Topic/Subject Women in the American Revolution Texts/Resources



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Expert Pack: Women in the American Revolution
Submitted by: Milwaukee Public Schools – Parkview School

Grade: 5 Date: July 2015





Topic/Subject

Women in the American Revolution



Texts/Resources

Book(s)


  1. Independent Dames: What You Never Knew about the Women and Girls of the American Revolution

Article(s)

  1. “Colonization and Revolutionary War: The Declaration of Independence”

  2. “Seeds of Revolution”

  3. “Revolutionary War Women”

  4. “Founding Mothers”

  5. “Women in the American Revolution”

Images

  1. A Look at Women’s Roles in the U.S. Military (First image only.)

  2. Molly Pitcher

Other Media

  1. “A Brief History of America's Independence: Part 1”

  2. “Bet You Didn't Know: Revolutionary War”

Each expert pack contains a variety of selections grouped to create as coherent and gradual a learning process for students as possible, generally beginning with lower levels as measured by quantitative and qualitative measures, and moving to more complex levels in the latter selections. This gradated approach helps support students’ ability to read the next selection and to become ‘experts’ on the topic they are reading about.

Refer to annotated bibliography on the following pages for the suggested sequence of readings.


Rationale and suggested sequence for reading:

We begin our informational journey with “Colonization and Revolutionary War: The Declaration of Independence.” This short text gives the reader a brief introduction to the rationale of the war. With this background knowledge, students will then watch “A Brief History of America’s Independence: Part 1.” This short video continues to build students’ background knowledge by examining situations that led up to the war. Readers continue their learning journey by reading “Seeds of Revolution.” The text expounds upon the specific acts of rebellion against the British. The journey continues with the learners watching “Bet You Didn’t Know: Revolutionary War.” The video contains facts that are not common knowledge and leads the viewer to acknowledge women played a role in the American Revolution. The learning continues with the reading of Independent Dames: What You Never Knew about the Women and Girls of the American Revolution. The narrator of this text tells the reader the various ways women and girls supported and participated in the American Revolution. Further, the book provides explicit names of women and girls and how they contributed to the revolution. The journey continues with the reading of “Revolutionary War Women.” This site offers both familiar and unfamiliar women who supported the revolution; many of the names are hyperlinked so students can learn more information. Students will then continue with the reading of “Women in the American Revolution.” Information regarding individual women including their role in the revolution is included. “Founding Mothers” is the final reading. This site wraps up the students’ readings by providing the understanding that women and girls played just as large of a role in the American Revolution as men and boys. Students can then study the two images: A Look at Women’s Roles in the U.S. Military (First image only) and Molly Pitcher. With the information they have now gained, readers will be able to discern the action occurring in the images.




The Common Core Shifts for ELA/Literacy:

  1. Regular practice with complex text and its academic language

  2. Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational

  3. Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction

Though use of these expert packs will enhance student proficiency with most or all of the Common Core Standards, they focus primarily on Shift 3, and the highlighted portions of the standards below.


College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading Literary and/or Informational Texts (the darkened sections of the standards are the focus of the Expert Pack learning for students):

  1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

  2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

  1. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently

Content Standard(s):

B.8.7 Identify significant events and people in the major eras of United States and world history





Annotated Bibliography

and suggested sequence for reading
810 “Colonization and Revolutionary War: The Declaration of Independence”

Author: ReadWorks.org

Genre: Informational

Length: Approximately one page

Synopsis: A brief introduction to the rationale of the American Revolution.

Citation: The Declaration of Independence. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from

http://www.readworks.org/passages/colonization-revolutionary-war-declaration-independence

Cost/Access: Free access after initial sign-up

Recommended Student Activities: A Picture of Knowledge

A Brief History of America’s Independence: Part 1”

Author: 321 Learning

Genre: Video

Length: 2:47

Synopsis: A short video which continues to build students’ background knowledge by examine situations that led to the revolution.

Citation: A brief history of America's independence: Part 1. (2013, November 5). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from

YouTube: 321 Learning website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tfnrdWYmZus

Cost/Access: $0.00

Recommended Student Activities: A Picture of Knowledge



1140 “Seeds of Revolution”

Author: Kathiann M. Kowalski

Genre: Informational

Length: Four pages

Synopsis: A thorough explanation of specific acts of rebellion against the British.

Citation: Kowalski, K. M. (2005, July). Seeds of revolution. Retrieved May 2, 2015, from Cricket Magazine

website: http://www.cricketmag.com/ProductImages/articles/1776.pdf

Cost/Access: $0.00

Recommended Student Activities: Wonderings

Bet You Didn’t Know: Revolutionary War”

Author: History Channel

Genre: Video

Length: 2:38

Synopsis: A short video containing uncommon knowledge about the American Revolution.

Citation: Bet you didn't know: Revolutionary war. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from

http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/american-revolution-history/videos/bet-you-didnt-know-revolutionary-war

Cost/Access: $0.00

Recommended Student Activities: Wonderings



900 Independent Dames: What You Never Knew about the Women and Girls of the American Revolution

Author: Laurie Halse Anderson

Genre: Nonfiction

Length: 30 pages

Synopsis: Describes the role women and young girls played in the American Revolution, highlighting the contributions and exploits of women who had a significant impact on the colonists' fight for freedom.

Citation: Halse Anderson, L. (2008). Independent dames: What you never knew about the women and girls of the



American Revolution. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers.

Cost/Access: $15.38

Recommended Student Activities: Pop Quiz

1100 “Revolutionary War Women”

Authors: Paul Pavao, Janelle Pavao, and Esther Pavao

Genre: Informational

Length: 1.5 pages

Synopsis: This site offers both familiar and unfamiliar women who supported the revolution; many of the names

are hyperlinked so students can learn more information.

Citation: Pavao, P., Pavao, J., & Pavao, E. (n.d.). Revolutionary war women. Retrieved May 2, 2015, from \

http://www.revolutionary-war.net/revolutionary-war-women.html

Cost/Access: $0.00

Recommended Student Activities: Quiz Maker



1130 “Women in the American Revolution”

Author:


Genre: Informational

Length: 4 pages

Synopsis: Information regarding individual women including their role in the revolution is included on this site.

Citation: Women in the American Revolution. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2015, from

http://www.mapsofworld.com/usa/american-revolution/role-of-women.html

Cost/Access: $0.00

Recommended Student Activities: Quiz Maker

1190 “Founding Mothers”

Author: Jone Johnson Lewis

Genre: Informational

Length: 4 pages

Synopsis: Discover how women and girls played just as large of a role in the American Revolution as the men

and boys.

Citation: Johnson Lewis, J. (n.d.). Founding mothers. Retrieved May 2, 2015, from

http://womenshistory.about.com/od/waramrevolution/tp/Founding-Mothers.htm

Cost/Access: $0.00

Recommended Student Activities: Wonderings

A Look at Women’s Roles in the U.S. Military” (First Image Only)

Author: Matt Dayhoff

Genre: Image

Length: 1 page

Synopsis: A mother protects her family from the British redcoats.

Citation: Dayhoff, M. (2013, January 25). A look at women's roles in the U.S. military. Retrieved May 2, 2015,

from http://blogs.pjstar.com/eye/2013/01/25/a-look-at-womens-roles-in-the-u-s-military/

Cost/Access: $0.00

Recommended Student Activities: Summary

Molly Pitcher”

Author: Jone Johnson Lewis

Genre: Image

Length: 1 page

Synopsis: The myth of Molly Pitcher assisting with the cannon

after her husband was injured. This myth is perpetuated through art work such as this one and texts. It is important for students to know that Molly Pitcher was a fictional person even though some women did assist in battle.

Citation: Johnson Lewis, J. (n.d.). Molly Pitcher. Retrieved May 2, 2015, from

http://womenshistory.about.com/od/waramrevolution/a/Molly-Pitcher.htm

Cost/Access: $0.00

Recommended Student Activities: Summary

Supports for Struggling Students

By design, the gradation of complexity within each Expert Pack is a technique that provides struggling readers the opportunity to read more complex texts. Listed below are other measures of support that can be used when necessary.



  • Provide a brief student-friendly glossary of some of the academic vocabulary (tier 2) and domain vocabulary (tier 3) essential to understanding the text



  • Download the Wordsmyth widget to classroom computers/tablets for students to access student-friendly definitions for unknown words. http://www.wordsmyth.net/?mode=widget



  • Provide brief student friendly explanations of necessary background knowledge



  • Include pictures or videos related to the topic within and in addition to the set of resources in the pack



  • Select a small number of texts to read aloud with some discussion about vocabulary work and background knowledge



  • Provide audio recordings of the texts being read by a strong reader (teacher, parent, etc.)



  • Chunk the text and provide brief questions for each chunk of text to be answered before students go on to the next chunk of text



  • Pre-reading activities that focus on the structure and graphic elements of the text



  • Provide volunteer helpers from the school community during independent reading time.


achieve the core grey logo
Text Complexity Guide
“Founding Mothers” by Jone Johnson Lewis


  1. Quantitative Measure

Go to http://www.lexile.com/ and enter the title of the text in the Quick Book Search in the upper right of home page. Most texts will have a Lexile measure in this database. You can also copy and paste a selection of text using the Lexile analyzer.

2-3 band 420 -820L

4-5 band 740 -1010L

6-8 band 925 - 1185L

9 -10 band 1050 – 1335L

11 – CCR 1185 - 1385

_1190_




  1. Qualitative Features

Consider the four dimensions of text complexity below. For each dimension*, note specific examples from the text that make it more or less complex.

This purpose of this article is to recognize the contributions of our country’s founding mothers. The first two paragraphs attend to the importance of this recognition while the remainder of the article provides explicit examples of the contributions of some of the founding mothers.

The structure is supportive in that the first two paragraphs are organized around main idea/detail. The third paragraph gives examples of two women and their contributions. The remainder of the article is numbered with the women’s name underlined followed by information pertaining to that particular woman.

The language in the text is quite complex using sentences such as And in that context, it’s appropriate to also talk about the Founding Mothers: women, often the wives, daughters and mothers of the men referred to as Founding Fathers, who also played important parts in supporting the separation from England and the American



Revolutionary War.

Most of the subject matter should be familiar to the reader reading the Expert Pack. Unfamiliar information included pertains to the creation of the phrase founding fathers.




Meaning/Purpose

Structure




Language

Knowledge Demands




  1. Reader and Task Considerations

What will challenge students most in this text? What supports can be provided?

  • Rereading, chunking, and discussion could support students with sentence length and vocabulary demands.

  • Finding and unpacking “juicy sentences” could provide grammar lessons for the class.

  • Encouraging students to use sticky notes to annotate new information.

  • Asking students to make connections to other texts in the set could support and deepen understanding.

  • Students could create an interactive notebook for each Founding Mother and write information under each individual.

Expert Pack: Women in the American Revolution
Submitted by: Milwaukee Public Schools – Parkview School

Grade: 5 Date: July 2015



Learning Worth Remembering

Cumulative Activities – The following activities should be completed and updated after reading each resource in the set. The purpose of these activities is to capture knowledge building from one resource to the next, and to provide a holistic snapshot of central ideas of the content covered in the expert pack. It is recommended that students are required to complete one of the Cumulative Activities (Rolling Knowledge Journal or Rolling Vocabulary) for this Expert Pack.



  1. Rolling Knowledge Journal

  1. Read each selection in the set, one at a time.

  2. After you read each resource, stop and think what the big learning was. What did you learn that was new and important about the topic from this resource? Write, draw, or list what you learned from the text about (topic).

  3. Then write, draw, or list how this new resource added to what you learned from the last resource(s).

Sample Student Response

Title

Write, Draw, or List




New and important learning about the topic

How does this resource add to what I learned already?

  1. “Colonization and Revolutionary War: The Declaration of Independence”

Many Colonists decided to break ties with Britain.

Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence.

Values of the Colonists: freedom, government’s relationship with its’ people, and government’s responsibility to protect the peoples’ rights.





  1. “A Brief History of America’s Independence”

French and Indian War.

This war left the British in debt and therefore taxed the Colonists.

Boston Tea Party.

Battle of Lexington.



This video explains what happened prior to the Declaration of Independence and the causes of the American Revolution.


  1. “Seeds of Revolution”

The various ways Great Britain influenced the Colonists: no paper money, housing sentries, banning meetings, tea act, and closed the port of Boston.

Information provided goes into more depth in understanding why the Colonists were so upset with Great Britain.


  1. “Bet You Didn’t Know: Revolutionary War”

There were multiple tea parties.

Paul Revere wasn’t alone on his famous ride.

Women traveled with the continental army working as laundresses, nurses, cooks, spies, and couriers.


This video provides little known information about the American Revolution. It begins to expose readers about the roles women played in the American Revolution.


  1. Independent Dames: What You Never Knew about the Women and Girls of the American Revolution

Multiple and various scenarios explaining how women participated in the American Revolution.

This text gives many examples of how women and girls contributed in the American Revolution.


  1. “Revolutionary War Women”

Women could easily be spies.

Some women who made a great impact may not be known to us.


The various ways women impacted the American Revolution.

This text also gives many examples of how women and girls impacted the American Revolution. Many names are hyperlinked to learn more information.


  1. “Women in the American Revolution”

This article focuses on Martha Washington, Phillis Wheatley, Abigail Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, and the legend of Molly Pitcher. There is a short synopsis for each person.

A look at how specific women assisted in the American Revolution.


  1. “Founding Mothers”

Women that could easily be designated as the founding mothers due to their participation in the American Revolution.

More information pertaining to famous women during the time of the American Revolution.




  1. Rolling Vocabulary: “Sensational Six”

  • Read each resource then determine the 6 words from each text that most exemplify the central idea of the text.

  • Next use your 6 words to write about the most important idea of the text. You should have as many sentences as you do words.

  • Continue this activity with EACH selection in the Expert Pack.

  • After reading all the selections in the Expert Pack, go back and review your words.

  • Now select the “Sensational Six” words from ALL the word lists.

  • Use the “Sensational Six” words to summarize the most important learning from this Expert Pack.

Title

Six Vocabulary Words & Sentences

“Colonization and Revolutionary War: The Declaration of Independence”

Words: Independence, patriots, colonists, representatives, negotiating, declare

Sentences:

The American Revolution was fought for independence from Great Britain. The colonists, who lived in the colonies, became patriots as they fought for their freedoms. Representatives who spoke on behalf of the colonists met in Philadelphia. The representatives decided that negotiating, or coming to an agreement, with the British was no longer helpful. Therefore, the colonists declared they no longer wanted Great Britain to rule over them.



“Seeds of Revolution”

Words: Inferior, currency, Parliament, Assembly, charter, Congress

Sentences:

The colonists who fought alongside the British during the French and Indian War, were considered inferior, or less than, the British soldiers. Great Britain would not let the colonists use currency, or paper money. The Parliament was the law-making group in Great Britain which decided the laws for the Colonists. The Assembly was a group of Colonists gathered together in order to decide what was best for the Colonists. British Parliament limited Massachusetts’ charter, or written document giving Massachusetts’ rights and responsibilities. Congress, the branch that makes laws, went against Great Britain by making laws for the Colonists.



Independent Dames: What You Never Knew about the Women and Girls of the American Revolution

Words: Tory, Rebel, enlisted, pioneer, frontier, sacrifice

Sentences:

A Tory is someone who was against the colonies from separating from Great Britain. A Rebel wanted the colonies to be on its own and create a new country. The patriots enlisted, or joined, the army to help fight Great Britain. The pioneer, or first person to live in an area, had to protect their family because there weren’t a lot of people around. Frontier living was difficult because it is newly explored. Many patriots sacrificed, or gave up something they held with great value, so Great Britain could no longer control the colonies.




Revolutionary War Women”

Words: Peddling, Quaker, scruples, pension, pacifist, influential

Sentences:

Many women were peddling, or selling, different items to the soldiers as they camped. Some patriots were Quakers, which is a Christian religion. Some Quakers had religious scruples, or the belief of right and wrong, about the American Revolution. After the war, few women were given a pension, or money paid at regular times. There were a few pacifists who opposed the war and refused to participate. Some women were very influential, or causing some kind of effect, in the American Revolution.



“Women in the American Revolution”

Words: Foremost, piety, perspective, decorous, domestic, prosperous

Sentences:

Martha Washington was the foremost, or first, First Lady. One of Phillis Wheatley’s themes in her poetry was piety, or worship and devotion to God or family. A person’s perspective, or point of view, didn’t change much during the American Revolution. Many ladies were decorous, or proper or formal. Many women were expected to be domestic, or working with the family or home. There were few men who were prosperous, or had wealth or success.



“Founding Mothers”

Words: Asserting, presiding, opposed, inauguration, diplomat, propaganda

Sentences:

Abigail Adams began asserting, or strongly state, her opinions about how women should be treated. Martha Washington had a job by presiding, or being in charge, of parties. She also opposed, or was against, her husband, George Washington, being president. When George Washington became president, he went through inauguration, or a formal ceremony to take office, while Martha Washington did not attend. Abigail Adams husband, John, was a diplomat, or a person whose job is to handle relations with the governments of other countries. Mercy Otis Warren wrote plays as part of the propaganda, or opinions or beliefs that are made public to attack a movement or cause, used against Great Britain.




Sensational Six

colonists, independence, enlisted, sacrifice, peddling, influential

Summary:

The colonists wanted to declare independence from Great Britain. Many men enlisted in the army. Many women had to sacrifice a lot in order to keep up their home and family. Many women began following the army and began peddling items to help support the family. Several women became influential in how the new country was formed.





Learning Worth Remembering

Singular Activities – the following activities can be assigned for each resource in the set. The purpose of these activities is to check for understanding, capture knowledge gained, and provide variety of ways for students to interact with each individual resource. Students may complete some or none of the suggested singular activities for each text. Singular activities should be assigned at the discretion of the teacher.




  1. A Picture of Knowledge (Recommended for “Colonization and Revolutionary War: The Declaration of Independence”, “A Brief History of America’s Independence: Part 1”)

  • Take a piece of paper and fold it two times: once across and once top to bottom so that it is divided into 4 quadrants.



  • Draw these shapes in the corner of each quadrant.

  1. Square

  2. Triangle

  3. Circle

  4. Question Mark


?




  1. Write!

Square: What one thing did you read that was interesting to you?

Triangle: What one thing did you read that taught you something new?

Circle: What did you read that made you want to learn more?

Question Mark: What is still confusing to you? What do you still wonder about?




  • Find at least one classmate who has read [selection] and talk to each other about what you put in each quadrant.



  1. Quiz Maker (Recommended for “Women in the American Revolution”, “Revolutionary War Women”)

  • Make a list of # questions that would make sure another student understood the information.

  • Your classmates should be able to find the answer to the question from the resource.

  • Include answers for each question.

  • Include the where you can find the answer in the resource.




Question

Answer


1.




2.




3.






  1. Wonderings (Recommended for “Seeds of Revolution”, “Bet You Didn’t Know: Revolutionary War”, “Founding Mothers”)

On the left, track things you don’t understand from the article as you read.

On the right side, list some things you still wonder (or wonder now) about this topic.



I’m a little confused about:

This made me wonder:









  1. Pop Quiz (Independent Dames: What You Never Knew about the Women and Girls of the American Revolution)

Answer the following questions.

Question

Possible Answer


  1. Who do you admire more: Paul Revere or Sybil Ludington? Why?

Sybil Ludington because she was only 16 years old, she rode more mile than Paul Revere, and it was dangerous.

  1. What things did the Colonists do to try to persuade Great Britain before the American Revolution?

Men began writing letters asking for fair treatment and held meetings. Women stopped buying tea and fabric.

  1. In what ways did women spy for the Rebels?

Women listened to the plans about battles, they hid messages in buttons, bags of flour, and balls of yarn. They counted weapons and soldiers and passed the information on.

  1. In what ways did Margaret Morris help the soldiers? Do you think this is appropriate?

Margaret Morris helped care for sick and injured soldiers from both Great Britain and the colonies. I think it’s appropriate because people are people and if they need help, you should help them.

  1. How did women help on the battlefield?

The women cooked, washed clothes, cared for the injured, carried bullets, food and water to the soldiers. After the battle, the women would take care of the dead. Some women pretended to be men and fought as soldiers.

  1. Reread Deborah Sampson, Anna Marie Lane, and Ann (Nancy) Bailey on pages 18-19. Which lady was treated differently by the military? How do you feel about this?

Ann (Nancy) Bailey was not given a military pension. (Answers may vary) I don’t think this is fair because the other two women got pensions; I think this is fair because Ann (Nancy) Bailey deserted the army and took bounty money.

  1. In what ways did the women help when the colonies’ government rat out of money?

The women asked for donations of money, blankets, food, clothes, and guns.

  1. What positive impact did the war have on women?

Women learned to run farms and businesses. Women began working as printers, weavers, carpenters, and shopkeepers. Women’s ideas about politics began to be accepted by men.

4. Summary (Recommended for “A Look at Women’s Roles in the U.S. Military”, “Molly Pitcher”)

Students answer the following:

1. What do you see in the image?

2. After learning all you have learned while reading, what do you think this image represents?

3. Write a short summary of what is happening in the image.

Expert Pack: Women in the American Revolution

Submitted by: Milwaukee Public Schools – Parkview School



Grade: 5 Date: July 2015
Expert Pack Glossary
Colonization and Revolutionary War: The Declaration of Independence”


Word

Student-Friendly Definition

colonists


A colonist is a person who lives in or is a member of a colony.

independence


The freedom from outside control.

patriots


Someone who loves, supports, and defends his or her country.

arms


Weapons.

representatives


A person who speaks or acts for a group or community.

colony

A place where a group of people come to settle which is under the control of their home country.

Second Continental Congress

A group of people from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the summer of 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Battles of Lexington and Concord

The first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775.

negotiating

To bargain or come to an agreement with another person.

Congress

The branch of the U.S. government that is elected to make laws. Congress is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

declare

To announce in a formal way.

Continental Army

The American army during the American Revolution.

drafted

A rough piece of writing that needs more work; sketch.

Declaration of Independence

The public document by which the thirteen American colonies declared their independence from England in 1776.

denying

To refuse to give, provide, or grant.

clarified

To make easier to understand; make clear.

values

Principles considered most important.

taxes

A sum of money paid to a government, which the government uses to pay for its services to the people and to maintain itself.

Seeds of Revolution”


Word

Student-Friendly Definition

Redcoats

A British soldier in colonial America during the American Revolution and other wars.

inferior


Lower in rank, position, or degree.

debts


A condition of owing money that has to be paid back.

harbors

A sheltered area of water where boats can be anchored.

taxed


A sum of money paid to a government, which the government uses to pay for its services to the people and to maintain itself.

tyranny

The abuse of power, or the government or authority that uses power in this way.

riot(ed)

A violent disturbance caused by a large number of people.

currency


Money

restrictions


The act of restricting or condition of being restricted.

scarce

Difficult to find; not common.

imposed

To set as something that needs to be followed, done, or obeyed.

outraged

The anger or fury caused by a terrible and/or violent act.

delegates

A person who is chosen to speak or act for others.

halted

To stop or pause.

Parliament

A group of people who make laws for a country, like in the United Kingdom and some other countries. In the United Kingdom, Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and House of Lords.

patrolled

A person or group, on foot or in vehicles, that guards in this way.

Assembly

A legislative body.

barred

Anything that acts as a block or barrier.

massacre

The killing of a large number of people or animals in a cruel and violent manner.

enacted

To make into a law.

eliminated

To get rid of or destroy.

competition

A business relation in which two parties compete to gain customers.

resolved

To deal with in a successful way; settle.

deadlock

A standstill or stoppage of progress on either side between equally strong or determined adversaries.

Intolerable Acts

The American Patriots' name for a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party. They were meant to punish the Massachusetts colonists for their defiance in throwing a large tea shipment into Boston Harbor.

charter

An official document given by a government or ruler to a business or other group. The charter explains the group's rights and responsibilities.

commander in chief

The person in charge of all the armed forces of a nation.

pamphlet

A thin book that has a paper cover, written to give information on some topic.

Independent Dames: What You Never Knew About the Women and Girls of the American Revolution


Word

Student-Friendly Definition

Patriotic


Feeling or showing love for and loyalty to one's country.

pathetic


Causing feelings of pity or sorrow.

Tory


During the American Revolution, an American who favored British rule or rule by a king or queen.

Rebel


A person who fights against or is not loyal to the government of his or her country.

inoculated


To inject with a very small amount of a disease to help resist that disease in the future.

epidemic

An outbreak of disease that spreads rapidly to many people.

enlisted

To sign up to serve in the military or in some cause.

pension

Money paid at regular times by a former employer to a person who has retired, or by the government to a person who is not able to work.

desperate

Having a great need.

Pioneer

Someone who is one of the first in a culture to explore or live in a place.

muskets

A heavy gun with a long barrel. Muskets were carried on the shoulder. They were used over three hundred years ago, before rifles were invented.

frontier

The part of a settlement, exploration, or field of study which is being newly discovered.

ambushes

A surprise attack made from a hidden place.

sacrifice

The act of giving up something of great value to show loyalty or deep affection.

Revolutionary War Women”




Word

Student-Friendly Definition

complex


Difficult to understand.

military


The armed forces.

strategy


The planning and direction of large military movements and actions during war time.

peddling


To offer for sale on the street or from door to door.

wares


A thing or things offered for sale.

significant

Important.

documented

A written or printed paper that gives factual information or proof of something. Birth certificates, marriage licenses, and passports are kinds of documents.

pension

Money paid at regular times by a former employer to a person who has retired or by the government to a person who is not able to work.

legend

A story that has been handed down from an earlier time. Many people know these stories, but they cannot be proven true.

Quaker

A member of a Christian religious group founded in England about 1650, called the Society of Friends.

scruples

A belief about right and wrong that keeps a person from doing something that may be bad.

hospitality

The friendly, warm, and generous treatment of guests or strangers.

pacifist

Someone who opposes war and is against using violence as a way to solve problems.

Women in the American Revolution”



Word

Student-Friendly Definition

foremost

First in time, place, importance, or rank.

plantation

A large farm or estate used for growing rubber, cotton, or other crops to sell.

oppressed

To trouble or burden.

deceit

The act of lying or cheating.

distresses

Worry, pain, or suffering, or anything that causes suffering.

endeavor

To make an effort or try.

asset

Something useful or valuable.

stipulated

To specify or arrange as a condition of an agreement.

honors


High public value or respect.

Evangelist

A person who works to get people to believe the same way they do for the church, especially a minister who travels and preaches.

pauper

A very poor person who must live on public money.

influence

The power or invisible action of a thing or person that causes some kind of effect on another.

inhuman

Without human feelings such as warmth, mercy, or sympathy; cruel, brutal, or not caring.

piety

Being extremely devoted to God or family.

commentary

A series of explanatory comments.

perspective

The way things are seen from a particular point of view.

progressive

In favor of social progress or change.

advocated

To speak or act in favor of.

radical

In favor of extreme changes in government or society.

decorous

Proper behavior, manners, appearance, or the like.

tyrants

A person who exercises authority in a cruel or harsh way.

relegated

To send or assign to a condition, place, or position of lower importance.

domestic

Of or related to the home or family.

subservient

Secondary; subordinate.

abhor

Intense hate; detest.

prosperous

Having wealth, success, or good fortune.

Founding Mothers”



Word

Student-Friendly Definition

Founding Fathers

A man who had an important part in creating the government of the U.S.

referred

To speak of; mention.

quests

A search or pursuit.

human rights

Rights regarded as inherently belonging to all human beings, such as the rights to life, freedom, and dignity, and that are more important than the rights of nations and governments.

frugality

Likely to try to save money; careful with spending.

asserting

To put forward strongly.

presiding

To act as the one in charge.

receptions

A party or gathering at which guests are received.

opposed

To think, act, or be against; resist.

inauguration

A formal beginning or start.

diplomat

A person whose job is to handle relations with the governments of other countries.

finances

The management of money or other resources.

represented

To stand for or be a sign of.

militia

A group of trained citizens who are not soldiers but can serve as members of the military in an emergency.

resistance

The act or process of resisting or being against something.

initiate

To cause to begin; start; originate.

propaganda

Information or opinions that are made public to promote or attack a movement, cause, or person.

campaign

A series of planned actions carried out in order to reach a particular goal.

coalesce

To grow together or unite to form a single body or organization; unify; fuse.

opposition

The act or state of being against, or the state of having someone against another.

anecdotes

A short tale about a funny or interesting event.

imminent

About to happen or likely to happen soon.

waned

To become less powerful, rich, or strong.

disruption

The condition or an instance of disrupting or being disrupted.

hardships

A condition of great want, suffering, or difficulty.


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