish to watch the video illustrations to get a better idea of how each invention works.
Name of Invention
Name of Inventor
2. Moving Goods and People. Read the article “History of canals in Great Britain,” and answer the following questions:
A. Did canals originate in Great Britain? Where might they have begun?
B. Who began the era of canal building in Britain? What were some of the consequences of this movement?
Watch the Crash Course video on railroads! Answer these questions:
A. How did railroads expose all sectors of society to the Industrial Revolution(s)?
B. What did railways do to alter the way human beings understand time and distance?
C. How can the transformation of the world as a result of the use of railroads be compared to the changes which resulted from the advent of the Internet?
3. Reactions Against the First Industrial Revolution. Listen to the first 10 minutes and 42 seconds of the Luddite podcast linked on the WebQuest. Use the information from that podcast to answer the following questions.
A. Who were the Luddites? When were they active? What was the historical context for their actions?
B. Why did the Luddites object to the changes which were occurring in the textile industry? Who were the croppers?
C. What were working conditions like in some of the early textile factories?
Listen to the ballad, “General Ludd’s Triumph,” and pay particular attention to the lyrics. Then, answer the following questions:
A. Based on the lyrics of the song, who would be singing this song: a Luddite or a factory owner?
B. One of the verses of the song goes thusly:
Let the wise and the great lend their aid and advice
Nor e'er their assistance withdraw
Till full fashioned work at the old fashioned price
Shall deprive honest workmen of bread. Based on this text, what were the Luddites seeking with their actions?
Examine the cartoon displayed on the WebQuest. How has the term “Luddite” been transformed in modern culture? What does the word mean today?
Task Four: The Second Industrial Revolution (1850 to 1910 CE) 1. Comparing Two Industrial Revolutions. Read the passage from “The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914.” Use it to answer the following questions:
A. How does Mokyr characterize the innovations of the First Industrial Revolution?
B. What was the relationship of the Second Industrial Revolution and science? How did that differ from the First Industrial Revolution?
2. Changing Technologies. Again, use Google’s Advanced Search in order to find information on the following inventions:
3. Personal Response. Answer the prompt on the WebQuest page with a thoughtful comment using the information you have gathered.
Task Five: Social Transformations 1. Good Change? Bad Change? A. Why is height used as a measure which can indicate the standard of living?
B. What does the height of English soldiers between 1730 and 1850 suggest about the First Industrial Revolution?
C. What does the data regarding life expectancy during the Industrial Revolution(s) suggest?
2. Poverty in Literature and Art. Read the passage from Charles Dickens’ Oliver Twist. A. How does Dickens describe the city Oliver is walking through? What is the overall impression you receive of the urban environment in England?
B. What are Oliver and the man he is traveling with going to do? What is their job?
C. How has the woman in the passage died, according to one man?
D. Based on the passage, how do you think Dickens feels about poverty? Why is he writing about this subject?
Examine the images, “The Third-Class Carriage” and “The Washerwoman.”
E. What is similar between these two images?
F. How is this type of art different from art we’ve seen in the past (think about the Renaissance, for example)?
3. Cult of Domesticity Please read the article “The Cult of True Womanhood” and answer the associated questions.
A. What was the cult of domesticity? According to this ideology, where was the proper sphere for women to be found, and what was the justification for these limitations?
B. What was Republican or Moral Motherhood?
C. How did medical science contribute to the idea of the cult of domesticity?
D. Did the cult of domesticity really influence industrial society? Why or why not?
Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 1919
Task Six: Industrial Revolution Outside of Britain 1. Belgium A. What were the main reasons which caused Belgium to industrialize?
B. What were some of the long-term consequences of Belgian industrialization?
2. The United States A. What were the main reasons which caused the United States to industrialize?
B. What were some of the long-term consequences of American industrialization?
3. Germany A. What were the main reasons which caused Germany to industrialize?
B. What were some of the long-term consequences of German industrialization?
4. France A. What were the main reason which caused France to industrialize?
B. What were some of the long-term consequences of French industrialization?
5. Japan A. What were the main reasons which caused Japan to industrialize?
B. What were some of the long-term consequences of Japanese industrialization?
Task Seven: Reforming the Revolution
1. Urbanization, Health, and Environment. First, play the Muck and Brass game. Then, read the article, “The Great Stink,” and answer the following questions:
A. What was the Great Stink, and what were its causes?
B. What finally prompted the changes necessary to clean up the Thames?
C. Why was sewage disposal one of the few environmental improvements Members of Parliament undertook during the Industrial Age?
2. Labor Movements, Unions, and Strikes. Please define the following terms:
Then, watch the documentary on the “Triangle Fire” and answer the following questions.
A. Who were the principle workers in New York’s garment district in the early 20th century? Where were they from? What was their average age?
B. What causes the fire in the Triangle building? On what floor does the fire start? What routes did the workers use to escape the burning building?
C. What happened to the owners of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company? How do you feel about this?
4. Personal Response. Please respond to the prompt on the WebQuest page.