The Thirteen English Colonies 1630 to 1750 1 The New England Colonies read pgs 100 – 107

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US History

Fort Burrows

The Thirteen English Colonies 1630 to 1750

4.1 -- The New England Colonies

READ pgs 100 – 107

Time Line:

1630 – Puritans from England set up the Massachusetts Bay Colony

1675 – Metacom leads fight against settlers in New England

1682 – William Penn founds the colony of Pennsylvania

1689 – William and Mary sign the English Bill of Rights

1700s – Plantations in the Southern Colonies begin to heavily use slave labor

1730s – The religious, Great Awakening, sweeps through the colonies

1732 – The colony of Georgia becomes a refuge for people jailed for ‘debt’

Main Idea:

The New England Colonies were founded by political and religious reformers and developed around ‘tightly knit’ towns and villages.

Names often contain their own bits of history, and the colonies referred to in this chapter are no exception. Some names are so familiar today that we don’t even think about the history behind them. Some are foreign and are now strange to us. Here are some names you’ll find histories of in this chapter: Maryland, Mason-Dixon Line, and Pennsylvania.
*** Who was Maryland named after ? ____________________________________________________

*** What is Mason-Dixon Line ? _________________________________________________________

*** Who was Pennsylvania named for ? ___________________________________________________


Puritans – group of English Protestants who settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony

General Court – elected representatives assembly in the Massachusetts Bay Colony

Fundamental a 1639 plan of government in the Puritan colony

Orders of in Connecticut; expanded the idea of representative government

Connecticut in the English colonies

religious tolerance – willingness to let others practice their own beliefs

Sabbath – holy day of rest

town meeting – meeting in colonial New England where settlers discussed and voted on issues
Setting the Scene:

Boston merchant Samuel Sewall frowned as he greeted Mr. Hayward, an acquaintance. Hayward had cut off his long gray hair. In its place, he was wearing a full wig of dark hair that made him look younger! Sewall protested that in the Bible, Jesus had said a person cannot “make one’s Hair white or black.” Hayward gulped nervously. He claimed that his doctor had advised him to wear the wig.

By the time Sewall had recorded this story in 1685, Boston had become the busiest town in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Most of the colony’s founders were no longer living. Yet, Sewall shared their ideals. He looked to the Bible to guide him in matters large and small - even the treatment of one’s hair. Sewall wanted his colony to be a “holy commonwealth” that followed the laws of GOD.
Religion played a large part in the founding of colonies in New England. During the 1630s, thousands of English settlers came to live around Massachusetts Bay, north of Plymouth. Gradually, English settlers built towns and farms throughout the region. These settlements shared a distinctive way of life.
The Puritans Leave England for MASSACHUSETTS

Migration to Massachusetts Bay led by Puritans

Wanted simpler forms of worship; do away with Catholic church practices

No special clothing for priests, no

organ music; less finely decorated houses of worship

‡ Leaving England During ‘Evil Times’

Puritans were powerful; well-educated and successful merchants/landowners

Charles I disapproved of Puritans and their ideas

He canceled Puritan business charters; jailed others

Puritans wanted grant to charter the Massachusetts Bay Company

New society based on biblical laws and teachings; set example to the world

Some settlers joined for economic (land/business) reasons versus religious reasons

‡ Governing the Colony

In 1630 – 1,000 settlers followed John Winthrop to North America

John Winthrop chosen first governor of Massachusetts Bay Company (MBC)

Discontent arose because only male stockholders in MBC could vote

Most settlers were not stockholders; resented laws due to no representation

Expanded vote to male stockholders and male church members and elected representatives to an assembly called the General Court

By 1640 – 15,000 settlers journeyed to Mass; called Great Migration; Boston grew to be colony’s largest town
¿¿ Explain the importance of the General Court in the growth of representative government. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Problems in Massachusetts Bay

Puritans did not like anyone to question religious beliefs or government

Discontented settlers forced to leave; some founded other colonies

‡ Thomas Hooker Founds CONNECTICUT

Hooker was a Puritan minister

In 1636, Hooker led 100 settlers to Hartford on Connecticut River

Wanted colony with strict limits on government

Wrote plan of government called Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (FOC)

FOC gave vote to all male property owners and limited governor’s power

FOC EXPANDED the idea of representative government

¿¿ Explain the role of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut in the growth of representative government._______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
‡ Roger Williams Settles RHODE ISLAND

Williams was a young minister in Salem

Believed Puritan church in Massachusetts had too much power

Believed church and state should be completely separate

Believed Puritans did not have right to force church attendance

Left Massachusetts; lived with Indians; established Rhode Island colony

Allowed religious tolerance; gave all white men the right to vote
¿¿ Compare the political reasons for the establishment of Connecticut and those for the establishment of Rhode Island. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
NEW HAMPSHIRE 3 Points of View

  1. The Province of New Hampshire was a crown colony. The charter was enacted by William and Mary, the joint monarchs of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, at the same time that the Province of Massachusetts Bay was created. Both were formerly parts of the Massachusetts Bay Colony-1630.

  2. Sir Ferdinando Gorges (1565–1647), the "Father of English Colonization in North America, was an early English colonial Entrepreneur and founder of the Province of Maine in 1622, although Gorges himself never set foot in the New World. In 1622, Gorges received a land patent, along with John Mason, from the Plymouth Council for New England for the Province of Maine, the original boundaries of which were between the Merrimack and Kennebec rivers. In 1629, he and Mason divided the colony, with Mason's portion south of the Piscataqua River becoming the Province of New Hampshire.

  3. John Wheelwright c.1592-1679, American Puritan clergyman, founder of Exeter, N.H.
While pastor of a Puritan church at Mt. Wollaston (now Quincy), Mass., he alienated himself from the parent church in Boston by publicly defending the views of Anne Hutchinson , his sister-in-law. The General Court in Boston banished him from the colony in 1638, whereupon he formed a settlement at Exeter, N.H.
Anne Hutchinson Speaks Out

Devout Puritan; regularly attended church; ‘ready wit and bold spirit’

Questioned minister’s teachings and discussed with friends

Appeared before the Mass General Court

Puritans could not prove she had broken any laws/disobeyed teachings

Told General Court that God spoke to her directly

Court ordered her to leave Massachusetts so she moved to Rhode Island with family and friends

Became important symbol in struggle for religious freedom

Puritans at War with Native Americans

Settlers built trading and fishing villages along coast

King made coastal settlements into a separate colony called New Hampshire

Settlements took over Native American land; fighting broke out

In 1675, Indians attacked villages in New England

Indians destroyed 12 towns; killed 600 settlers

Indian chief captured and sold with 1,000 Indians into slavery

Pattern of English expansion followed by war with Indians would be

repeated OVER and OVER!
Life in New England Towns and Villages

‡ Religion and Family

Took Sabbath seriously; no games, no tavern visits to drink, talk, or joke

All attended church services – LASTED ALL DAY

Men and women on separate sides of church; Blacks and Indians in balcony

‡ Government

Common – ‘center’ of village by meetinghouse for worship and meetings

Town meetings gave settlers a chance to speak their mind/discuss issues

Encouraged growth of democratic ideas in New England

‡ Economy

Rocky soil = poor farming; few crops

Forests were full of riches

Sawmill ports in Boston, MA and Portsmouth, NH; shipbuilding center

Hunted whales; whaling later grew into a big business
¿¿ How did the geography of New England influence it economic activity ?

Decline of the Puritans

During 1700s, Puritan tradition declined

Fewer families left England for religious reasons

Puritans ‘stamped’ New England with customs and dream of religious


  1. Why did the Puritans decide to leave England ?


  1. What problems in Massachusetts colony caused people to leave ?


  1. Why were the Puritans and Native Americans at war ? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  1. Why were towns and villages important in New England life ? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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