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Major Article 04

How the Myers Briggs Temperament Indicator (MBTI) Can Be Used in Teaching

Mike Shreeve

Mike Shreeve is a freelance trainer who has used the MBTI since 1994 in a variety of applications in teaching and coaching. He has taught NLP in Pilgrims summer school since 1993 and is currently interested in making MBTI and other resources more available to teachers. E-Mail:


A personal journey

The bigger picture-use of psychological approaches to enhance learning

How the MBTI can be used by teachers

The facts and the concepts-what is the MBTI?

Some more facts

The four dominant motivations

An example

The Extravert Introvert Dimension

The Judging Perceiving Dimension

A brief summary of each type

The operating instructions of MBTI

The benefits of MBTI

Case Studies

Further Reading
A personal journey
Ken is the son of a friend of mine. I have known him since childhood. Once, bright bubbly, full of energy, he is now in his twenties, his shoulders are slumped and his eyes have lost their sparkle. His voice tone is flat, somewhat hesitant, and no longer resonates with joy. A natural with people but he is studying to be an accountant. He refuses to give up. Yet you can see the impact of his decision. I, too, had issues deciding the career direction I wanted to take.
By chance, I took a test to learn more about myself. Although I liked people I needed time on my own to unwind. My interest was towards the connections of ideas and understanding patterns. If I spent time too much time with people my senses overwhelmed. Work had to be meaningful and innovative. This explained both my love of teaching and the frustration of being in a school that did not take risks or espouse a humanist approach. On moving career to accountancy there was the pain of detailed working and the joy of the variety and contact with all sorts of people. In banking the complexity and the relationship building and the high trust environment (“our word is our bond”) was the buzz but not the impersonal rules of a large organisation. It was only after the Myers Briggs test that I fully understood where I could be most happy. I have since learnt the wider value of the tool as a teaching aide.

The bigger picture- the use of psychological approaches to enhance learning
In order to enhance the potential for learning of their students, teachers can benefit from using practical, psychological approaches to extend their teaching impact. Psychological approaches can assist the teacher to engage students in their preferred way, to use their natural motivation to learn with their maximum energy. The teacher can use these approaches to understand, analyse and coach students who have difficulty learning a subject or part of a subject. Without it, the teacher is left with the task only. The nearest analogy I can think of is that paying attention to the task, rather than how we approach the task, is like trying to cut grass with scissors ignoring the existence of a lawnmower.
Any psychological approach should be able to befriend the unconscious mind which is a vast ocean of potential that we use to learn our first language and then sometimes never again in the school system. Psychology can assist with “different strokes for different folks” recognising each individuals perception of an event is never the same and it helps teachers improve results by understanding the individual personality.

For many teachers in the humanistic tradition, the goal of teaching is more that the development of certain skills; it is the development and maturation of the student. In order to achieve this goal, students need to develop self awareness of who they are and who they can be. As Howard Gardener says” I want my children to understand the world, but not just because the world is fascinating and the human mind is curious. I want them to understand it so that they will be positioned to make it a better place. Knowledge is not the same as morality, but we need to understand if we are to avoid past mistakes and move in productive directions. An important part of that understanding is knowing who we are and what we can do... Ultimately, we must synthesize our understandings for ourselves.

There are many psychological approaches that inform teaching including Gardner himself; Feuerstein and his Instrumental Enrichment; Transactional Analysis; Neuro-Lingustic programming and many others in the past such as Piaget. These approaches add colour and extend the possibilities that a teacher has to improve the learning environment.

One such psychological approach is based on the work of Carl Jung who noticed that people had different preferences for the way they used their mind. The work of Jung was published in his theory of Psychological Type Kathryn and Isobel Myers Briggs adapted the theory and designed a self report questionnaire to make Jung’s Theory of practical use.

The facts and the concepts-What is the MBTI?
Following more than 50 years of research and development the MBTI questionnaire is now the most widely used personality questionnaire in the world, with more than 3.5 million questionnaires completed worldwide each year. It is available in 19 languages.

According to Jung differences in individuals are due to deep seated choices in the way we prefer to use our minds. When you are active you are involved in one or two mental activities:

  • Jung noticed that people directed their energy and were energised externally Extraversion (E) and observed that these people tended to talk out their ideas whilst Introverts (I) tended to think it through.

  • Taking in information which Jung called perceiving. Jung observed that there are two opposite ways to perceive which he called Sensing(S) and Intuition (N). Sensors tend to pay attention to specifics whilst those with an Intuitive preference find they look for and need the big picture.

  • Organising that information and coming to conclusions Jung called judging. According to Jung there are two ways to make decisions and come to conclusions. The first preference is to attend to logical implications Thinking (T) the second way is to attend to the impact on people through personal values Feeling (F).

  • Finally Myers and Briggs added the fourth scale of how people orientate to the external world whether they prefer a Judging (J) process or a Perceiving (P) process relating to the outer world. The judging preference favours an organised, planned learning environment whilst the perceiving preference is to a more spontaneous free flowing, playful, environment.

These preferences can be clear, moderate or slight depending on each individual’s profile. The combination of preferences leads to 16 possible types as in the diagram below. The Myers Briggs preference is indicated by the four capital letters (e.g.INTJ) the table below has been colour coded according to the dominance motivation. The dominant letter is shown by capitals.

iStj 11.5

isFp 8.8

iNfj 1.5

inTp 3.3

iSfj 13.7

inFp 4.4

eNfp 8.1

isTp 5.4

eStp 4.3

enFj 2.5

eNtp 3.2

enTj 1.8

eSfp 8.5

esFj 12.3

iNtj 2.1

esTj 8.6

“Taking the MBTI questionnaire is usually an individual’s first step in discovering their Type, and is not designed to be a stand alone process. It should always be accompanied by a feedback session, allowing whoever is taking it to discuss the results, and to select the Type that they feel provides the ‘best fit’ with their personality. This thereby builds a foundation for further personal awareness and development.”

Some more facts
The types are not evenly distributed. The table above gives the percentage in the US population. There are nine times as many isFj’s as iNfj’s.
There are significant differences across countries. Just in the European countries (apart from Denmark) the sensor pattern is favoured more than in the UK. The European population is more extravert than the UK with exceptions in Italy which tends to more introvert facets than the UK.
Sensors comprise the largest group in the population with 38% then those of a Feeling type 28% Thinking 19% and Intuitive 15%.
64% of university professors prefer Intuition to Sensing. This is twice as much as the students at this level. There is a gradual shift from junior school to university from sensing to intuition style of teaching.
The most attractive occupation for an enFp is counselling or psychologist and teacher of arts, health and special education; then research. There are statistics for each type as to their career choices.
How the MBTI can be used by teachers
The MBTI has been used widely for personal development and self awareness in a number of contexts. As well as career planning, coaching, management development and personal development the MBTI has some very specific uses for teachers.
The teacher can use the student’s natural motivation by planning lessons that appeal to their dominant motivation. This makes studying more easy and enjoyable and release more energy to the learning of a subject. The impact of motivation on learning success has been frequently researched and most studies would suggest to 25% of learning effectiveness. There are four basic ways to motivate a student and these are outlined below.

A second way the MBTI can help the teacher is by raising self awareness and the self confidence of the student. The basic message of the MBTI is that it is OK to be different and we do not have to pretend to be other than we are. This teaches the student how to learn autonomously and how to communicate with others.

The MBTI can assist the teacher select effective groups and teams. A study in the USA used MBTI to select a compatible roommate at university and found requests for room changes down by 60% and damage to rooms by 36%. The teacher can use this knowledge to select project groups, work in pairs. Group dynamics and interaction can be enhanced.
Effective coaching and feedback can be delivered one to one through zigzag analysis. This process uses strength to overcome a weakness. For example an ENFP’s interest in people can be used to improve his or her attention to detail, for example, paying attention to individual biographical or physical details.
The MBTI can give the teacher direction as to the learning preferences of their students and their own strengths. Alicia and Lisa Fairhurst highlight the advantages of the MBTI in this respect. “Many teachers are familiar with other learning theories (such as Howard Gardner seven intelligences) these theories are valuable in helping teachers recognise and respond to difference in learning styles. However, like most available theories, these theories focus primarily on the student’s learning process without taking into account the needs and skills of the teacher. Temperament and personality type theories allow teachers to evaluate themselves as well as their students in ways that lead to effective learning experiences that can help meet everyone’s needs. People learn to teach differently because they are different. By learning the necessary techniques teachers will be able to recognise the strengths that their style brings to the teaching process and how to communicate with people who have other styles.”
Finally the MBTI can help in academic, course and career planning. It can help both parents and children understand the areas of work and life they are likely to make their best contribution.
The four dominant motivations
Jung saw the dominant process as the lens through which life is experienced. It is through this lens we access our true energy. It is estimated that 50% of our interests and energy are allocated to this dominant function and 33% to our second function (called the auxiliary) the auxiliary is the second letter of our middle Myers Briggs type. Thus the isFp has sensing as their auxiliary. This student would have only 17% of its energy for a teacher who taught in an intuitive thinking style. It is essential that the teacher needs to plan their lessons to appeal to all motivations. Below are brief characteristics of each motivation.


Wants something practical and relevant to now to learn. They distrust theory and learning linguistically. They like to learn through their senses and like instruction where they can hear and touch what they are learning. They appreciate examples and demonstrations with detailed instructions of what is new. They like a system of instruction with monitoring and feedback built in. They may enjoy audiovisual and laboratory work but direct experience is best. Sensors enjoy mastering a skill through continued repetition and practice rather than jumping from one skill to another. Unless they see the immediate relevance of a skill they will lose energy and be turned off. The teacher should focus on relevance


Must find inspiration or else they switch off or find their interest outside the classroom. They are particularly drawn to theory, patterns and the connection of ideas. It can be the etymology and linguistics that attract an intuitive person learning language.

Intuitive learners need to see the big picture and can become impatient with details if they appear like lists of unconnected facts.
The teacher should focus on creativity and the big picture


Students want logically organised experiences. They want teachers and the learning experience to make sense; to learn the cause and effect of things and what makes things tick. If they don’t have a fair and structured teacher their main motivation may drain away. They prefer objective, direct, non-personal feedback that helps them improve.

The teacher should focus on being organised, structured and competent and to connect parts of learning by stimulating thinking.


Students who have a feeling approach value the warmth and encouragement of a sympathetic teacher. They want a learning experience they can put their heart into. To fully engage them they need to learn about the people involved in an experience. A text that paints a picture of life in a particular country is going to be more interesting than isolated sentences. They dislike abrasiveness and will emotionally or physically withdraw from conflict. They like positive feedback that encourages them as people. The teacher should focus on building rapport

An Example
Below is an example of the different activities using the four dominant motivators;
Learning objective: To build and develop vocabulary (for younger learners)
Sensing: The words to be used in the exercise are shown in visual form. They are copied and broken into syllables with their dictionary definitions. One sentence is written with each word. A word puzzle and a song are composed using all the words. (The last two exercises appeal to those sensors who are also perceivers and like a fun element) the first three to sensors judgers who like a familiar activities they know how to do.
Intuitive: Write a story using all the words. Investigate the meaning of the word and find similar words. Place all the words on one paper and explore what the words have in common and what is different.
Feelers: Practice spelling words with a parent; the parent to confirm they did so. Think of a role play between types of people using all the words.
Thinking: Write each word with one antonym and one synonym; make a crossword puzzle with clues. Explore the rules that each word is a particular example of
Integration: Draw a picture with all aspects of the words in one story. Write the relevant words on each part of the story and elaborate on the details.
The Extravert Introvert Dimensions
The Extravert learner likes to talk out his or her thoughts the introvert likes to reflect and work through their thoughts internally. Group work can tire out introverts and put them on the spot. They often are better at listening, reading and writing. An important rule is to let introverts have time to prepare for extravert behaviour. For example the teacher may say “we are going to do some presentations next week” rather than spring a surprise. Introverts need quiet time to recharge and prefer to have one best friend than be part of a group. They like to keep their thoughts and feelings private and will resent a teacher that makes public a personal fact. The extravert learner likes an active noisy environment and learning by draft. They will often verbalise their first thoughts and then improve these. It is not constructive to be too critical of their thoughts at this stage. Extraverts generally have lower levels of concentration and need more activity.
The Judging Perceiving Dimensions
The perception of time and the need for closure are the major distinguishing features of the judging perceiving dimension. The perceiver likes the information gathering process and is spontaneous and adaptable as they like to keep things open and avoid making decisions. Perceiving students will benefit from constructive support to plan and organise their time. When plans are being made perceiving students benefit from having some unplanned time. Judging students can handle this knowing it has been built into the plan.
Judgers like to complete tasks and have a strong drive for closure. They can become demotivated by indecision or constant change. They benefit from having a clear schedule and plan. They are motivated by celebrations of completion. Individual contracts can motivate both judging and perceiving students agreeing the way they might complete a project. Judging students will benefit from learning not to complete work unless it meets the required standards.

A brief summary of the characteristics of each type
The notion of best fit is a key concept of MBTI. This means that the student is the ultimate judge of their Myers Briggs Type. The test is only an indicator. This focus on choice makes it within the humanistic spectrum of educational tools. Bearing in mind some of these caveats the following is a brief description of each personality Type. The short descriptions e.g. inspector/perfectionist apply to the personality as a teacher and then as a student. The types have been grouped into four distinctions Guardians; Artisans; Intuitive Feelers and Intuitive Thinkers in accordance with the temperament types discovered by Kiersey.

Sensing Judging Types: Core needs membership and belonging, responsibility and duty



ISTJ (Inspector)(Perfectionist)

ISFJ (Protector) (Conservator)

The general personality is someone who is serious quiet organised learner who likes to master practical skills

Linear learner with a strong need for order and structure.

Likes direct experience

Likes multi sensory methods and lectures

Enjoys working alone

Likes clear goals

Prefers practical tests

They offer a calm, serious precise teaching style.

As teachers may over empathise need for accuracy and detail

A quiet friendly responsible and dedicated. They work devoted to meet obligations and serve their friends and school. Thorough, painstaking and accurate. May need time to master technical subjects as their interests are not often technical

Linear learner with a strong need for order and structure

Likes direct experience

Enjoys a harmonious cooperative classroom

Likes multi sensory methods and practical learning

As teachers they are sensitive and good at breaking complex tasks to small manageable ones. May be overprotective and also allow their students to take advantage.

ESTJ (Administrator)(Stabiliser)

ESFJ (Caretaker) (harmoniser)

Practical, realistic, matter-of-fact, with a natural head for business or mechanics. Not interested in subjects they see no use for, but can apply themselves when necessary. Like to organise and run activities. May make good administrators, especially if they remember to consider others’ feelings and points of view.

Step by step learning with groups

As teachers are perceived as well-planned., often running school trips. Very structured routines with practical examples. May seem inflexible

Warm hearted, talkative, popular, conscientious, born co-operators, active committee members. Need harmony and may be good at creating it. Always doing something nice for someone. Work best with encouragement and praise. Main interest is in things that directly and visibly affect people’s lives. Not interested in theory. Like group work and well defined goals. Strong need for structure and step by step learning.

As teachers, create a warm, well disciplined classroom where courtesy is valued. May be seen as having “favourites” and can be welded to established ideas and values.

SP Artisans: Freedom and Action; Excitation and Variation

STP Operators: very observant and direct

SFP Performers: need to feel a sense of freedom


ESTP (Promoter)(negotiator)

ESFP (Entertainer) (actor)

Good at on-the-spot problem solving. Do not worry, enjoy whatever comes along. Tend to like mechanical things and sports, with friends on the side. Adaptable, tolerant, generally conservative in values. Dislike long explanations. Are best with real things that can be worked, handled, taken apart, or put together.

Linear learner who needs help in organising. Need to know why. Likes group projects; direct experience and team competition

As teachers great on the spot problem solvers; very active; may not always sustain a consistent approach

Outgoing, easygoing, accepting, friendly, enjoy everything and make things more fun for others by their enjoyment. Like sports and making things happen. Know what’s going on and join in eagerly. Find remembering facts easier than mastering theories. Are best in situations that need sound common sense and practical ability with people as well as with things Need orderly, well- defined goals and like group work.

As teachers generate tremendous fun. Good at observing body language. Very tolerant and generous; may not follow the rules.

ISTP (Trouble-shooter) (tinkerer)

ISFP (Composer) (artist)

Cool onlookers who analyse with a detached curiosity and unexpected flashes of humour. Like to understand cause and effect and why mechanical thinks work

Linear learner needs help in organising

Likes direct experience and working alone. They have a high drive to efficiency and dislike complication or wasting energy.
Very able to break complexity into component parts. Have flair with the technical aspects of their role. May leave things to last minute

Retiring, quietly friendly, sensitive, kind, and modest about their abilities. Shun disagreements; do not force their opinions or values on others. Usually do not care to lead but are often loyal followers. Often relaxed about getting things done, because they enjoy the present moment and do no want to spoil it by undue haste or exertion.

They need help to organise, direct and practical. They require a sensitive teacher and harmony in group projects

As teachers they are light-hearted, spontaneous and experimental and exciting. May be taken advantage of and neglect planning.

Intuitive Types NF idealists Identity and Self-actualisation: Meaning and Significance

NFJ Mentors Good at giving orders; they like to help people develop

NFP Advocate: less likely to give orders but like to focus on the good of the group and new ways of doing things

INFJ (Developer)(writer)

INFP (Questor)(dreamer)

Succeed by perseverance, originally, and desire to do whatever is needed or wanted. Put their best efforts into their work. Quietly forceful, conscientious, concerned for others. Respected for their firm principles. Likely to be honoured and followed for their clear convictions s to how best to serve the common good.

Theory first then applications; like open ended instructions; working alone. Need harmony in groups

As teachers tend to be a behind scenes director. Use creative writing and linked themes to teach. Good at nurturing one to one. Less able to deal with conflict and disorder

Full of enthusiasm and loyalties, but seldom talk of these until they know you well. Care about learning, ideas, language, and independent projects of their own. Tend to undertake too much, and then somehow get it done. Friendly, but often too absorbed in what they are doing to be sociable. Little concerned with possessions or physical surroundings. Global learner who needs help organising; likes reading and listening; likes autonomy and needs harmony.
As teachers they nurture the creative gifts of their students. They create a calm, warm atmosphere and tend to teach by facilitating others, They give lots of praise. They need time to dream and can be overwhelmed by too much activity. They can be slow at asking for help

ENFJ (Mobiliser) (teacher)

ENFP (Values Crusader)

Responsive and responsible. Generally feel real concern for what others think or want, and try to handle things with due regard for the other person’s feelings. Can present a proposal or lead a group discussion with ease and tact. Sociable, popular, sympathetic. Responsive to praise and criticism. Global group learning with harmony and structure

Natural born leaders, creative and encouraging. Have a high need for positive feedback and may get critical if not.

Warm enthusiastic, high-spirited, ingenious, and imaginative. Able to do almost anything that interests them. Quick with a solution for any difficulty and ready to help anyone with a problem. Often rely on their ability to improvise instead of preparing in advance. Can usually find compelling reasons for whatever they want.

Global learner who need choices and deadlines;

likes reading and listening; likes autonomy and needs harmony enjoys group projects.

As teachers create a fun, enthusiastic classroom. Can become distracted and change interests and loyalties

NT Rationals: Knowledge and competence: Will power and mastery

Major skills Strategy and design

NTJ-organiser Like their students to know how to think. Focus on best strategy and challenging the thinking of students

NTP-Inventor-like to provide information rather than give orders. Keen observers of patterns and processes

INTJ (Planner)(Scientist)

INTP (Definer)(Theorist)

Usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. In fields that appeal to them, they have a fine power to organise a job and carry it through with or without help.

Sceptical, critical, independent determined, sometimes stubborn. Must learn to yield less important points in order to win the most important. Likes to work alone and written tests. Wants theory first; can be global or linear learner.

As teachers are innovators in thought and will identify discrepancies, Very determined may over intellectualise and can set too challenging standards.

Quiet and reserved. Especially enjoy theoretical or scientific pursuits. Like solving problems with logic and analysis. Usually interested mainly in ideas, with little liking for parties or small talk. Tend to have sharply defined interests. Need careers where some strong interest can be used and useful. Needs help finishing; Theory first; autonomy.
As teachers they encourage independent thinking. They give precise definitions and focus on learning processes. They are critical of the thinking not the person. They become so focused on the logic of a system they detach from people or the application of the knowledge.

ENTJ (Director) (Commander)

ENTP (Innovators) (Improviser)

Hearty, frank, decisive, leaders in activities. Usually good in anything that requires reasoning and intelligent talk, such as public speaking. Are usually well informed and enjoy adding to their fund of knowledge. May sometimes appear more positive and confident than their experience in an area warrants. Competitive global or linear learner who needs competent teacher

As teachers tend to use Socratic methods and encourage debate. They want insightful thinking. Create firm control. They may be too dominant and not give sufficient encouragement to quieter students

Quick, ingenious, good any many things. Stimulating company, alert and outspoken. May argue for fun on either side of a question. Resourceful in solving new and challenging problems, but may neglect routine assignments. Apt to turn to one new interest after another. Skilful in finding logical reasons for what they want. Needs inner discipline and timelines. Global learner;
Creative thinkers and great talkers, dynamic, active classes. May be distracted from the set curriculum or break complex problems into components.

The operating instructions of the MBTI
When you operate a piece of equipment it is essential to know the correct way to operate. These are the key attitudes to go with the MBTI.
The danger of all such instruments is that it can encourage labelling. For example there may be a temptation to impose a limitation on yourself or others such as “he/she is an ENFP and cannot master vocabulary”. The MBTI should be used in conjunction with the principles below.

  • No stereotyping; Psychological Type is not a box that we are put into by others. It is a way of understanding our preferences and those of other people.

  • Everyone is unique; Psychological Type does not explain everything. Within the 16 Types there are many variations. Some of the variations have been mapped by a new instrument called MBTI Step 2 that identifies five facets for each broad category such as Extraversion. This does not take away the principle that each broad pattern is uniquely configured within an individual.

  • It is not a complete explanation of human behaviour; Type alone cannot account for every problem. It does lead to a deeper understanding of each student and give a logical model for why people do and say the things they do.

  • No one Type is better than another. Each has a unique strengths which have their own pitfalls

  • You should not use Type for selection because it looks at natural preferences not abilities.

  • Use a strength to overcome a weakness; the way to develop a student is through their strengths. For example if someone has difficulty focusing on detailed vocabulary and their profile is ENFP you might use their feeling strength and ask them to choose a sensor (who is good at detail) to work with on a vocabulary project.

  • All data is confidential including the four key letters and should only be revealed with the permission of the individual. It is useful for Type to be public when undertaking group work so this permission should be sought. In my experience, it is rarely withheld.

The benefits of the MBTI
The MBTI is a tool that should be used to support a developmental approach and humanistic classroom by fostering understanding, teamwork, harmony and tolerance. Some of the major benefits are for teachers and students.

  • Greater self awareness and understanding of how you prefer to learn, why you communicate in the way you do

  • More confidence in your own self potential and more tolerance of others differences

  • Better career development

  • More able to discuss weaknesses (shadow strengths) more constructively

  • The teacher is given a tool understand his or her students’ preferred way of learning to result in better motivation

  • A tool that enables you to assess and analyse the process of teaching as well as the content.

  • Better understanding of diversity within the classroom. It can be used to examine sensitively other differences between students.

Case Studies
The following are examples of how the MBTI can be used.
Please let me be understood

A secondary school in Italy invited me to give feedback.

The classroom was dynamic, excitable, and presentational. And that was just the teachers! In fact the noise level was so high partly because teachers operated an open door policy for other teachers. I could see that some of the introverts were interrupted in their concentration..
I asked if the students understood how they preferred to learn by some key questions. 65% of the class were introverts and needed a quieter classroom and more time to process. At the end we discussed how to bring in more introverted exercises such as to tell the students in advance the planned activities and when they might need to contribute; to bring in more written exercises; to give students time to prepare for certain exercises and design more varied evaluation methods to help the introverts.
So What?
When training some managers in time management I started with the main theories and then gave some simple visual tools to plan and organise. After a while I realised that I was getting a “so what” response. Seeing this was a sensors approach I modified my teaching to deal with the specifics of time management such as lists, diary organisation and practical solutions to issues. In other words I matched the sensor needs of my students and switched from a more natural intuitive style. This radically altered the perception of the training.
Home Study
Recently I coached a student who had been educated at home since primary school level, She was unmotivated and not keen to make the transition to workplace. The MBTI explained that as an extravert she found studying at home very difficult. We worked on new strategies for motivation. We also found the work experience that suited her as an extravert sensor. The end result has been exam success and a job that she enjoys.
These three examples show how you can apply the MBTI theory to practical teaching with great results.
More Information
The main barrier as teachers to use of such an instrument is the cost of the on-line test and the training to administer it.
However the book People Types and Tiger Stripes has a series of questions that will give a reasonably accurate indication. It has extensive descriptions of each type and how you can apply this to motivation, planning lessons, your teaching style, type dynamics, curriculum development, and individual coaching using zig-zag analysis. This latter tool shows you how to use the person’s strengths to overcome a learning issue.

For those that teach children under 12 the book The Developing Child: Using Jungian Type to Understand Children (Paperback) by Elizabeth Murphy is a recommended resource.

Back to the original reflection Ken will be taking the MBTI next week

The Myers Briggs type indicator is a rich tool for teacher’s that has been largely neglected in Europe although it is very popular in business. A 2, 3 or 5 day workshop is available from Pilgrim’s overseas courses. A workshop is being planned for next year’s summer school. Individual reports specifically focused for teachers can be ordered from my website. I will welcome any examples or discussion on how you have or plan to use the indicator in your school or teacher education.


  1. Fairhurst A and Fairhurst (1995) Effective Teaching Effective learning, Paulo Alto, CA; Davies Black Publishing.

  2. Reuven Feuerstein, Y. Rand, & Ra. S. Feuerstein. 2006 Don’t accept me as I am – Helping the Low Functioning Person Excel (revised edition), ICELP press.

  3. Kiersey D(1988) Portraits of temperament , California; Prometheus Nemesis

  4. Lawrence G (1993). People Types and Tiger Stripes, the Centre for Applications of Psychological Type Inc

  5. Lawrence G (2005). Looking at Type and Learning Styles, the Centre for Applications of Psychological Type Inc

  6. Gardner, Howard (1999) Intelligence Reframed. Multiple intelligences for the 21st century, New York: Basic Books. 292 + x pages. Useful review of Gardner's theory and discussion of issues and additions.

  7. Murphy E(1993) The Developing Child: using Jungian Type to Understand Children, Paulo Alto, CA; Davies Black Publishing

  8. Myers IB with Myers P (1995). Gifts Differing, Paulo Alto, CA: Davies Black Publishing

  9. Myers IB(1998) Introduction to Type 6th edition Paulo Alto, CA:CPP inc

  10. Quenk N L (2000) Essentials of the Myers Briggs Indicator Assessment, New York: Wiley

  11. The short descriptions have been adapted from Gifts Differing and information in People Types and Tiger Stripes.

  12. ® MBTI and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator are registered trade marks of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust. OPP Limited is licensed to use the trade marks in Europe. ® OPP is a registered trade mark of OPP Limited. Further information can be obtained from The Quotation and some words have been taken from an article published in HR Zone by OPP in May 2006.

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