What is a Regiment? Gettysburg National Military Park Kidzpage
To help identify the regiment, division and corps that troops belonged to, Union generals ordered the soldiers to wear a regimental number on their caps with a corps badge. The corps badge was a small flannel cloth badge cut into different shapes and was either red, white, or blue. The Army of Northern Virginia was also divided into brigades, divisions, and corps, but Confederate soldiers had no corps badges.
Artillery regiments were divided into companies and each company was called a battery. A battery consisted of over 100 soldiers, armed with six cannon per battery. A battery was a complicated organization. Soldiers designated as drivers rode the horses that pulled the cannons and caissons, and wagons. Gunners were assigned to serve the cannons, maintain and repair the guns and carriages. An additional six to ten soldiers were assigned as specialists to repair the cannons and carriage parts, repair or replace tools, maintain the ammunition and fuses, and a blacksmith to look after the horses. There were as many as three officers necessary to direct the battery while in action. The typical Union battery required 90 horses to pull the guns, caissons, and battery wagons and as well as three horses for the officers. The gunners of the battery usually walked unless they had to get to a point very rapidly, then they rode on the cannon limber or caisson. A battery assigned to the cavalry needed three times as many horses, one for every man so it could move as rapidly as the cavalry regiments. Confederate batteries were smaller, some having only four cannon. Because of a shortage of horses in the South, guns and caissons were pulled by teams of four horses instead of six. Artillery service was very hard on horses and many were lost in battle. Batteries were assigned independently from their regiments to specific artillery brigades (Union) or battalions (Confederate) or to the artillery reserve of an army.
A Cavalry regiment was organized into three battalions, each composed of four companies that were sometimes referred to as "troops". (One company equaled one troop.) A cavalry regiment was expensive to maintain while in service because of the amount of equipment carried by each cavalryman (carbine, saber, pistol, belt set, saddle, blanket, and other equipment for the soldier's mount), the number of horses needed, and the amount of feed, horse equipments and medical care required for the animals. A cavalryman had to carry not only enough food and water for himself, but he also had to carry a comb, canvas water bucket, a grain bag and other items for his horse. If a soldier's horse became ill or was lost, then he was on foot until a new horse could be obtained, which was more difficult for a Confederate cavalryman than the Union trooper. Most Confederate cavalrymen had to provide their own horses, which they brought from home. If their horses were killed or went lame, the soldier had to rely on his folks at home to provide him with another mount or capture one from a hapless Union cavalryman.
All three of these branches combined to make an army, which also had quartermaster, engineer, signal units, and men called "teamsters" who drove supply wagons. An army on the march was always followed by miles and miles of wagons organized into trains, loaded with food, ammunition, and medical supplies.
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