World History 3201 Study Guide January 2005 Turn of the Century

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World History 3201

Study Guide

January 2005
Turn of the Century
1. Examine the causes, struggles, and results of the suffragette movement of women. (p.8-10)
2. Define nationalism, autocracy, imperialism, authoritarian regime and universal suffrage.
Unit 1: The First World War (1914-1918)
1. Define: imperialism, nationalism, colony, Triple Alliance, Triple Entente, allied powers, central powers, ultimatum, dreadnought, u-boats, Black Hand, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, armistice, Wilson’s Fourteen Points, reparations and Treaty of Versailles
2. What were the reasons for expansion (imperialism) of the major imperial powers at the turn of the 20th century. (p.21-24)
3. Discuss the origins (causes) of World War I with reference to nationalism, economic rivalry (imperialism), the arms race and military alliances. (p.33-36, class notes)
4. Explain Germany’s role in the formation of alliances before World War I with reference to; a) Dual Alliance 1879, b) Triple Alliance 1882 and c) Reinsurance Treaty of 1887. (p.36)
5. (a) Identify on a map the major world empires in 1900. (p.23)
(b) Identify on a map of Europe alliances in 1914. Describe the advantages and the strengths and weaknesses of each alliance in geographic terms. (p.37)
6. Outline the sequence of events which led to the outbreak of World War I (p.41)
7. Discuss the impact of the assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand on the outbreak of World War I with reference to Serbian Nationalism, Austro-Hungarian/ Serbian relations, German Government response and Russian mobilization. (p.40-41)
8. Outline the German and British attitudes toward war on the eve of WWI. (p.41&43)
9. Discuss the significance of the following to the outcomes WWI: Battles of Marne 1914/1918, Battle of Tannenberg, Battle of the Somme (Beaumont-Hamel), 2nd Battle of Ypres 1915, Zimmerman Telegram, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
10. Explain the main points of the Schlieffen Plan (Germany) and Plan XVII (France). (p.44-46, class notes)
11. Identify on a map of Europe the major war fronts. (p.48 & 50)
12. Explain how trench warfare contributed to a stalemate on the Western Front.
13. Describe life and action in the trenches. (p.46-47)
14. Discuss the impact of each new military technology on the nature of war during WWI with reference to machine guns, tanks, submarines, aircraft, and gas (chemical warfare). (p. 51-53, class notes)
15. Compare and contrast the nature of war on the Eastern and Western Fronts.(p.46-51)
16. Explain why the United States joined the Allied Powers in 1917.(p.53-54, class notes)
17. Describe the impact the American entry into WWI and the Russian withdrawal from WWI affected the allied war effort and the war’s outcome. (p.51, 53-54)
18. Discuss the social, economic, and political impact World War I had on Canada. (class notes)
19. Who was responsible for the outbreak of WWI? Explain. (Chapter 2)
20. Summarize Wilson’s Fourteen Points. (p.56)
21. Analyze the Treaty of Versailles and evaluate its impact. (p.58-61)
22. Explain the French and British objectives at the Paris Peace Conference. (p.57-58)
23. Was the Treaty of Versailles a fair treaty? Explain.(Chapter 2)
24. List the reasons for creating the League of Nations. (p.59)
25. What was the impact of imposing such a harsh treatment on Germany? (59&61)
Unit 2 : Change and Conflict Between the Wars: 1919-1939
1) Define: Marxism, bourgeoisie, proletariat, fascism, communism, Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, March Revolution, Provisional Government, Petrograd Soviet, November Revolution, New Economic Policy, Five Year Plans, “collectivization”, kulaks, and Stalin “purges” (chapter 3, Class notes)
2. Explain Marx’s ideas on the following: a) the relations between social classes, b) work and economic value c) the bourgeoisie and d) the proletariat. (class notes)
3. Explain the impact each of the following had on causing discontent in pre-revolutionary Russia: a) the autocratic government of Czar Nicholas II, b) the conditions of peasants, workers, and soldiers, c) the outcomes of the Russo-Japanese War and WWI, and d) the influence of Grigori Rasputin (Chapter 3, class notes)
4. What policies of the Provisional Government led to its downfall in November 1917? (class notes)
5. Compare the roles of each of the following political leaders in the Russian Revolution.

a) Nicholas II b) Alexander Kerensky c) Vladimir Lenin d) Leon Trotsky (class notes)

6. Describe the events and the outcome of the Russian Civil War. (p.70)
7. Show how the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and “War Communism” enabled Lenin to consolidate power in Russia. (p.70)
8. What were the economic and social impacts of the New Economic Policy and Five Year Plans. (p.72-73)
9. Explain the methods by which Stalin exercised control over the Soviet people. (class notes)
10. Define the following terms:

a) Weimar Republic b) Munich Beer Hall Putch c) New Deal d) Enabling Act

e) Gestapo f) Anti-semitism g) Nuremburg Laws h) Kristallnacht

i) march on Rome j) Mein Kamph

11. List and explain the five basic elements of fascism. (p.75-76)
12. Assess how each of the following played an important role in Mussolini’s rise to power in Italy: a) economic difficulties in Italy, b) weakness of coalition governments and c) fears of socialism and capitalism. (p.77)

13. Show how each of the following posed a problem for the Weimar Republic and contributed to Hitler’s rise to power: a) the Treaty of Versailles, b) economic difficulties in Germany, and d) fear of communism by the middle class and business leaders (p.78-79)

14. List and discuss the major causes of the Great Depression. (p.87-88)
15. What was the impact of the Great Depression on the daily lives of people in Canada and the United States? (p.88-89)
16. Describe two domestic policies introduced by Mussolini and two introduced by Hitler to establish totalitarian states. ( p.77 & 82)
17. Analyze Nazi policies toward Jews. (p.82-83)
18. What were the three types of sanctions the League of Nations used to try to secure world peace.
19. Why was the League of Nations ineffective in dealing with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and the Italian invasion of Abyssinia (Ethiopia)? (p.91-92)
Unit 3: The Second World War: 1939-1945

1. Define: Pan-Germanism, Lebensraum, Anschluss, appeasement, Sudetenland, Munich Pact, Nazi-Soviet Pact, blitzkrieg, phoney war, Maginot Line, and kamikazes.

2. Identify the two main military alliances of World War II and list three key members of each. (Chapter 4, Class notes)
3. Analyze the League of Nations effectiveness in dealing with threats to world peace with reference to: a) Japanese occupation of Manchuria 1931-1932, b) Italian invasion of Ethiopia 1935, c) German rearmament 1935, d) German occupation of the Rhineland 1936, and e) Japanese all-out war against China in 1937.
4. What reasons did Germany give for its expansion during the late 1930s? Were they acceptable? (p.99-100)
5. Describe the policy of appeasement towards German expansion. Give two reasons why Britain and France were prepared to follow this policy. (p.101)
6. Was appeasement effective in containing the territorial expansion of the Nazis? Explain. (p.101-104)
7. Compare comments made by Neville Chamberlain and Winston Churchill on appeasement. What were their views on appeasement? (p.102-104)
8. Explain why Britain and France ended appeasement with Hitler’s demands on Poland. (p.103-104)
9. Why were the German’s so successful in the first year of WWII? (p.105-106)
10. Give two reasons why Britain was able to survive the Battle of Britain. (107-108)
11. Describe the impact of key battles on the outcome of WWII. (p. 107-119)
Unit 4: The Cold War
Students must use their knowledge to demonstrate an understanding of how the Cold War began and its impact on Europe.
Define: Cold War, containment, Uniting for Peace resolution, veto, Viet Cong, Viet Minh, détente, Star Wars

  1. Explain the impact of Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech and Stalin’s “two hostile camps” speech on the deterioration of Soviet-Western relations. (p.140)

  1. Analyze how the policy of containment was reflected in the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and the formation of NATO. (p.140-144, & 146-147)

  1. Evaluate the reaction of the Soviet Union to containment by referring to the Molotov Plan, Berlin Blockade/Airlift and formation of the Warsaw Pact. (144-147)

  1. Identify on a map NATO and Warsaw Pact members in 1955. (p.148, handout)

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of major Cold War incidents outside Europe-spotlight Korea, Cuba and Vietnam.(p.150,155, and 160-162)

  1. Analyze the Korean War, Cuban Missile Crisis and Vietnam War from the following

perspectives: (p.150,155, and 160-162)

• causes

• results

  1. Assess whether the Korean War provides a better example of American containment of United Nations peacemaking. (p.187-191)

  1. Draw conclusions about the impact of the Cold War era thinking given the events of that time period. (p.174-176)

  1. Analyze the impact of perestroika and glasnost on the economic and social conditions in the Soviet Union. (p.211-216)

  1. Assess the impact of Gorbachev’s reform on Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union and the global community with reference to the:

• collapse of communism in Eastern Europe (216, 221-225)

• re-unification of the two Germanys (216-219)

• end of the Cold War (211-216)

  1. Analyze each of the following challenges facing former Soviet republics:


• political reform

• economic stability

• ethnic relations

Unit 5: Regional Developments in Post-World War II Africa, Asia, and the Middle East

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the challenges of nationalism and independence movements after World War II - spotlight India, Egypt, and South Africa.

1. Define: self-determination, colonialism, Indian Independence Act, apartheid, African

National Congress.

2. Identify on a map the major colonial powers in the immediate years after World War II.


3. Given historical documents, explain the cause of the Suez Crisis. (p.191-194 & p.360)
4. Analyze how the following factors led to the decline of colonialism in the post-World War II

period: (p.313-314)

• premises of the Atlantic Charter

• colonial nationalist movements

• cost of maintaining colonies

• views towards colonialism by the United States and Soviet Union

5. Assess the methods used by Mahatma Gandhi, Gamal Abdel Nasser and Nelson

Mandela to promote nationalism and independence, and judge the effectiveness of

each. (notes, and p.319-320, 191-193, and 301- 302)
6. Evaluate the political, economic and social impact of apartheid on race relations in South

Africa. (295-301)

Unit 6: Challenges of the Modern Era

1. Define: arms proliferation, terrorism, human rights, ethnic cleansing.

2. Use examples to illustrate three peacekeeping roles that UN forces are

sometimes called uponto perform in troubled areas. (p.187- 195)

• mediation of disputes between conflicting parties

• deployment of military forces to maintain peace in civil or international wars

• deployment of military forces to ensure distribution of humanitarian aid
3. Analyze and determine the effectiveness of the role of recent UN peacemaking

efforts in Somalia and Bosnia – Herzegovina. (201-202 & 230-231)

4. Explain how the re-emergence of nationalism, ethnic diversity and religious

differences have created conflict in: (p.228-233, 202-204 & 317-319)

• former Yugoslavia

• Rwanda

• India-Pakistan
5. Assess how the quest for nuclear capability by Iraq and North Korea have affected

global security. (p.401-402)

6. Analyze how terrorist attacks such as those on the World Trade Centre and suicide

bombings in Israel have posed threats to world peace and security. (p.382-384 & 371-373)

7. Explain how the European Union has moved toward greater economic integration

with reference to:

• common currency (p.254)

• trade policy (p.247-248)

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