Readings in America’s History, 6 ed. and Amsco Chapter 13 The Crisis of the Union, 1844-1860
Chapter 14 Two Societies at War, 1861-1865
Chapter 15 Reconstruction, 1865-1877
Syllabus with Focus Questions November 30 M Introduce new unit
Manifest Destiny North and South
Manifest Destiny and territorial expansion united more than divided the United States in the period 1830-1860.
December 2 W War, Expansion, and Slavery
The End of the Second Party System
“The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” Twain
There was no realistic expectation that the Compromise of 1850 would be a viable long-term solution. Defend or refute.
The Compromise of 1850 was not a compromise. Instead, southern leaders surrendered to northern interests.
What were the causes of the Mexican-American War?
Calhoun’s expansionist policies created a crisis that could not be controlled.
December 4 F Amsco: National Parties in Crisis, Extremists and Crisis, Constitutional Issues (pg. 244-250)
What were Lincoln’s views on slavery, civil rights, and colonization?
Take home DBQ on John Brown
December 7 M Democrats of the 1850s
Sectional Strife and the Third Party System
President Lyndon Johnson said of his antagonist then-Senator Nixon, “In politics, chicken shit can turn into chicken salad, and vice versa.” TWE does this quote apply to John Brown between the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre and the raid on Harper’s Ferry?
December 9 W Amsco: Ch. 14 The Civil War: The War Begins, First Years…, Foreign Affairs and Diplomacy
Article: Ramsdell, Charles. “The Natural Limits of Slavery Expansion.”
TWE was the Civil War about slavery?
December 11 F Amsco: Ch 14 The Civil War: The End of Slavery, The Union Triumphs, Effects of the Civil War…
The North receives too much credit for its victory in the Civil War.
December 14 M Presidential Reconstruction
December 16 W Radical Reconstruction
Grant or Lincoln should have been impeached instead of Johnson.
December 18 F The Undoing of Reconstruction
The North won the Civil War but the South won the Reconstruction.
Did economic, social, and political developments in the period 1860-1877 amount to a revolution?
In addition to these assignments, we will be discussing the essential questions of the unit either as a class, in small groups, using simulations, or on-line as resources become available.
Chapter summaries: 1845-1860
Texas won its independence from Mexico in 1836 and asked the United States for annexation as a state. The United States refused and Texas became an independent Republic.
Texas was annexed by the U.S. in 1845.
The U.S. government pursued a policy of “manifest destiny” to eventually take in land from “sea to shining sea.”
The Oregon territory was acquired by the U.S. in the Oregon treaty of 1846.
President Polk created an incident on the Nueces River in 1846 that led to a declaration of war against Mexico.
The Mexican War was settled by the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo by which the U.S. acquired west Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and parts of Colorado.
By the Compromise of 1850, the north won California as a free state, while the south gained a new fugitive slave law and the principle of popular sovereignty.
Senator Stephen Douglas attempted to turn the issue of popular sovereignty to his advantage in the opening of Nebraska under the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. Instead the issue created the Republican Party, brought fighting to Kansas, and started the slide toward the Civil War.
The Dred Scott decision, which nationalized slavery, drove a deeper wedge between the North and South, made Lincoln a national figure and heightened the split between N. and S.
John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry Virginia turned him into a martyr and brought the nation to the brink of war.
Lincoln was elected in 1860 with 40% of the popular vote making him a minority president, yet defeating all three of his opponents. Many southerners backed secession as the only response.
1. Who started the war with Mexico? Why did America fight this war?
2. How was the agreement of 1850 a compromise? Did it solve problems or just make new ones? Explain using examples.
3. Why was Kansas bleeding? Explain.
4. Was John Brown a murderer or a martyr? What is your opinion and why?
5. Who were the Republicans and how were they formed? What was their platform in 1860? Who was their constituency?
6. The Lincoln/Douglas debates were in the state of Illinois. Why did they take on such a large national interest? What issues came up in the debates and what does this tell you about Lincoln?
7. What did the events of the 1850’s do to the political party system? Explain.
8. What legal and Constitutional arguments did the South make in support of secession? What social and economic arguments?
Define and discuss the phrase “Manifest Destiny.” Explain how this belief came to divide the nation.
How did THREE of the following lead to the secession of South Carolina in 1860?
-Nullification Crisis of 1832-1833
-Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 and its aftermath
-Dred-Scott Decision of 1857
-Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858
-Election of Lincoln 1860
Assess the moral arguments and political actions of those opposed to the spread of slavery in the context of THREE of the following:
-Compromise of 1850
Chapter summaries: 1861-1877
Secession had taken peacefully until President Lincoln forced the issue and the South fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina.
Southern advantages in the Civil War included the sympathy of European upper classes, an excellent officer corps, and the belief that they were fighting for their independence.
The North had many more material advantages than the South: wheat over cotton, the idea of Union, more industry, manpower, capital, resources, and the moral objective of ending slavery.
The Northern strategy, the Anaconda Plan, involved blockading the Southern coast, dividing the West from the East by seizing the Mississippi, and dividing and conquering what remained.
The North sustained continued losses in the East until the Battle of Antietam in the Fall of 1862.
Lincoln used this victory to issue the Emancipation Proclamation which only freed slaves in rebel states. Slavery was still in effect in border and Union states. The effect however, was that the EP stopped intervention by Europe and encouraged Confederate slaves to rebel and join the Union armies.
The battles of 1863 virtually decided the war. Grant seized the Mississippi at Vicksburg, cutting the South in half while Meade defeated lee at the famous three day Battle of Gettysburg.
Many early soldiers on both sides were volunteers. After casualty lists grew, both the North and the South resorted to conscription.
The North was able to financially fight the Civil War with increased tariffs, bond sales, and a small income tax. Without the ability to tax, the Confederate economy collapsed and inflation raged out of control after 1863.
The industrial North came out of the Civil War in the midst of a financial boom, the South was destroyed.
Lincoln suspended Habeas Corpus and other civil liberties during the Civil War due to the war itself and the large number of dissenters (Copperheads) during the war.
The war ended when Lee surrendered at Appomattox in 1865.
Reconstruction was the plan to bring the Southern states back into the Union.
There were three Reconstruction Plans: Lincoln’s, Johnson’s, and the Radical Republican plans.
After the death of Lincoln, debate focused on the differences between the Presidential Reconstruction Plan and the Congressional Reconstruction Plan.
Congressional Reconstruction, formed by the Radical Republicans, focused on punishing the South for seceding from the Union and the damage caused during the War.
Presidential Reconstruction focused on quickly returning the states to the Union and ensuring support for the Republican Party.
Black Americans enjoyed some freedoms during Reconstruction supported by the Freedman’s Bureau, the 13th, 14th, and the 15th Amendments and the efforts of some Northerners.
However, southern society for the blacks eventually became much like slavery due to prejudice, black codes, tenant farming and the start of racist organizations such as the KKK.
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags represented Republicans who sought to make money on reconstructing southern economy and government.
Industry and urbanization boomed as the South rebuilt itself after the destruction of the War.
Northern politicians argued over the requirements for southern readmission to the Union government and the Radical Republicans attempted to impeach President Johnson for opposing their efforts.
President Grant’s term in office was hi-lighted by corruption and mismanagement as Reconstruction lost its focus and the Republican Party lost its dominance.
Reconstruction ended with the Compromise of 1877 after Hayes was elected during a controversial vote.
As southern white power was returned to the governments of southern states, structural racism was established by the courts in the Black Codes and Jim Crow Laws and through white terrorism in acts such as lynchings.
Compare and contrast the free soil ideology of the North with the pro-slavery argument of the South.
What advantages did the Union have in the Civil War? How about the Confederacy?
2. How did the Union propose to finance the war? The Confederacy? How successful were they? What was the effect on each economy?
3. How did each side raise troops? Who was more successful? What was the public’s response to conscription?
4. What factors brought about the Emancipation Proclamation? What did it accomplish? Was it full emancipation?
5. What effect did the Civil War have on women and blacks in the north? What part did they play?
Why was state’s rights the “great dividing force” in the Confederacy’s war effort? What caused this division and what was the effect?
What were the foreign policy objectives of the Union and the Confederacy? How did each attempt to achieve these objectives and which was more successful?
Why was 1863 the “Year of Decision?” What took place in 1863 to swing the advantage to the Union? What did these events accomplish?
Did President Lincoln follow the Constitution during wartime? What liberties did he threaten? Explain.
10. Describe three reasons why the South lost. What were the biggest factors?
How was “Presidential” Reconstruction different than Congressional Reconstruction? Were either successful?
What was the root cause of the impeachment of Andrew Johnson? Was the trial and the outcome fair?
What major actions helped African Americans during Reconstruction?
How did Reconstruction end? Explain.
Why was the South after Reconstruction called The New South? What economic, social, and political changes had been made? How was it different than antebellum South?
What did the Civil War accomplish?
W.E.B. Dubois said that during Reconstruction, slaves had a brief moment in the sun, then slipped back towards slavery. What does he mean?
Was Reconstruction successful?
DBQ: In what ways and to what extent did constitutional and social developments between 1860 and 1877 amount to a revolution?
Past DBQs and FRQs: 2000 Assess the moral arguments and political actions of those opposed to the spread of slavery in the context of TWO of the following.
Compromise of 1850
DBQ In what ways and to what extent did constitutional and social developments between 1860 and 1877 amount to a social revolution.
Use the documents and your knowledge of the period from 1860 to 1877 to answer the question.
1992 Discuss the political, economic, and social reforms introduced in the South between 1864 and 1877. To what extent did these reforms survive the Compromise of 1877?
“I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races.” How can this 1858 statement of Abraham Lincoln be reconciled with his 1862 Emancipation Proclamation?
1985 During the past four decades, historians consistently have rated Washington, Lincoln, and Franklin D. Roosevelt as the greatest Presidents. Assess the greatness of any TWO of these three chief executives, making clear the criteria on which you base your judgment.
DBQ John Brown’s raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859, involved only a handful of abolitionists, freed no slaves, and was over in two days. Although many Northerners condemned the raid, by 1863 John Brown had become a hero and martyr in the North.
--To what extent and in what ways do the views about John Brown expressed in the documents illustrate changing North-South relations between 1859 and 1863?
1981 “In American politics, the most significant battles have occurred within the major parties rather than between them.” Discuss this statement with reference to the periods 1850-1861 and 1900-1912.
1978 “The unpopular ideas and causes of one period often gain popularity and support in another, but the ultimate price of success is usually the altercation of subversion of the original ideas and programs. For the period 1830-1877, discuss this statement with reference to both a) the ideas and activities of abolitionism and b) the policies of the Republican Party.
1968 “The status of the Negro in the Republic was the central issue in American politics from 1846 to 1877.” Assess the validity of this generalization.
49th Parallel—Final division of Oregon Territory between BR and US to avoid war in 18
54’40” or Fight—slogan calling for war with Br in order to take all of disputed Oregon Terr. Up to the Russian Alaskan border
Walker Tariff 1846—designed to lower tariffs in order to encourage trade. Western states outvoted northern because they wanted to export more grain. The tariff did increase exports and benefited relations with Br that had been strained over Oregon Terr. The lowering of tariffs would continue until 1857.
John C Fremont—Pathfinder who was directed by Polk to enter California to explore but whose presence encouraged American rebellion against Mexican rule. Would later run as Free Soil candidate.
Alta California—upper California including California, New Mexico, and the Southwest. See the Absolut ad
Slidell Mission 1845—mission sent by President Polk to offer to purchase Alta California
Zachary Taylor –rough and ready nominated 1848 by Whigs in 1848 after having lost on tariff, bank, and internal improvements. Southern and frontier background, Whigs nominated Millard Fillmore NY and free-soiler for VP
Bear Flag Republic (California)—The name of independent California of 1846
Conscience Whigs—northern whigs who opposed slavery in the territories. The Democratic party was dominated by southern and pro-slavery forces. Most conscience whigs joined newly formed Republicans.
Wilmot Proviso –no new slave territories could be formed out of any territory taken from Mexico.
Rio Grande/Nueces The contested boundary of Texas with Mexico
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848—Mexico surrendered California, Texas and New Mexico Territory for cash
Mexican-American War 1846-1848
Popular sovereignty—voters in each state should be allowed to decide for themselves to permit slavery or not
Old Rough and Ready—John Tyler’s nickname from 40 years of military service
Common Property Doctrine—the territories belong to all of the states. Congress cannot deny slavery in territories (strict interpretation) because slaves are like any other form of property. Would nullify Missouri Compromise.
Missouri Compromise line and California—how would Alta California be divided regarding slavery and the Missouri compromise?
Compromise of 1850-Five parts: Fugitive Slave law, California a free state,
Fugitive Slave Law –runaway slaves to north would be returned with federal assistance
Death of the Whigs
“Forty-niners” and gold—gold was discovered in California in 49 setting off a settlement frenzy
Stephen A. Douglas D Illinois Senator
Read Celebrated Jumping Frog… for 1850 Compromise
1850 Compromise Final PPT for key vocabulary
Democrats of the 1850s
Sectional Strife and the Third Party System
Free-Soil Party 1848 formed from dissatisfied Dems. Van Buren nominated but won no states in November election, though took more votes in NY from Cass (Whig). Taylor won NY because Dems were split and therefore Taylor won the general election.
Pottawatomie massacre—John Brown, a Freesoiler, committed murder during the Bleeding Kansas crisis
Dred Scott v. Sandford 1857
Panic of 1857
John C. Fremont
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Personal liberty laws
John Brown’s raid 1859
Abraham Lincoln and the Breaking of the Union
Secession and Stalemate, 1861-1863
Election of 1860
Constitutional Union Party
Robert E. Lee
Battles of Bull Run
New York Draft Riots
“Billy Yank/Johnny Reb”
National Banking System
Union Victorious, 1864-1865
54th Massachusetts Infantry
Fall of Atlanta
March to the Sea—total war conducted in Georgia
Election of 1864
Appomattox Courthouse—surrender of Lee and his army to Grant
13th Amendment—End of slavery
Freedmans’ Bureau The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmen's Bureau was an agency. Its main purpose was to help the newly-freed former slaves acquire some of the things that they had previously been denied, such as at least a rudimentary education and an opportunity to learn jobs skills outside manual labor.
Presidential Reconstruction—Lincoln’s 10 percent plan and Johnson’s plan
The Counter Revolution
The North During Reconstruction
Force Acts of 1870/71
Compromise of 1877
Jim Crow laws
President Ulysses S. Grant was elected for two terms in office: 1869-1877. While a respected general, his presidency is noteworthy for the scandals that took place amongst his top officials.
Greenbacks are currency that are accepted on faith and not instead of precious metals. Used in the Civil War by the Northern government and created under the Legal Tender Act of 1862.
National Banking System founded under the National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864. Banks could receive national charters and then issue national banknotes. These banks would have to purchase bonds to receive banknotes, which would consume one-third of their revenues. This allowed the government to more closely regulate banks and establish a more modern banking system.
13th Amendment abolished slavery.
14th Amendment the due process and equal protection clauses (Section 1). It was proposed on June 13, 1866, and ratified on July 9, 1868.
The amendment provides a broad definition of national citizenship, overturning a central holding of the Dred Scott case. It requires the states to provide equal protection under the law to all persons (not merely citizens) within their jurisdictions. At the time of adoption, the main intent was to ensure equal protection regardless of race, including some protection of the right to vote in section 2. Wkipedia.com
15th Amendment This amendment prohibits the states or the federal government from using a citizen's race, color, or previous status as a slave as a voting qualification. Its basic purpose was to enfranchise former slaves. But it was not really until the Voting Rights Act in 1965, almost a century later, that this purpose was actually achieved in all states. Wikipedia.com
Civil Rights Acts of 1866 This act was the Republicans' counterattack against the Black Codes in the South. Included in these were the rights to: make contracts, sue, witness in court, and own private property. President Andrew Johnsonvetoed the bill, saying that blacks were not qualified for United States citizenship and that the bill would "operate in favor of the colored and against the white race." The Republicans in Congress overrode the presidential veto on April 9, 1866. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition. As citizens they could make and enforce contracts, sue and be sued, give evidence in court, and inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property.
Wade-Davis Bill It would have allowed seceded states to reenter the union after the United States Civil War if 50 percent of a state's voters took an oath of allegiance to the United States and the state submitted an acceptable constitution. It also demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation.
Tenure of Office Act, passed over the veto of President Andrew Johnson on March 2, 1867, provided that all federal officials whose appointment required Senate confirmation could not be removed without the consent of the Senate. When the Senate was not in session, the Act allowed the President to suspend an official, but if the Senate upon its reconvening refused to concur in the removal, the officila must be reinstated in his position. It was not entirely clear whether the Act applied to cabinet officials appointed by a previous president, such as Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, a Lincoln appointee.
Carpetbaggers were Northerners who traveled to the South looking for economic and political opportunities during Reconstruction.
Scalawags were Southerners who joined with the Northern Republicans during Reconstruction or worked for the Freedman’s Bureau.
Crop-Lien System was related to share cropping in which a farmer took a loan with the local store in against the crops to be grown in order to buy supplies. The store owner would have a say in what might be grown. It was often cotton.
Tenant Farming The prewar slave plantation was replaced by sharecropping, tenant farming, and the convict lease system. In some cases the ex-slave was provided with land, tools, and seed by plantation owner who, in turn, was to get a share of the crop at the end of the season. His share was always so large that the cropper remained permanently in his debt. Similarly, tenant farmers paid rent for their land and were extended loans by the storekeeper for their provisions. Interest rates ran so high that they too remained in permanent bondage. Finally, some plantation owners leased convicts from the state and worked them in chain gangs that most closely resembled the prewar slave system. In every case, the result was that black farm laborers remained members of a permanent peasant class. Grantism was the term used to refer to greed and corruption following the scandals of the Grant Administration.
Credit Mobilier The company was the sole bidder for certain construction contracts from Union Pacific and in 1864 was given 1,074 km of the Transcontinental Railroad to build, with the hefty fees being paid by federal subsidies.
In 1867 Durant was replaced as head of the firm by Representative Oakes Ames. In that year Ames allowed members of Congress to purchase shares at face rather than market value, the same people who voted the government funds to cover the inflated charges of Crédit Mobilier.
Ku Klux Klan is a name used by a number of past and present fraternal organizations in the United States that have advocated white supremacy and, in the past century, anti-Semitism, anti-Catholicism, and nativism.
Force Acts of 1870/1871 and Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 authorized the president to use federal prosecutions, military force, and martial law to break organized attempts to prevent the implementation of civil rights for Freemen. Private criminal acts came under the jurisdiction of federal law.
Compromise of 1877 was a compromise made necessary by the disputed Election of 1876. While an Electoral Commission awarded the election to Rutherford B. Hayes, Southern Democrats planned to block the Commission's report via filibuster. The compromise resolved the constitutional crisis through a series of secret negotiations involving Republican and Democratic politicians, and various interest groups, most notably the railroad companies. The compromise stipulated that the South would acknowledge Hayes as President if the Republicans acceded to various demands, including:
the removal of Federal troops from the former Confederate states (Troops only remained in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida, but the Compromise finalized the process.)
the appointment of at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes' cabinet (David M. Key of Tennessee was appointed Postmaster General.)
the construction of a transcontinental railroad in the South
legislation to help industrialize the South
This compromise effectively ended Reconstruction in the former Confederacy, and the autonomy of the Democratic party in the South was cemented with the ascent of the "Redeemer" governments that displaced the Republican "carpetbagger" governments.
President Rutherford Hayes In order to win the election of 1876, the candidates had to muster 185 electoral votes: Tilden was short just one, with 184 votes, Hayes had 165, with 20 votes representing four states which were contested. To make matters worse, three of these states (Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina) were in the South, which was still under military occupation, the fourth being Oregon.
After months of deliberation and bargaining, Southern Democrats were assured that if Hayes were elected, he would pull federal troops out of the South and end Reconstruction. An agreement was made between them and the Republicans -- if Hayes' cabinet consisted of at least one Southerner and he withdrew all Union troups from the South, then he would become president. This is sometimes considered to be a second Corrupt Bargain.
TheHomestead Act is a piece of U.S. legislation which gave one quarter of a section of a township (160 acres, or about 65 hectares) of undeveloped land in the American West to any family head provided he lived on it for five years, or allowed the family head to buy it for $1.25 per acre ($308/km²) after six months.
The act was signed into law by President Lincoln on May 20, 1862.
Whiskey Ring was a scandal, exposed in 1875, involving diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors. The Whiskey Ring began in St. Louis but was also organized in Chicago, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, New Orleans, and Peoria.
Before they were caught, a group of mostly Republican politicians were able to siphon off millions of dollars in federal taxes on liquor; the scheme involved an extensive network of bribes involving tax collectors, storekeepers, and others.
Jim Crow laws were made to enforce racial segregation, and included laws that would prevent African Americans from doing things that a white person could do. For instance, Jim Crow laws regulated separate use of water fountains and separate seating sections on public transport. Jim Crow laws varied among communities and states. The term is not applied to all racist laws, but only to those passed post-Reconstruction starting in about 1890, the start of a period of worsening race relations in the United States.
Thaddeus Stevens Leader of the Radical Republicans
Hiram Revels was the first African American to serve in the U.S. Senate representing Mississippi in 1870.
Andrew Johnson became president following Lincoln’s assassination in 1865. He offers a third reconstruction plan that is similar to Lincoln’s. He is challenged by the Radical Republicans with their Tenure of Office Act. When Johnson knowingly violated the act, Congress moved to impeach him.
George McClellan was a Major General of the Union Army during the American Civil War. He played an important role in raising a well trained and organized army for the Union, but his leadership skills in battle were questioned, and he was accused of being incompetent and overly cautious. While skilled in organization, he did not seem to have the decisive drive of Lee, Grant, or Sherman, willing to risk a major battle even when all preparations were not perfect. He also seemed never to grasp that he needed to maintain the trust of President Abraham Lincoln, but instead proved to be frustratingly insubordinate to his Commander in Chief. In 1864 he runs against Lincoln and loses.
Impeachment is the bringing of charges against a president or other high government official. If it is found that the charges are valid, a trial will be held which can result in the removal of that government official.