Unit 5 Test Short Answer Questions: Document Packet Question 1 Document: There is no document for this question



Download 18.25 Kb.
Date25.04.2016
Size18.25 Kb.
#19270
Unit 5 Test Short Answer Questions: Document Packethttp://engagingstations.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/federalism.jpg

Question 1 Document: There is no document for this question.



Question 2 Document: Use this document to assist you in answering the short answer questions.

Brown v. Board of Education (1954), now acknowledged as one of the greatest Supreme Court decisions of the 20th century, unanimously held that the racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Although the decision did not succeed in fully desegregating public education in the United States, it put the Constitution on the side of racial equality and galvanized the nascent civil rights movement into a full revolution.

In 1954, large portions of the United States had racially segregated schools, made legal by Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), which held that segregated public facilities were constitutional so long as the black and white facilities were equal to each other. However, by the mid-twentieth century, civil rights groups set up legal and political, challenges to racial segregation. In the early 1950s, NAACP lawyers brought class action lawsuits on behalf of black schoolchildren and their families in Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware, seeking court orders to compel school districts to let black students attend white public schools.

One of these class actions, Brown v. Board of Education was filed against the Topeka, Kansas school board by representative-plaintiff Oliver Brown, parent of one of the children denied access to Topeka's white schools. Brown claimed that Topeka's racial segregation violated the Constitution's Equal Protection Clause because the city's black and white schools were not equal to each other and never could be. The federal district court dismissed his claim, ruling that the segregated public schools were "substantially" equal enough to be constitutional under the Plessy doctrine. Brown appealed to the Supreme Court, which consolidated and then reviewed all the school segregation actions together.

The Supreme Court reviewed psychological studies showing black girls in segregated schools had low racial self-esteem, the Court concluded that separating children on the basis of race creates dangerous inferiority complexes that may adversely affect black children's ability to learn. Brown claimed that even if the school buildings were equal between the black and white schools, racial segregation in schools is "inherently unequal" and is thus always unconstitutional. The Board of Education argued that the de-segregation of schools would cause children to be bused away from their neighborhood school, in some areas over an hour. Also, the integration of schools could put black children in danger from angry community members.

Plessy v. Ferguson was overruled. The Court ordered the states to integrate their schools "with all deliberate speed." The Supreme Court unanimously voted that racial segregation of children in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, which states that "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall ... deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."



The Court decided that the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees equal education today. Public education in the 20th century, said the Court, had become an essential component of a citizen's public life, forming the basis of democratic citizenship, normal socialization, and professional training. In this context, any child denied a good education would be unlikely to succeed in life. Where a state, therefore, has undertaken to provide universal education, such education becomes a right that must be afforded equally to both blacks and whites.

Source: PBS Website

Question 3 Document: Use this document to assist you in answering the short answer questions.



Source: USA Today

Question 4 Document: Use this document to assist you in answering the short answer questions.




flag of finland Finland

flag of united states The United States

Population

5,259,250

316,438,601

Area (in km)

338,145 sq km, which is slightly smaller than the state of Montana

9,631,418 sq km

Shared Borders

Norway, Sweden, and Russia

Canada and Mexico

Structure of Government

Constitution-based Republic: This means that the Finland has a Constitutionally based government that is only one level. It is based on Parliamentary procedure which has two executive officers and a unicameral (one house) legislature. The members of government are elected into office by the people.

Constitution-based Federal Republic: This means that the United States has a Constitutionally based government that is divided into three levels: national, state, and local. The members of government are elected into office by the people.

Median Age

40.97 years

37.2 years

Ethnic Groups

Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.7%, Russian 0.4%, Estonian 0.2%, Roma 0.2%, Sami 0.1%

white 64.8%, Hispanic 15.1%, black 12.9%, Asian 4.4%, Amerindian and Alaska native 1%, native Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.2%

Religions

Lutheran National Church 84.2%, Greek Orthodox in Finland 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 13.5%

Protestant 52%, Roman Catholic 24%, Mormon 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 1%, other 10%, none 10%

Official language(s)

Finnish and Swedish

English

Languages Spoken

Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official), other 2.4%

English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian, Pacific island 2.7%

Value of Goods Made by the Nation

purchasing power $186 billion (2010 est.)

purchasing power $14.66 trillion (2010 est.)

Unemployment

8.4% (2010 est.)

9.6% (2010 est.)

Budget

Revenues (How much the government earned): $122.1 billion

Expenditures (how much the government spent): $128.1 billion (2010 est.)

Revenues (how much the government earned): $2.162 trillion

Expenditures (how much the government spent): $3.456 trillion (2010 est.)

Question 5 Document: There is no document for this question.

Download 18.25 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©www.essaydocs.org 2022
send message

    Main page