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A Different Kind of


While the American Revolution and the French Revolution were being fought in the late 1700s, another kind of revolution took hold in Britain. Though not political, this revolution—known as the Industrial

Revolution—brought about just as many changes to

society. Paul Johnson, historian, describes this time

period as "the age, above all in history, of matchless opportunities for penniless men with powerful brains and imaginations." Listen to the Witness History audio to hear more about the start of the Industrial Revolution.

On September 27, 1825, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in England became the world's first steam railway to offer passenger and freight service.

Chapter Preview

Chapter Focus Question What technological, social, economic, and cultural

changes occurred as the Industrial

Revolution took hold?

, Section 1

* Dawn of the Industrial Age

Section 2

Britain Leads the Way

Section 3

Social Impact of the ndustrial Revolution

Section 4

Jew Ways of Thinking

Note Taking Study Guide Online

For: Note Taking and Concept Connector worksheets Web Code: nbd-1901


From Hand Power to Steam Power J

For centuries, people used their own energy to provide the power for their work. While the idea of using steam power came about in the seventeenth century, it was not until engineer James Watt improved the steam engine that it could be applied to machinery. His financial partner Matthew Boulton, a successful manufacturer, proclaimed:

«I have at my disposal what the whole world demands, something which will uplift civilization more than ever by relieving man of all undignified drudgery. I have steam power.99

Focus Question What events helped bring about the Industrial Revolution?

Dawn of the Industrial Age


• Analyze why life changed as industry spread. • Summarize how an agricultural revolution led to the growth of industry.

• Outline the new technologies that helped trigger the Industrial Revolution.

Terms, People, and Places

anesthetic enclosure James Watt smelt

Note Taking

Reading Skill: Recognize Multiple Causes Several key events led to the Industrial Revolution. As you read the section, create a flowchart of these causes. Add categories as needed.

Agricultural revolution

Industrial Revolution

246 The Industrial Revolution Begins

For thousands of years following the rise of civilization, most peo­ple lived and worked in small farming villages. However, a ' 'ain of events set in motion in the mid-1700s changed that way~life for all time. Today, we call this period of change the Industrial Revolution.

The Industrial Revolution started in Britain. The economic changes that Britain experienced affected people's lives as much as previous political changes and revolutions had. In contrast with most political revolutions, it was neither sudden nor swift. Instead it was a long, slow, uneven process in which production shifted from simple hand tools to complex machines. From its beginnings in Britain, the Industrial Revolution has spread to the rest of Europe, North America, and around the globe.

In 1750, most people worked the land, using handmade tools. They lived in simple cottages lit by firelight and candles. They made their own clothing and grew their own food. In nearby towns, they might exchange goods at a weekly outdoor market.

Like their ancestors, these people knew little of the world that existed beyond their village. The few who left home traveled only as far as their feet or a horse-drawn cart could take them. Those bold adventurers who dared to cross the seas were at the mercy of the winds and tides.

With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the rural wa- ' life began to disappear. By the 1850s, many country villageshad grown into industrial towns and cities. Those who lived there were able to buy clothing and food that someone else produced.

Life Changes as Industry Spreads

Industrial-age travelers moved rapidly between countries and conti­nents by train or steamship. Urgent messages flew along telegraph wires. New inventions and scientific "firsts" poured out each year. Be en 1830 and 1855, for example, an American dentist first used an antithetic, or drug that prevents pain during surgery; an American inventor patented the first sewing machine; a French physicist measured the speed of light; and a Hungarian doctor introduced antiseptic methods to reduce the risk of women dying in childbirth.

Still more stunning changes occurred in the next century, which cre­ated our familiar world of skyscraper cities and carefully tended suburbs. How and why did these great changes occur? Historians point to a series of interrelated causes that helped trigger the industrialization of the West. The "West" referred originally to the industrialized countries i^ Europe but today includes many more.

Checkpoint Why was the Industrial Revolution a turning point in world history?

Agriculture Spurs Industry

Oddly enough, the Industrial Revolution was made possible in part by a change in the farming fields of Western Europe. From the first agricultural revolution some 11,000 years ago, when people learned to farm and domesticate animals, until about 300 years ago, farming had remained pretty much the same. Then, a second agricultural revolution took place that greatly improved the qual­ity and quantity of farm products.

Fa. _ ,ng Methods Improve The Dutch led the way in this new agricultural revolution. They built earthen walls known as dikes to reclaim land from the sea. They also combined smaller fields into larger ones to make better use of the land and used fertilizer from livestock to renew the soil.

In the 1700s, British farmers expanded on Dutch agricultural exper­iments. Educated farmers exchanged news of experiments through farm journals. Some farmers mixed different kinds of soils to get higher crop yields. Others tried out new methods of

crop rotation. Lord Charles Townshend

urged farmers to grow turnips, which

restored exhausted soil. Jethro Tull

invented a new mechanical device, the

seed drill, to aid farmers. It deposited

seeds in rows rather than scattering them

wastefully over the land.

L a


C c





years was the largest percentage of land enclosed? What was the result of these land enclosures?

SOURCE: Oxford Atlas of World History, 1999


Enclosure Increases Output but Causes Migration Meanwhile, rich landowners pushed ahead with enclosure, the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers. In the 1500s, landowners had enclosed land to gain more pastures for sh to increase wool output. By the 1700s, they wanted to create larger wilds that could be cultivated more efficiently. The British Parliament facili­tated enclosures through legislation.

As millions of acres were enclosed, farm output rose. Profits also rose because large fields needed fewer workers. But such progress had a large human cost. Many farm laborers were thrown out of work, and small farmers were forced off their land because they could not compete with large landholders. Villages shrank as cottagers left in search of work. In time, jobless farm workers migrated to towns and cities. There, they formed a growing labor force that would soon tend the machines of the Industrial Revolution.

Population Multiplies The agricultural revolution contributed to a rapid growth of population. Precise population statistics for the 1700s are rare, but those that do exist are striking. Britain's population, for example, soared from about 5 million in 1700 to almost 9 million in 1800. The population of Europe as a whole shot up from roughly 120 million to about 180 million during the same period. Such growth had never before been seen.

Why did this population increase occur? First, the agricultural revolu­tion reduced the risk of death from famine because it created a surplus of food. Since people ate better, they were healthier. Also, better hygiene and sanitation, along with improved medical care, further slowed deaths from disease.


Checkpoint How did an agricultural revolution contribute to population growth?

Vocabulary Builder

statistics—(stuh TIS tiks) pl.n. data that are gathered and tabulated to present information

James Watt

How did a clever Scottish engineer become the "Father of the Industrial Revolution"? After repairing a Newcomen steam engine, James Watt (1736-1819) became fascinated with the idea of improving the device. Within a few months, he knew he had a product that would sell. Still, Watt lacked the money needed to produce and market it.

Fortunately, he was able to form a partnership with the shrewd manufacturer Matthew Boulton. They then founded Soho Engineering Works in Birmingham, England, to manufacture steam engines. Watt's version of the steam engine shown here had a separate condensing chamber and was patented in 1769. Eventually, a measure of mechanical and electrical power, the watt, would be named for James Watt. How might the Industrial Revolution have been different if Watt had not found a business partner?


New Technology Becomes Key

Another factor that helped trigger the Industrial Revolution was the dev- pment of new technology. Aided by new sources of energy and new ma. ials, these new technologies enabled business owners to change the ways work was done.

An Energy Revolution During the 1700s, people began to harness new sources of energy. One vital power source was coal, used to develop the steam engine. In 1712, British inventor Thomas Newcomen had developed a steam engine powered by coal to pump water out of mines. Scottish engineer James Watt looked at Newcomen's invention in 1764 and set out to make improvements on the engine in order to make it more efficient. Watt's engine, after several years of work, would become a key power source of the Industrial Revolution. The steam engine opened the door not only to operating machinery but eventu 

ally to powering locomotives and steamships.

The Quality of Iron Improves Coal was also a vital source of fuel in the production of iron, a material needed for the construction of machines and steam engines. The Darby family of Coalbrookdale pioneered new methods of producing iron. In 1709, Abraham Darby used coal instead of charcoal to smelt iron, or separate iron from its ore.

Darby's experiments led him to produce less expen­sive and better-quality iron, which was used to pro­duce parts for the steam engines. Both his son and gr, 3on continued to improve on his methods. In facf Abraham Darby III built the world's first iron bridge. In the decades that followed, high-quality iron was used more and more widely, especially after the world turned to building railroads.

Checkpoint What new technologies helped trigger the Industrial Revolution?

Abraham Darby III completed the world's first iron bridge in 1779. The bridge still stands today.


Progress Monitoring Online

For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-1 911

Terms, People, and Places

For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sentence explaining its significance.

Ngte Taking

Reading Skill: Recognize Multiple Causes Use your completed flowchart to answer the Focus Question: What

'nts helped bring about the Industrial ~..olution?

Comprehension and Critical Thinking

Recognize Cause and Effect What were the immediate and long-term effects of the agricultural revolution that occurred in the 1 700s?

Predict Consequences How do you think population growth contributed to the Industrial Revolution?

Summarize Explain how new sources of energy, specifically coal, contributed to the Industrial Revolution.

Writing About History

Quick Write: Give Background To explain a historical process, you should first orient the reader to time and place. Ask yourself when and where the process occurred. Practice by explaining in one or two sentences how an agricultural revolu­tion led to the Industrial Revolution.

Chapter 7 Section 1 249

Early train ticket



Train passengers in Britain

Riding the Railway

One of the most important developments of the Industrial Revolution was the creation of a countrywide railway network. The world's first major rail line went from Liverpool to Manchester in England. Fanny Kemble, the most famous actress of the day, was one of the first passengers:

"We were introduced to the little engine which was to drag us along the rails... This snorting little animal, ... started at about ten miles an hour.... You can't imagine how strange it seemed to be journeying on thus, without any visible cause of progress other than the magical machine ...99

Focus Question What key factors allowed Britain to lead the way in the Industrial Revolution?

Britain Leads the Way


Understand why Britain was the starting point for the Industrial Revolution.

Describe the changes that transformed the textile industry.

Explain the significance of the transportation revolution.

Terms, People, and Places

capital Eli Whitney

enterprise turnpike

entrepreneur Liverpool

putting-out system Manchester

Note Taking

Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects Fill in the circles of a concept web like the one below with the key factors that helped Britain take an early lead in industrialization. In a separate concept web, fill in the effects of Britain's early lead.

When agricultural practices changed in the eighteenth cE ry, more food was able to be produced, which in turn fueled popul Lion growth in Britain. The agricultural changes also left many farmers homeless and jobless. These two factors led to a population boom in the cities as people migrated from rural England into towns and cit­ies. This population increase, in turn, created a ready supply of labor to mine the coal, build the factories, and run the machines. The start of the Industrial Revolution in Britain can be attributed to many factors. Population growth was just one of them.

Why Britain?

What characteristics of eighteenth-century Britain made it ripe for industrialization? Historians cite several reasons for Britain's lead.

Natural Resources Abound Britain had the advantage of plentiful natural resources such as natural ports and navigable rivers. Rivers supplied water power and allowed for the construc­tion of canals. These canals increased accessibility for trade and were instrumental in bringing goods to market. In addition, Brit­ain was able to establish communications and transport relatively cheaply due to its easy accessibility to the sea from all points. Brit­ain's plentiful supply of coal was fundamental to its industrializa­tion and was used to power steam engines. Vast supplies moron were available to be used to build the new machines.

250 The Industrial Revolution Begins

The Effects of Demand and Capital In the 1700s, Britain had plenty of skilled mechanics who were eager to meet the growing demand for new, practical inventions. This ready workforce, along with the popu­lat _ explosion, boosted demand for goods. In order to increase the pro­duction of goods to meet the demand, however, another key ingredient was needed. Money was necessary to start businesses.

From the mid-1600s to 1700s, trade from a growing overseas empire helped the British economy prosper. Beginning with the slave trade, the business class accumulated capital, or money used to invest in enter­prises. An enterprise is a business organization in an area such as ship­ping, mining, railroads, or factories. Many businessmen were ready to risk their capital in new ventures due to the healthy economy.

In addition to the advantages already cited, Britain had a stable gov­ernment that supported economic growth. While other countries in Europe faced river tolls and other barriers, Britain did not. The govern­ment built a strong navy that protected its empire, shipping, and over­seas trade. Although the upper class tended to look down on business people, it did not reject the wealth produced by the new entrepreneurs. These entrepreneurs were those who managed and assumed the finan­cial risks of starting new businesses.

Checkpoint What conditions in Britain paved the way for the Industrial Revolution?

Map Skills Plentiful supplies of coal, advancements in the textile industry, iron smelting, and the manufacturing of iron goods contributed to Britain's posi­tion as the world's leading industrial nation in the late eighteenth century.

Locate (a) London (b) Manchester (c) Thames River

Region Identify the centers of woolen industry in England.

Draw Inferences What were the industrial advantages of the rivers during this time?



Copper mining river

Copper minning and smelting

Iron extraction and smelting Linen cloth

Metalware and cutlery

RANCE Shipbuilding

Tin mining and smelting - Woolen cloth

Chapter 7 Section 2 251

These textile machines were constructed to increase cotton production. The flying shuttle sped up weaving, while the spinning jenny and the water frame increased the speed of spinning thread. How did these inventions change the textile industry?

The Textile Industry Advances

The Industrial Revolution first took hold in Britain's largest industry—textiles. In the 1600s, cotton ' ith imported from India had become popular. British ier­chants tried to organize a cotton cloth industry at home. They developed the putting-out system, also known as cottage industry, in which raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes. Skilled artisans in the towns then finished and dyed the cloth.

Inventions Speed Production Under the putting-out system, production was slow. As the demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with a string of remarkable devices that revolutionized the British textile industry. For example, John Kay's flying shuttle enabled weavers to work so fast that they soon outpaced spinners. James Hargreaves solved that problem by producing the spin­ning jenny in 1764, which spun many threads at the same time. A few years later, in 1769, Richard Arkwright patented the water frame, which was a spinning machine that could be powered by water.

Meanwhile, in America, these faster spinning and weaving machines presented a challenge—how to pro­duce enough cotton to keep up with England. Raw cotton grown in the South had to be cleaned of dirt and seeds by hand, a time-consuming task. To solve this, Eli Wl,' -,ey invented a machine called the cotton gin that sepaaected the seeds from the raw cotton at a fast rate. He finished the cotton gin in 1793, and cotton production increased exponentially.

Factories Are Born in Britain The new machines

doomed the putting-out system. They were too large and expensive to be operated at home. Instead, manufacturers built long sheds to house the machines. At first, they located the sheds near rapidly moving streams, harnessing the water power to run the machines. Later, machines were powered by steam engines.

Spinners and weavers now came each day to work in these first facto­ries, which brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods. Early observers were awed at the size and output of these establishments. One onlooker noted: "The same [amount] of labor is now performed in one of these structures which formerly occupied the industry of an entire district."

Checkpoint What led to the advancement of the British textile industry?

The Transportation Revolution

As production increased, entrepreneurs needed faster and cheaper meth­ods of moving goods from place to place. Some capitalists inve. ) in turnpikes, private roads built by entrepreneurs who charged travelers a toll, or fee, to use them. Goods traveled faster as a result, and turnpikes

252 The Industrial Revolution Begins

Terms, People, and Places

For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sen­tence explaining its significance.

Note Taking

Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects Use your completed concept -• s to answer the Focus Question: What

factors allowed Britain to lead the way in the Industrial Revolution?

Comprehension and Critical Thinking

Analyze Information Explain how each of the following helped contribute to demand for consumer goods in Britain: (a) population explosion, (b) general economic prosperity.

Determine Relevance What was the significance of new machines to the tex­tile industry?

Summarize Explain how advances in transportation contributed to Britain's global trade.

Vocabulary Builder

decades—(DEK aydz) n. ten-year periods

Progress Monitoring Online

For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-1921

• Writing About History

Quick Write: Create a Flowchart Flowcharts are helpful tools to help you write an explan­atory essay. Create a flowchart to show the changes that occurred in the textile industry. Be sure that the sequence of events is clear.

soon linked every part of Britain. Other entrepreneurs had canals dug to

connect rivers together or to connect inland towns with coastal ports.

Engineers also built stronger bridges and upgraded harbors to help the exl ling overseas trade.

Canals Boom During the late 1700s and early 1800s, factories needed an efficient, inexpensive way to receive coal and raw materials and then to ship finished goods to market. In 1763, when the Bridgewater canal opened, it not only made a profit from tolls, but it cut in half the price of coal in Manchester. The success of this canal set off a canal-building frenzy. Entrepreneurs formed companies to construct canals for profit. Not all the canals that were built had enough traffic to support them, however, and bankruptcy often resulted. Then, beginning in the 1830s, canals lost their importance as steam locomotives made railroads the new preferred form of transportation.

Welcome the Steam Locomotive It was the invention of the steam locomotive that made the growth of railroads possible. In the early 1800s, pioneers like George Stephenson developed steam-powered loco­motives to pull carriages along iron rails. The railroad did not have to fol­low the course of a river. This meant that tracks could go places where rivers did not, allowing factory owners and merchants to ship goods swiftly and cheaply over land. The world's first major rail line, from Liverpool to Manchester, opened in England in 1830. In the following decades, railroad travel became faster and railroad building boomed. By 1870, rail lines crisscrossed Britain, Europe, and North America.

One Thing Leads to Another As the Industrial Revolution got under wa .1 triggered a chain reaction. Once inventors developed machines that could produce large quantities of goods more efficiently, prices fell. Lower prices made goods more affordable and thus created more con­sumers who further fed the demand for goods. This new cycle caused a wave of economic and social changes that dramatically affected the way people lived.

Checkpoint Why was the development of railroads important to industrialization?

Chapter 7 Section 2 253


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