Westward Expansion pass review Pioneers

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Westward Expansion PASS Review

Daniel Boone

Area Explored – Daniel Boone crossed the Appalachian Mountains through the Cumberland Gap to Kentucky.

(The Cumberland Gap was a small valley that Native Americans used to cross the Appalachian Mountains.)

Goals/Reason for Exploration – He created the Wilderness Trail (Road), which later became the first national road.
Geographic Features of Area Explored – Appalachian Mountains
Interesting Facts – Pioneer trails expanded on the original Native American trails. Boone established the first U.S. settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and bought much of the land in Kentucky that was taken from the Cherokee.

Lewis and Clark

Area Explored – Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the Louisiana Purchase land. This territory stretched from New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi River to present day Idaho and a far north as Canada.
Goals/Reason for Exploration – President Thomas Jefferson asked Lewis and Clark to explore and map the area.
Geographic Features of Area Explored – rivers, Rocky Mountains
Interesting Facts – The many rivers made travel easier. They had the help of Native American guides. The expedition brought back information about the Native Americans who lived in these regions and provided scientific information and specimens of the plants and animals they found.
Americans were still looking for a continuous water route that connected east to west. Lewis and Clark passed through the Oregon Territory establishing an American claim to this land.

Zebulon Pike

Area Explored – Upper regions of the Mississippi River
Goals/Reason for Exploration – Mapped and claimed lands for the United States during Westward Expansion into uncharted territories that stretched to the Pacific Ocean and up to the Oregon Country.
Geographic Features of Area Explored – rivers, mountains
Interesting Facts – Explored southwest Spanish territory. The Spanish feared Pike’s exploration because they were afraid the United States would invade their land. Pike’s Peak, in present day Colorado, is named in his honor.

Louisiana Purchase

Events that led to the acquisition: President Thomas Jefferson asked about buying the land around New Orleans to help the farmers along the Mississippi River. France surprised Jefferson by offering him the entire area of Louisiana.
Motives for the acquisition: Thomas Jefferson wanted to help the farmers along the Mississippi River who needed to transport their products downriver to the French port of New Orleans. It cost too much money to transport the goods across the Appalachian Mountains.
Geographical features of the area: The entire area of Louisiana which covered the territory west of the Mississippi River to present-day Idaho and north to Canada. The area had many rivers (made for easier travel), flat land, mountains, and passes through the Rocky Mountains.
Florida Purchase
Events that led to the acquisition: There was fighting between Spain and the United States over boundary lines of the Louisiana Territory. Spain sold Florida to the United States in exchange for money and a clear border between the Louisiana Territory and New Spain.
Motives for the acquisition: Relations with the Native Americans impacted the United States’ desire for this land.
Geographical features of the area: ocean, flat land, marshes

Annexation of Texas

Events that led to the acquisition – American southerners accepted Mexico’s invitation to move into the Texas territory. These cotton planters agreed to become Mexican citizens and to follow Mexican law in order to have access to more fertile land for cotton. A new Mexican government took control over Texas and outlawed slavery. Texans rebelled and fought a war to win their independence.
Motives for the acquisitionAfter the war, Texas wanted to become part of the United States. At first, the United States Congress would not annex Texas because it would upset the balance of slave and free states. As a result, Texas was an independent country for nine years. When James K. Polk won the presidency, running on the platform of Manifest Destiny, the United States Congress annexed Texas.
Geographical features of the area – farming land, rivers

Mexican Cession
Events that led to the acquisition – The United States received this area as a result of winning the Mexican War. The Mexican War was the result of Manifest Destiny, the desire for Pacific Ports, and the annexation of Texas.
Motives for the acquisition – The United States wanted a port on the Pacific coast in the Mexican territory of California. President Polk tried to buy this land but the Mexicans would not sell. After Texas was annexed, the United States sent American troops into an area on the border of Texas that the Mexican government claimed as their own. Shots were fired and a war started. The United States invaded Mexico and defeated the Mexican army. The treaty that ended this war ceded Mexican territory in what is now New Mexico, Arizona, California, Utah and Nevada to the United Sates.
Geographical features of the area – The Mexican Cession gave the United States access to Pacific ports and the gold fields of California.

Northwest Territory Treaty (Oregon Treaty)

Events that led to the acquisition: The United States claimed the Oregon Territory based on the explorations of Lewis and Clark. Britain also claimed the area. After much negotiation, this treaty was a compromise with Great Britain.
Motives for the acquisition: Americans in search of economic opportunity in the fur trade moved into the area. The farmers that followed the fur traders wanted to be part of the United States.
Geographical features of the area: The northern boundary of the United States was set at the 49th parallel. Geographical features – Rocky Mountains

Westward Movement Territories



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