Trinity College, University of Toronto trn 150y l0101 National versus International

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Trinity College, University of Toronto

TRN 150Y L0101

National versus International (2015-2016)
Time: Tuesdays, 10:00-12:00

Place: Trinity College, Room 24
Dr. Arne Kislenko

Room 213, North House, Munk School of Global Affairs

416-946-8973 or

Office hours: Tuesdays* and Thursdays 12:10-14:00 hrs.

Or by appointment
(*Please note that due to university obligations, office hours will be 12:10 to 12:45 on some Tuesdays in the first term only: October 20, October 27, November 3, November 17, November 24,December 1, December 8, December 15. On these days I may be available for appointments after 15:30 hours. Please email.)

Course Objectives

  1. To explore the changing nature of international society in the modern age.

  2. To trace the origins, development and impact of modern nationalism.

  3. To examine the tensions between nationalism and internationalism.

  4. To better understand major issues currently confronting Canada and the world.

  5. To help students develop critical analysis and strong communication skills.

  6. To help students develop their own intellectual curiosity and confidence.

  7. To hopefully encourage students to really care about the world in which they live and contribute positively to it!!

Course Description
What do borders mean? Are they simply convenient lines on a map to mark off one territory or one people from another or are they invisible walls which should not be breached? We live in a world where people generally believe the latter and this has been the case ever since the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648 ended the 30 Years War and introduced the idea of sovereign, independent states as the basis of international relations. Sovereignty meant, among other things, not interfering in a state’s internal affairs. In 1789, the French Revolution introduced the notion that all citizens of a country belonged to something called ‘a nation’. The growth of nationalism in the 19th and 20th centuries created a new kind of state—the nation-state.
There have always been alternative ways of looking at the world which challenge that notion of sovereignty. Indeed the French Revolution also introduced the idea of ‘rights’ which belonged to all men, everywhere. French revolutionary forces believed that they were missionaries with an obligation to spread that view even if that meant violating borders and destroying existing governments. Another challenge to sovereignty has come from great powers who have established empires, either formal or informal, to further their own interests. Finally the world has seen attempts to build international institutions and establish international norms of behaviour, such as the treatment of human beings, which also limit sovereignty.
By looking at the tension between the individual nation and an international order, between sovereignty and the limits on it, this course will examine a central issue of our times. The first term will start with 1648 and the Westphalian system. It will then look at the impact of the American and French Revolutions. The next section will deal with the 19th century, with the spread of both nationalism and imperialism leading to the First World War and the creation of a new world order following it. We will also examine the rise of extremist ideologies, such as Nazism and Communism, the failure of collective security, and the coming of another global conflict. The second term will look at the international order established after the Second World War and during the Cold War, with focus not just on the global rise of the United States, but also on the dynamics of international communism and particularly the importance of developing states like China on the global stage. We will then turn to the post-Cold War era of the 1990s. Case studies such as the wars in the former Yugoslavia and the humanitarian catastrophes in Rwanda and Iraq will be examined in order to better explain how the principles of national sovereignty interact with the international order. We will also broach current international crises such as the civil war in Syria and the Russian-Ukrainian conflict where possible to demonstrate how history can be helpful in seeing the present. By studying the historical evolution of both nationalism and internationalism, students will gain a deeper understanding of how the world in which they now live works. As Walt Whitman once said, “History’s not was. It is.”

Course Design
Please note that although it may appear so, this is NOT a “history of the world” course. While we cover many different countries and regions, as well as a wide range of times, the course is not designed to be an international history. It is understood that at this stage in your academic careers you may not have been exposed to every event or issue we broach, and you will not be expected to develop an encyclopaedic knowledge overnight. It is, however, expected that if you are not clear on something you will either ask for detail and clarification and/or research the question on your own to develop a better understanding. It is also recommend that you familiarise yourself with a good international atlas to see where some of the countries we will be discussing are located. Dr. Kislenko will show maps and images in class when possible.
Course Format
This is a seminar course. Dr. Kislenko will often give mini-lectures in order to initiate and lead discussion. However, your participation is the main ingredient for a successful course. You will be expected to come to each class prepared to contribute. This is best done by first covering the assigned weekly readings listed at the end of this outline. Questions will often be directed to specific readings. The nature of the seminars will also allow for more general discussions on issues relevant to your own everyday lives and the world today, giving you the opportunity to express your ideas and beliefs beyond any readings or lectures. We tackle some very difficult, often controversial, issues on which everyone should have an opinion.
Ideally, the environment for this class should be informal and as open as possible in order to encourage you to participate. I want everyone to feel comfortable speaking and expressing their opinions so long as they are respectful of others. Please keep in mind that class participation makes up 25% of your grade, so marks for attendance and contributions to the discussion will be kept. Only through your participation will the class succeed and be of educational benefit to everyone. There will be no formal presentations, but on occasion students may be asked to lead discussions (please see Seminar Preparation below). If for some reason you are terribly afraid of speaking in public, you must come and speak to me as soon as possible. You will not be exempt from participation, but with some help the obstacle can be overcome, thereby helping you develop the skills needed to enrich your educational experience at the University of Toronto as well as your future endeavours. Please feel free to speak with Dr. Kislenko on any issue at any time.
Lastly, please note that although there is another section of this course, assignments and readings are NOT precisely the same. Given that there is some overlap in terms of readings on short-term loan, you are encouraged to tackle your weekly load sooner rather than later in preparation for our classes.
Course Perspective
The International Relations stream of Trinity One is designed to expose you to a variety of scholarly perspectives. There are many differences and similarities between historians and political scientists and how they interpret issues and events in international relations. Within each discipline there are also different schools of thought and methodological approaches. In this course these distinctions will often arise, so becoming at least somewhat familiar with them is highly advisable. Students are encouraged to read the following as soon as possible in the fall term:

  • Robert Jervis, "International History and International Politics: Why Are They Studied Differently?" (chapter 15) AND

  • Paul W. Schroeder, "International History: Why Historians Do It Differently Than Political Scientists" (chapter 16)

in Colin Elman and Miriam Fendius Elman (eds.), Bridges and Boundaries: Historians, Political Scientists, and the Study of International Relations (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2001).
Grading Scheme
Participation 25%

First Assignment (book review or document analysis) 5%

Outline & Literature Review 5%

Research Paper 30%

Final Exam 35%
Required Texts
There are no required texts. All readings will be on reserve in the Graham Library at Trinity College. Copies of some of the books used for readings and assignments may be found in other University of Toronto libraries.
Course Website

Please note that there is a website for this course at the U of T portal. In order to log onto Blackboard you must choose the “Portal” option located on the bottom left-hand corner of the University of Toronto’s homepage and then type in your UTORid. The website will be used throughout the year for postings and announcements. There will also be an inventory of maps and other materials that might be useful to you in this course. Further information will be given in class. Dr. Kislenko also has his own website with other materials that may be of interest to you at He will be happy to give you any necessary user and passwords.

Written Assignments
1. Your first assignment is to tackle EITHER a 2000 word book review from the list below OR to write a 2000 word essay analyzing of one of the primary documents assigned for the first term readings. The assignment is worth 5% and due on Tuesday, October 20 in class.
If you do a Book Review
Write a review of one of the following books and discuss what it has to say about the themes of this course.
Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking 1919

Dean Acheson, Morning and Afternoon

Lloyd Axworthy, Navigating a New World : Canada's global future
James Carroll, The House of War

Thomas Ricks, Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq

Neil Sheehan, Bright Shining Lie

Dean Rusk, As I Saw It

Robert MacNamara, In Retrospect

Michael Ignatieff, Empire Lite: Nation Building in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan

Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar

Nikita Khrushchev, Khrushchev Remembers

George Orwell, Homage to Catalonia

Graeme Greene, The Quiet American

William Duiker, Ho Chi Minh: A Life

Barbara Tuchman, The Guns of August

Winston Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy

Benazir Bhutto, Reconciliation: Islam, Democracy and the West

Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man

George Packer, Assassin’s Gate

Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Infidel

David Chandler, Brother Number One: A Political Biography of Pol Pot

Ron Suskind, The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush and the Education of Paul O’Neill

Ian Kershaw, Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris OR Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis

Vasily Grossman, A Writer at War

Anonymous, A Woman in Berlin

Barbara Victor, The Lady: Aung San Suu Kyi: Nobel Laureate and Burma’s Prisoner

Jon Anderson, Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life

Joseph Roth, The Radetzky March

Rebecca West, The New Meaning of Treason

Marina Nemat, The Prisoner of Tehran

Giles Foden, The Last King of Scotland

Tony Blair, A Journey

George W. Bush, Decision Points

Hints: While it is useful to give a brief synopsis of the book, do not go through summarizing it chapter by chapter. Identify, where possible, the author’s viewpoint and/or concerns. Explain the ways in which the book sheds light on such concepts as identity, culture, and nationality. Do not be afraid to express your own opinions. Think critically. What is the underlying message? Is the book well-argued? Well-written? Are its points supported well? Is there anything you think the author should have done or not done? If the book is a work of fiction, why do you think it was written? How can works of fiction help us better understand history? If you want to see examples of reviews, look at publications such as the New York Times Book Review, New York Review of Books, or Times Literary Supplement.
If you do the Document Analysis
Carefully examine one of the primary documents or document series offered in or involved with the first term’s readings from the list below. Briefly explain the circumstances under which the original was created and what it might tell us about the relationship and tensions between national interests and international relations. Use evidence from the text to back up your claims. Additional research is permissible, and may indeed be necessary, but the primary task at hand is to situate the document itself in the “grander sweep” of history and thus to better understand the craft of the historian in critically examining documents.

  • Text of the Treaty of Munster (1648). Available at:

  • George Washington’s Farewell Address (1796). Available at:

  • Text of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789). Available at:

  • The Communist Manifesto (1848). Available at:

  • Wilson’s Fourteen Points (1918). Available at:

  • The Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916). Available at: AND

The Balfour Declaration (1917). Available at: AND

The British White Paper on Palestine (1922). Available at:

  • The Covenant of the League of Nations (1919). Available at:

  • The Hossbach Memorandum (1937), available at:

  • The Munich Pact (1938). Available at:

  • Documents from the German Foreign Office on Nazi-Soviet Relations (1939-1941). Available at: AND

Secret Texts of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Non-Aggression Pact (1939). Available at:

  • The Atlantic Charter (1941), available at:

  • The Potsdam Declaration, available at:

  • The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, available at:

  • The Charter of the United Nations, 1945, available at:

  • The Bretton Woods Agreements, available at:

  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, available at:

  • The Brussels Treaty, 1948, available at:

  • Final Declaration of the Geneva Conference on Indochina, 1954, at:

  • The Gulf of Tonkin Incident, 1964, available at:

  • The United States Civil Rights Act, 1964, available at:

  • The Palestinian National Charter, 1968, available at:

  • The Camp David Accords, 1978, available at:

  • The Dayton Peace Accords, 1995, available at:

  • The Good Friday Agreement, 1998, available at:

  • select comments by President Bush on the 911 attacks, available at: (come see me for clarity)
Please note: In addition to addressing the assignments in class and in office hours, there will be a session held outside of class time with the Writing Centre on how to tackle this assignment. Further details will be provided in class.
2. Outline and Literature Review for your Research Paper (see below) (5%) 1500 words maximum. Two copies required.

Due: Tuesday, January 12, 2016 in class
Note: A failure to hand this in will result in a grade of zero for both this assignment and your research paper.
Explain the main features which needed to be researched for the topic on which you have chosen to do your research paper. Discuss the sources available, their contents, their authors, their points of view and their potential usefulness. Compare and contrast interpretations of your topic, and any issues, ideas, or events associated with it. You may include books, scholarly articles, and web sites but your survey must be comprehensive and include a minimum of 5 books. Such sources as encyclopedias, dictionaries, newspaper articles, and most websites do not count. You are encouraged to develop your own topic, but must get approval from Dr. Kislenko first. Essays on unapproved topics will receive a grade of zero without chance for resubmission.
3. Research Paper (30%) 3000 words

Due: Tuesday, March 8, 2016 in class. Write on one of the following:

  1. Discuss the dynamics and interaction of nationalism and internationalism in ONE of the following case studies:

    • Yugoslavia in the 1990s

    • Iran 1978 to present

    • Iraq 1990s to present

    • Cambodia 1975 to present

    • Ukraine 1990s to present

    • Burma (Myanmar) 1980s to present

    • Sri Lanka since 1945

    • Sudan since 1945

    • Rwanda since 1994

    • South Africa since 1994

    • Vietnam since 1975

    • DR Congo since 1997

    • Tibet since 1949

    • Haiti since 1945

    • Somalia since 1945

    • Northern Ireland since 1921

    • Israel and EITHER the 1967 (Six Days) War OR the 1973 (Yom Kippur) War

    • Conflict in Indochina between EITHER 1945-1964, 1964-1975, OR 1975-1993

  1. Examine national and international dimensions in the historical evolution of 20th and 21st century war crimes tribunals.

  1. Examine national and international dimensions in the historical evolution of the International Criminal Court.

  1. Examine the question, dynamics, and evolution of "terrorism" in a country/region and/or chronology of your choosing. Please note that you MUST come speak with Dr. Kislenko about this topic BEFORE beginning to discuss what is possible/acceptable.

  1. Do human rights really count? Discuss how human rights law shapes national policies and international relations with respect to ONE of the following: Canada, the United States, Great Britain, or Russia.

  1. Examine national and international dimensions of ONE of the following issues, organisations, or troublespots since 1945:

    • narcotics trade

    • international people smuggling / human trafficking

    • combating organized crime

    • child soldiers

    • global warming

    • global food supply and conflict over food

    • the European Union

    • the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)

    • nuclear arms control

    • maritime development and the Law of the Sea

    • Women’s rights and Islam

  1. Detail and discuss ONE of the following contemporary crises in international relations, paying particular attention to national policies with the major countries involved.

    • North Korea’s nuclear programme

    • Iran’s nuclear programme OR civil conflict (2009)

    • Taiwan’s independence movement and relations with China

    • Indo-Pakistani conflict

    • the Spratly Islands dispute

    • Islamic militants in Southeast Asia

    • China’s military rise

    • border security between Canada and the United States

    • America and its allies in the global “war on terror”

    • Water supply/conservation

    • the War in Afghanistan

    • Mexico’s drug wars

    • International maritime piracy

    • Cyber espionage OR industrial/economic espionage today * (Please see Dr. Kislenko about this topic BEFORE beginning)

    • The “socialist/leftist revival” in Latin America

    • Sri Lanka's civil war and aftermath

    • the mathematics of war: high-technology and the use of military force

    • Russia under Putin

    • The “Arab Spring” * (Please see Dr. Kislenko about this topic BEFORE beginning)

    • Syria’s civil war (Please see Dr. Kislenko about this topic BEFORE beginning)

    • the Islamic State and the collapse of Iraq (Please see Dr. Kislenko about this topic BEFORE beginning)

    • International protest movements today


In addition to what is indicated above, please note that Dr. Kislenko will address specific objectives/expectations for written assignments in class. He will also tackle them in the special essay-writing lectures he gives (please see below) and in office hours anytime.

Finding Material

It is extremely important that you become familiar with the University of Toronto library system and its services early in your university careers. Having computer skills does not mean that you will necessarily be a great researcher. Never underestimate the importance of first-rate research in this or any other course, and never assume that you are totally in command of library services or resources. The U of T libraries are among the best in the world, and their staff is thoroughly trained information specialist professionals. You will need them. To help acclimatize you to the extensive holdings here at U of T, there will be a special, mandatory class tour and information session at the Trinity College library. Beyond this, however, here are some very general guidelines to assist you in researching:

  1. Consult the bibliographies in the texts or additional readings.

  2. Use the Library On Line Catalogue to search by subject.

  3. Look for a recent work on your topic and consult its bibliography.

  4. Follow the directions on the Library Home Page to search other databases for articles and books.

  5. Search the Internet (using a search engine such as Yahoo or Alta Vista). WARNING: Not all sites are accurate or reliable. The web is NOT always considered scholarly.

  6. Search other library catalogues e.g. university libraries, public libraries,

Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library. Remember that both University of Toronto

libraries and public libraries can order books for you through inter-library loan.

  1. Ask the instructor for advice.

Library Tours. There will be an important orientation session conducted by staff at the Graham Library. This will be scheduled during class time in October. Please see the schedule below for details. Note that attendance is mandatory and is most definitely in your best interest.
Writing Centre Help. The Writing Centre at Trinity College offers help to all students. You can make individual appointments at your leisure. However, to assist students in TRN 150 with assignments particular to the course, we will try to arrange a special session with the Writing Centre sometime in early October. Given scheduling difficulties and the need to get through course material, this will be held outside of class time. Further details will be given.
Submission of Written Work. All work must be typed and double-spaced and should be

given directly to Dr. Kislenko in class or handed in to the secretary of the

International Relations Programme, Munk School of Global Affairs, 3rd floor, North House. Students will be responsible for keeping copies of their work.
References. Essays must contain proper references, either in the form of footnotes or

endnotes, which include in the first citation the author, title, place and date of publication

of the work cited, as well as a correct page number. Please note that citations lacking appropriate page numbers are not acceptable no matter what citation you use. As a general rule references should be given for direct quotations, summaries or paraphrases of other people’s work or points of view and for material that is not widely known or accepted. There are several acceptable citation formats, but please make sure you follow one! For example, here is an acceptable citation:

Jane Doe, The ABC's of History (Toronto: 123 Publishers, 1997), pp. 20-23.

WHEN IN DOUBT IT IS BETTER TO PROVIDE A REFERENCE. All quotations must be placed in quotation marks.
Bibliographies. Essays MUST provide bibliographies of all works consulted, whether or not they have been quoted directly. An inadequate bibliography (for assignments as long as those above) is one which contains fewer than four books or articles related to the topic, or books which are entirely general works or texts. Dictionaries, atlases and/or encyclopaedias DO NOT count towards this minimum number of sources, and their inclusion should NOT be considered as constituting research. An example of a bibliographic citation is as follows: Smith, John. History Rules (Toronto: 123 Publishers).
Deductions of Marks. The evaluation of your research, content, and argumentation is of primary concern in marking. Equally important is the syntax or structure of your work. Marks will be deducted from work containing excessive grammar/spelling mistakes, work which is excessively long or too short, or which fails to provide proper footnoting/bibliography. Be sure to edit and check your work carefully. Do not simply rely on your computer’s spelling or grammar check. Late work will be penalized by the deduction of 3% per day including weekends/holidays to a maximum of 25%.
Grounds for Failure. Essays which do not supply proper and adequate references and bibliographies will be failed. Essays relying heavily on poor quality research (e.g... encyclopaedias, websites, works published decades ago, general histories, works all by the same author(s) etc.) will be failed. If you have any doubts or questions as to research you should come see me. Essays that contain no citations or citations without page numbers will receive a grade of zero. Any written work that quotes directly from other material without attribution, or which paraphrases extensive tracts from the works of others, is plagiarised. It will receive a grade of zero, without chance to resubmit. Further disciplinary action will be taken in keeping with the University policies on plagiarism. Please consult the academic calendar for further information on plagiarism. If you have any questions or doubts about how to cite material, please contact me.
Academic Integrity. The University of Toronto treats cases of academic misconduct very seriously. Academic integrity is a fundamental value of learning and scholarship. Participating honestly, respectfully, responsibly, and fairly in this academic community ensures that your U of T degree is valued and respected as a true signifier of your individual academic achievement. Please consult Appendix A of the Faculty of Arts and Science Academic Handbook for Instructors for further details. You can also see
The University of Toronto’s Code of Behaviour on Academic Matters [hereafter referred to as the Code] outlines behaviours that constitute academic misconduct, the processes for addressing academic offences, and the penalties that may be imposed. You are expected to be familiar with the contents of this document. Potential offences include, but are not limited to:
In papers and assignments:

  • Using someone else’s ideas or words without appropriate acknowledgement

  • Submitting your own work in more than one course without permission

  • Making up sources of facts

  • Obtaining or providing unauthorized assistance on any assignment

On tests and exams:

  • Using or possession any unauthorized aid, including a cell phone.

  • Looking at someone else’s answers

  • Misrepresenting your identity

  • Submitting an altered test for re-grading


  • Falsifying or altering any documentation required by the university, including (but not limited to) doctor’s [sic] notes.

  • Falsifying institutional documents or grades

All suspected cases of academic misconduct will be investigated following the guidelines outlined in the Code. Violations will be prosecuted to the full extent of the Code.

Plagiarism. Unfortunately, an all-too-common practice in essay writing is plagiarism, i.e., the representation of the language, ideas, and thoughts of another author as one’s own

original work. Plagiarism is a gross form of cheating and can result in severe penalties

under the University of Toronto’s Code of Academic Behaviour. All work submitted by students must be their own work. When a piece of work has been submitted for credit in one course it may not be submitted for credit in another course, unless written permission of the instructors in both courses has been obtained before the work is submitted.

While it may be argued that few ideas are original, instructors expect students to acknowledge the sources of ideas and expressions that they use in essays. To represent them as self-created is dishonest and academically worthless. You may quote or paraphrase another writer if he has stated an idea strikingly, as evidence to support your arguments or conclusions, or as a point against which to argue, but such borrowing should be used sparingly and always indicated in a footnote. The aim of scholarship is to develop your own ideas and research. Only by trying to develop your own thoughts and arguments will you mature academically. To provide adequate documentation is not only an indication of academic honesty but also a courtesy enabling the teacher to consult your sources with ease.

To combat this problem, I reserve the right to request research notes and/or to conduct a brief oral examination on the topic matter in order to ensure that submitted work is legitimate. Students may also be required to submit an electronic version of their work for verification purposes. I will give lectures on essay writing during the term in which plagiarism will be further discussed. If you have any questions or concerns about plagiarism, please feel free to speak with me. I would much rather spend time helping you understand what to do than dealing with any problems that may arise from your being unclear.
Extensions. Dr. Kislenko may grant extensions for medical or compassionate grounds only. Students requiring such an extension must submit a written request before the

deadline. Dr. Kislenko will initial the request which must be handed in with the late

work. Normally no late work will be accepted after the last day of classes in the term in

which the work is due.

Special Assistance and Essay Lectures. If you have other questions about correct procedure and style for writing an essay, please feel free to ask Dr. Kislenko. There are several good guides to essay writing. Students may also take advantage of help offered Trinity College’s Writing Centre. Further information on the centre and on library tours will be discussed in class. Please also note that in October Dr. Kislenko will be holding special lectures on essay writing at Ryerson University that you are very welcome to attend. Specific times and locations will be given in class. If you cannot attend, Dr. Kislenko would still be happy to go over things with you by way of special appointment or office hours. It is far better that you come and ask questions about anything to do with essays than do poorly: essays are not easy - and you should be prepared to put in the time and effort for solid research, good writing, and an effective presentation of your arguments. I’m here to help – but don’t leave things to the last moment.
Seminar Preparation
Students are expected to help lead the discussion in seminars. In preparation for the seminars you are encouraged to approach the readings with the following guidelines:

  1. Highlight the main points raised by the author (s)

  2. Assess what the readings have to say about the topic for the session and about the themes of the course

  3. Raise at least two questions for discussion by the class. Do not merely summarize the readings in detail.

  4. Remember that the course is ACCUMULATIVE, meaning that readings and class discussions should build on previous meetings. You should retain information and use it throughout the year, not just ‘per week’. This DOES NOT mean you have to “memorize” everything. Rather, you should focus on understanding major ideas/themes we discuss.

  5. Remember that assigning readings on big topics is difficult, especially in a first year course when one’s knowledge base on any given issue is understandably thin. Weekly readings are designed to give background in as comprehensive and interesting a fashion as possible without being excessive in terms of workload. While challenging, the ‘ball park’ 80-100 pages of reading you are expected to tackle weekly is neither unrealistic nor unusual for a principle course in this type of academic programme.

  6. Note that assigned readings are guidelines for our discussions. You should always come prepared having read them. Often we will make specific and detailed reference to them in class, however sometimes they will be used more generally to facilitate or frame a broader/different discussion. I recommend that you always make notes about the readings and think hard how they are relevant to our topic. You should also be prepared to think “outside” the readings and draw connections to other events/issues, perhaps of a more contemporary nature, that are also relevant to our on-going discussions.

  7. Celebrate primary documents! To better expose you to the craft of an historian, many sessions have primary documents assigned as readings. Try to place them in context of the time in which they were written. They may be easier to understand once you have completed other assigned readings. YOUR interpretation and YOUR understanding of them are important, as they are often the subject of intense debate amongst historians no matter how many times they are analyzed!

Readings are available on reserve in the Trinity Library and as short-term loans in the Robarts Library. Most can also be found in Robarts or in college libraries. Please let Dr. Kislenko know if there are any problems with the readings.
Class Discussion

For a seminar, we have a large class and a great deal of material to cover, so it is often very challenging to make sure that everyone has a chance to participate. Please note that while everyone is of course strongly encouraged to participate as much as possible, limitations on individual contributions are absolutely necessary. You are therefore advised to try and be concise and efficient when speaking. Dr. Kislenko will make sure that appropriate limitations are enacted on ALL speakers! Don’t take it personally: just remember that we need to account for as many participants as possible. Please also note that Dr. Kislenko will employ several different approaches to class discussion throughout term. These are designed to provide everyone with a chance to participate, and ensure that all students are coming to class having completed their assigned readings. Different methods are also useful in keeping things interesting, exposing you to a variety of interactions with one-another, and ensuring that we have some fun! For example, in addition to a structured class debate scheduled at the end of the year, there may be spontaneous class debates at any time! That means you should keep on your toes by doing the readings, coming prepared to speak, and listening attentively to all participants in our discussions. If for any reason you find yourself having difficulty participating, you are STRONGLY advised to come see Dr. Kislenko. He has a variety of techniques to help you gain confidence and experience speaking in public.

The Inside Scoop

Although participation in class will be marked, it is sincerely hoped that you will actually get something out of it beyond grades. The overall objective of this course is to have everyone apply critical, reasoned analysis to issues and events discussed. However, engaging in scholarly discourse need not be terribly intimidating, boring, or formal. To prove this point your humour, passion, experiences, and opinions are essential ingredients in this course. As long as everyone and their perspectives are treated with respect, and a relative decorum is maintained, you are strongly encouraged to voice your interpretations. In this kind of an environment everyone will gain greater intellectual self-confidence, as well as knowledge. In addition, it is expected that we will not always stick strictly to assigned readings or discussion. Drawing connections to current events is not only welcome – it may in fact be quite useful in better understanding other topics in the course material. We may also have spontaneous debates or discussion on matters pertinent to the course.


Seminar participation is evaluated with the following criteria in mind:

  • the quality of comments and observations (vs. the volume of contributions)

  • a demonstrated command of and reference to assigned readings

  • demonstrated listening skills and the ability to respond to others in class

  • a willingness to listen to and consider a diversity of opinions

  • the ability to exercise critical thinking skills and objective analysis

  • demonstrated independent and original thought

  • a capacity to understand how the readings and other discussion shape the topic at hand (rather than simply regurgitating readings or interjecting opinion)

Seminar Grades

In December Dr. Kislenko will send you an email with your interim grades for seminar participation. This will be a letter grade coupled with general comments designed to assist you and identify any issues or problems that may affect your grades. Please be sure you are using your U of T email address when accessing the portal.

Laptops and Cell Phones

This is a seminar course requiring your constant attention and active participation. The use of electronic devices in class can be highly distracting and inhibit the free flow of discussion. You should be prepared to give your whole attention to your fellow students, and as a consequence laptops, cell phones, and other electronic devices should be turned off and taken off the table while the class is in session. Notes that you take during class can later be transcribed to your laptop, if desired. Exceptions will be made for those with documented special needs. Please come and see me about this if you have any questions or concerns.

Final Examination
There will be a final examination in this course held during the exam period in April. It will consist both of short answer and essay questions and draw from material covered throughout the whole year. Please note that the examination will deal with information from both the assigned readings and seminar discussions, making your attendance and participation in class that much more important. Further details about the examination will be discussed in class. The final will be worth 35% of your overall grade. It will be three hours in length. We will discuss it later in the year and Dr. Kislenko will give sample questions to assist.
One Last Thing
If you have questions, comments, or concerns about this course, please feel free to discuss them with Dr. Kislenko at any time. Your input is most welcome. If you are having difficulty with the course in any respect, you are especially encouraged to speak Dr. Kislenko. Please don’t make hasty decisions or wait until April when little can be done to assist you.

Course Schedule and Readings

First Term

  • Week 1 - September 15 Introductions

  • Week 2 - September 22 Intellectual considerations on the modern state system

  • Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, The Invention of Tradition, pp.1-14

  • Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, pp. 5-22

  • Patrick J. Greary, The Myth of Nations: the Mediaeval Origins of Europe, chapter 1

  • Week 3 - September 29 The birth of nationalism: Westphalia to Washington

• Michael Howard, War and the Liberal Conscience, chapter 1

  • Derek Croxton and Geoffrey Parker, “’A swift and sure peace’: the Congress of Westphalia 1643-1648,” in Williamson Murray and Jim Lacey, eds., The Making of Peace: Rulers, States, and the Aftermath of War, pp. 71-99

• Text of the Treaty of Munster (1648) (examine it briefly!) Available at:

  • Alan Taylor, American Colonies: The Settling of North America, pp. 364-395 and 420-443

  • George Washington’s Farewell Address (1796). Available at:

  • Week 4 – October 6 The French Revolution and its consequences

  • LIBRARY SESSION (Mandatory, in class: 1st hour)

  • Tim Blanning, The Pursuit of Glory: Europe 1648-1815, 611-677

  • Text of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789). Available at:

  • Week 5 – October 13 The Napoleonic Era

  • Ernest Gellner, Nationalism, pp. 5-49

  • Week 6 – October 20 After Bonaparte: Nationalism in the 19th Century

  • Michael Howard, War and the Liberal Conscience, chapter 2

  • Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Addresses to the German Nation, pp. 1-22

  • Giuseppe Mazzini, excerpt from On the Duties of Man, in Chris Brown et al., International Relations in Political Thought, pp. 476-485

  • Archie Brown, The Rise and Fall of Communism, pp. 9-25

  • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, available at: OR in Robert C. Tucker, ed., The Marx-Engels Reader, pp. 473-500

  • Week 7 – October 27 Imperialism in the 19th century

        • Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost, chapters 11-15

        • Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher, Africa and the Victorians: The Climax of Imperialism in the Dark Continent, pp. 1-26 and 462-472

  • Week 8 – November 3 The War To End All Wars

        • Hew Strachan, The First World War, introduction, chapters 1 and 3

        • Niall Ferguson, Pity of War, chapter 7

        • Margaret MacMillan, The War That Ended Peace, introduction and chapter 1

        • Arne Kislenko and Margaret MacMillan, The Uneasy Century: International Relations 1900-1990, section 1 (primary documents)

  • Week 9- November 10 Fall Reading Week – No Class

  • Week 10 – November 17 The Russian Revolution and its consequences

        • Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution, pp. 1-67.

        • Vladimir Lenin, excerpts from “The State and Revolution”, Aug. 1917; “Speeches by Lenin and Trotsky to the Petrograd Soviet,” Oct. 25, 1917; “The October Revolution in Saratov,” Oct. 26-28, 1917; and “Report on Activities of the Comintern,” Mar. 1921 in Jonathan Daly and Leonid Trofimov, eds., Russia in War and Revolution, 1914-1922: A Documentary Reader (pp. 109-113, 117-120, 142-145, and 201-202)

  • Week 11 – November 24 The Paris Peace Conference

        • Margaret MacMillan, Paris 1919, chapter 7

        • Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, chapter 9

        • Erez Manela, The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism, pp. 55-97

        • Wilson’s Fourteen Points, Available at:

  • Week 12 – December 1 Self-determination and the question of minorities

        • Alan Sharp, ‘The genie that would not go back into the bottle: national self-determination and the legacy of the First World War and the Peace Settlement’, in Seamus Dunn and T.G. Fraser, eds., Europe and Ethnicity

        • Mark Mazower, ‘Minorities and the League of Nations in Interwar Europe’ Daedalus, 126/2 (1997)

        • Michael Howard, War and the Liberal Conscience, pp.63-94

        • “The Covenant of the League of Nations,” Part I of the Treaty of Versailles (1919),

  • Week 13 – December 8 The Rise of Totalitarianism

        • PMH Bell, The Origins of the Second World War in Europe, 2nd ed., pp. 89-110

        • ‘Keith Eubank, ‘Appeasers and Appeasement’, in Keith Eubank, ed., World War II: Roots and Causes, pp. 89-106

        • The Hossbach Memorandum (1937), available at:

        • Susan Townsend, “Japan’s Quest for Empire, 1931-1945”, BBC History Online, available at:

        • Arne Kislenko and Margaret MacMillan, The Uneasy Century: International Relations 1900-1990, section 3 and section 4 (primary documents)

Second Term

  • Week 14 – January 12 War crimes and Justice: Nuremberg and Tokyo 1945-6

        • Telford Taylor, The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials, introduction, chapters 1-4, and pages 634-641

        • Yuri Tanaka, Hidden Horrors: Japanese War Crimes in World War II, introduction, chapter 3, conclusion

  • Week 15 – January 19 Sovereignty and World Order: the origins of the United

Nations, 1941-45

        • F.H. Hinsley, Power and the Pursuit of Peace, pp. 335-345

        • Stephen Schlesinger, Act of Creation: The Founding of the United Nations, pp. 193-245

        • The Charter of the United Nations (examine only briefly!) available at:

  • Week 16 – January 26 The impact of the Cold War: Institutions and Blocs

  • William R. Keylor, A World of Nations: The International Order since 1945, ch. 1

  • Geir Lundestad, ‘Empire by invitation’, in Charles Maier, ed., The Cold War in Europe

  • Michael Howard, War and the Liberal Conscience, chapter 6

  • George Kennan, “The Long Telegram” available at:

  • Week 17 – February 2 China “Stands Up” and fights

  • Hans J. Van De Ven, “War, Cosmopolitanism, and Authority: Mao from 1937 to 1956,” in Timothy Cheek, ed., A Critical Introduction to Mao, pp. 87-109

  • Excerpts from Mao’s conversations and speeches, in Jussi M. Hanhimäki and Odd Arne Westad, eds., The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts, pp. 183-185 and 198-203.

  • Chen Jian, China´s Road to the Korean War, chapter 5

  • Arne Kislenko and Margaret MacMillan, The Uneasy Century: International Relations 1900-1990, section 6, documents 1-4 only (primary documents)

  • Week 18 – February 9 Limitations of power: Vietnam and after

        • George Herring, America’s Longest War, 3rd edition, pp. 304-314

        • William Duiker, US Containment Policy and the Conflict in Indochina, chapter 10

        • Richard Jensen, “Victory and Defeat in the Vietnam War” in Richard Jensen et al, Trans-Pacific Relations: America, Europe, and Asia in the Twentieth Century, chap. 9

        • Arne Kislenko and Margaret MacMillan, The Uneasy Century: International Relations 1900-1990, section 7 (primary documents)

  • Week 19 – February 16 Winter Reading Week – No Class

  • Week 20 – February 23 The emergence of the Third World

        • Geir Lundestad, East, West, North, South, chapters 3, 10, 11

        • Odd Arne Westad, The Global Cold War, pp. 73-157

  • Week 21 – March 1 Cold War Thaws: Divide, Détente, and Decline

        • Jeremi Suri, Power and Protest: Global Revolution and the Rise of Détente, pp. 88-130

        • Nikita Khrushchev, speech to the 20th Party Congress, 1956 (a.k.a. “The Secret Speech”) available at:

        • Vaclav Havel, “The Power of the Powerless,” in Vaclav Havel, Open Letters, pp. 125-154

        • Arne Kislenko and Margaret MacMillan, The Uneasy Century: International Relations 1900-1990, section 8 (primary documents)

  • Week 22 – March 8 The End of the Cold War

        • David Reynolds, One World Indivisible: A Global History since 1945, pp. 539-585

        • Stephen Kotkin, Uncivil Society: 1989 and the Implosion of the Communist Establishment, pp. xiii-xviii and 5-34

        • Secret documents on the fall of the Berlin Wall, The National Security Archive, available at: (choose some to brief: you do not have to read all!)

  • Week 23 – March 15 American Exceptionalism and the “New World Order”

        • Walter Russell Mead, Power, Terror, Peace and War, chapters 1 and 2

        • Samuel Huntington, “The Clash of Civilizations?” article from Foreign Affairs (summer 1993)

        • Roy Mottahedeh, ‘The Clash of Civilizations: An Islamicist’s Critique’ in Emran Qureshi and Michael A. Sells, eds., The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy

  • Week 24 – March 22 Failed States and the International Order

        • Adam LeBor, Complicity with Evil, chapters 1-5

        • Romeo Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil, chapters 10 and 11

        • Samantha Power, “A Problem from Hell”, chapter 10

  • Week 25 – March 29 Protecting the World Order or How to Do What the Hell

You Want and Worry About the Consequences Later

  • Philippe Sands, Lawless World, chapter 8, “Kicking Ass in Iraq”

  • George Packer, Assassin’s Gate, chs. 1-2

  • select documents from John Ehrenberg (ed.) et al, The Iraq Papers:

  • Document 1.3 (Wolfowitz et al, "Defense Planning..") pp. 8-11

  • Document 1.5 (Cheney on Frontline) pp. 13-14

  • Document 2.6 (Downing Street memo) pp. 67- 69

  • Document 2.16 (Blix at the UNMOVIC) pp. 105-110

  • Document 5.9 (al-Zarqawi letter) pp. 252-258

  • Document 8.10 (ICRC report on human rights) pp. 431-437

  • Selections from Micah L. Sifry and Christopher Cerf, The Iraq War Reader: History, Documents, Opinions

  • George W. Bush, “State of the Union Speech: The Axis of Evil,” pp. 250-252

  • Noam Chomsky, “Drain the Swamp and There Will Be No More Mosquitoes,” pp. 301-303

  • Arundhati Roy, “Wars Are Never Fought for Altriustic Reasons,” pp. 339-343

  • Christopher Hitchens, “Why I Am For Regime Change,” pp. 440-444

  • Edward Said, “An Unacceptable Helplessness,” pp. 445-449

  • Week 26 – April 5 class debate (TBA)

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