University of Makeni – Sustainable Enterprise – Concepts of Security – national, global and human This is an enormous topic and is normally studied in relation to specific issues, countries and regions



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University of Makeni – Sustainable Enterprise – Concepts of Security – national, global and human

This is an enormous topic and is normally studied in relation to specific issues, countries and regions.



National Security

It is normally accepted that first responsibility of Government is to protect its citizens.

National security is the belief that a government, should protect the state and its citizens against all kind of "national" crises through a variety of ‘powers’, such as political power, diplomacy, economic power, military might and membership of such organization’s as NATO or ECOWAS..

The national security concept was mainly developed by the United States after World War II. Initially it focused on strength and was sometimes known as ‘hard power, it now encompasses a more broad range of facets, all of which impinge on the non-military or economic security of the nation and the values espoused by the national society – this has become known as ‘soft power’.. Accordingly, in order to possess national security, a nation needs to possess economic security, energy security, environmental security, etc. Security threats involve not only conventional foes such as other nation-states but also non-state actors such as violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, multinational corporations and non-governmental organisations; some authorities include natural disasters and events causing severe environmental damage in this category.

Measures taken to ensure national security include:


  • using diplomacy to rally allies and isolate threats

  • marshalling economic power to facilitate or compel cooperation

  • maintaining effective armed forces

  • implementing civil defense and emergency preparedness measures (including anti-terrorism legislation)

  • ensuring the resilience and redundancy of critical infrastructure

  • using intelligence services to detect and defeat or avoid threats and espionage, and to protect classified information

  • using counterintelligence services or secret police to protect the nation from internal threats




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