During the Middle Ages, Muslim cities such as Baghdad, Istanbul, Cairo, Tripoli and Cordoba became cultural and intellectual centers where theologians, scholars, scientists, artists, writers, philosophers, mathematicians and others convened for scholarship, experimentation and discovery. The significant achievements made by Muslims from approximately 750 to 1500 A.D. led to the naming of this period as the Islamic Renaissance, or the Islamic Golden Age.
Muslims were at the forefront of discoveries in ophthalmology (study of the human eye), anatomy (study of the human body), physiology (study of the ways in which the bodies of living things work), pathology (the study and diagnosis of disease), surgery, chemistry and pharmaceuticals during the Islamic Renaissance.
Great advances were also made in astronomy and mathematics, as well as in architecture, art and literature. Muslims translated most of the scientific works of antiquity (from ancient Greece, Rome and Egypt) into Arabic. Many of the ancient works were destroyed after the fall of the Roman Empire, because if these translations the great works of Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates were saved.
Arabic words are still used as English scientific terms:
Examples of Arabic words that are now part of scientific English include algebra, algorithm, chemistry, alchemy, zircon, atlas, almanac, earth, monsoon, alcohol, elixir, aorta, pancreas, colon, cornea, diaphragm, and many more!