During the _________________ _______________________, the United States returned to isolationism.
Congress was more concerned with the _______________________ than international affairs.
So, they signed several _______________________ _______________ intended to prevent another war from occurring.
During the ___________________ in Europe, ________________________________ governments began to arise as people blamed governments for the bad economy.
Totalitarian governments are governments that take control of the _____________________ country and restrict _____________________ ________________________.
In Japan, Hideki ______________________ took power over the military. He invaded Manchuria (part of ___________________) in 1931.
This was designed to increase Japanese power in the world. The Japanese would also invade other countries in the ________________________.
Because of the neutrality acts, FDR could not use the ______________________ to stop Japan.
So, the U.S. just restricted ______________________, which cut off _______________ supplies to Japan.
In ________________, Adolf _________________________ seized power in Germany. He turned Germany into a totalitarian regime immediately.
Hitler intended to have all of _______________________ come under Germany’s rule.
First, he invaded _________________________________________. Then, in 1939, Hitler invaded ________________________. This started all-out war in Europe.
In the invasion of Poland and other countries, Germany used a strategy called “_____________________.”
Blitzkrieg means “________________________ _______________.”
In this strategy, Germany concentrated all of its __________________ and weapons at one place and _______________________________ the enemy.
Once they broke through, they _________________________ the enemy on all sides.
Germany also used devastating ____________ ____________________ to fight Great Britain.
_________________ no longer wanted the United States to remain neutral. So, he had ____________________ get rid of the neutrality acts.
They were replaced first by “_____________________-and-____________________.” In this policy, America sent supplies to Great Britain and the _______________________, but they had to pay cash immediately for the supplies
Then, America ended neutrality altogether with the _________________-________________ Act.
Lend-Lease policy meant the United States was giving _____________ ________________________ needed to Great Britain and the Allies.
__________________________ sank U.S. ships sending supplies to Great Britain. By ___________, the U.S. was in an undeclared ____________________ war with Germany.
Then, on ____________________________________________, the Japanese bombed an American naval base at ____________________ _____________________, Hawaii.
FDR, in a famous speech, called it “________________________________________________________________________.” _____________________ Americans were killed at Pearl Harbor.
The next day, the United States ______________________ _________________ on Japan. World War II had begun for America.
World War II was such a massive war, that it required the full power of the American __________________________.
FDR persuaded businesses to transform into ____________ _____________________. The government also controlled the country’s ___________________________ and prices.
In addition to urging the people to plant “victory gardens,” the government also __________________ food.
Americans were given ration __________________________, and they could only have as much food as their ration coupons allowed.
Soon, a ______________________ ___________________ of rations emerged.
Because _________________, __________________ _______________ were wanted on the battlefield, ________________________ and minorities were needed to work in factories.
Women took traditional jobs of men. “_________________________________________” became an icon of the period. Women were also allowed to serve in some support positions in the military.
A black labor leader, _________________________________________, threatened to march on Washington if blacks were not allowed to have equal jobs.
So, FDR created a ______________________________ to make sure blacks had equal access to jobs. This is when many northern blacks began voting ____________________________.
___________________________ workers were also welcomed to America to work on farms.
Despite this progress, there was still a huge race problem in America. Blacks had to serve in their own, ______________________________ units in the war.
They faced severe _______________________________ in the military.
Young ___________________________________-Americans were attacked in Los Angeles because their clothing was considered “_______________________________________.”
After Pearl Harbor, many people in western states were fearful of __________________________ people.
So, Japanese-Americans were ordered to sell all of their property and move into ________________________ in inland deserts.
In the case of ___________________________ v. ______________________ _______________, the Supreme Court said that the government had the right to put the Japanese into camps.
“The Big Three”
The three main “_____________________” during the war were Great Britain (led by ___________________ __________________________), the United States (led by Franklin Delano ___________________________), and the Soviet Union (led by ______________________ _______________________).
These three met throughout the war to make war ______________________ and plan for the post-war world.
From ____________________________ the Soviet Union fought Germany on the ground almost completely by itself. By 1942, the Nazis had control of nearly all of Europe except the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union tried to use their superior __________________________ to defeat Hitler. This resulted in the Soviet Union suffering the heaviest losses.
About ___________________________ Russians died during fighting in WWII.
The Battle of Britain
The Soviet Union desperately wanted the United States and the other Allies to form a “_____________________ _________________” on the west.
This would provide the Soviets with some relief. But Great Britain was more worried with “_____________________________________________.”
“The Battle of Britain” was an all-out ___________________________ campaign by the Nazis on Great Britain.
In order to combat this, Great Britain and the U.S. started building their own bombers to attack Germany.
Turning Points – Eastern Front
In 1942, Great Britain and the United States decide to invade ___________________ __________________ and take it back from Germany and Italy.
This was meant to take control of the _____________ ____________________ in the Middle East and cut off the Nazis’ supply.
This helped relieve some of the stress on the _________________ __________________.
But, one of the turning points in the war was the ___________________ of __________________________.
Here, the Soviets fought hard and lost ______________________ of men. This finally stopped the German _________________________ across Europe.
During the _________________, the Jews began to face severe persecution and ________________________ in Germany.
During the 30s, laws were passed in Germany that required __________________________________ for “inferior” people. Over ______________________ people were sterilized against their own will.
The Holocaust came from a long history of ______________-_____________________________ (hatred of Jews) and _____________________ _______________________.
In ___________, the __________________________ _______________ were passed. These laws greatly limited Jews’ rights. They also made it illegal for Jews to have _____________ with “____________________” (whites).
In ____________, the Nazis began targeting Jewish neighborhoods and burning down Jewish _________________________, homes, and businesses.
This was called ______________________________ or “Night of the Broken Glass.”
Kristallnacht and the Nuremberg Laws were widely ________________________, but no action was taken by the world community to stop it.
_________________________ __________________ of the United States, Great Britain, and others were not changed to allow Jews to come and find safety.
Once the war started, there was no _____________________ action taken to stop the shipment of Jews to camps.
“_____________________________________” was the name given to the program of trying to exterminate all Jews in Europe.
Jews were sent to “________________________” and “________________________” camps.
This program of genocide ended with over ________________________ Jews being murdered and 5.5 million others.
Jews were sent to camps where sometimes they were sent directly to the ______________ ________________________. Some were saved temporarily because they were deemed fit to ______________.
Jews were often given a ________________ of ___________________ to make them believe they were going to take a shower.
As the war ended, the soldiers who found the camps and the ______________________ were horrified.
The “___________________________________” were set up to charge the Nazis for their war crimes.
Many of the Nazis pleaded that they were “___________________________________________________.” But, these people were still executed or given prison sentences.
This set the precedent that ________________________________ are responsible for their actions during times of war.
__________ Nazis were sentenced to death.
After the war, many Jews began migrating to the area of the Middle East known as _____________________________.
Soon, the _____________________ ______________________ created the state of _____________________ for Jews. This is where many Jews live today.
The ______________________ ___________________ supported the creation of Israel and has supported Israel as an ally ever since.
The Cold War
Beginning of the Cold War
The Soviet Union and the United States were only allies during the war because they wanted to defeat ____________________________.
After the war, they immediately had disagreements over the _______________-________________ world.
The USSR wanted to create governments in Poland and other countries around it to help prevent another German ____________________________.
The United States wanted Poland and these other countries to have ______________________ to decide on their government.
The capital city of Germany, ________________________, was split into ____________ and _______________. Germany was also split into east and west.
The ____________________ was controlled by the United States and its Allies. The __________________ was controlled by the Soviet Union.
In 1946, Winston Churchill proclaimed that an “_____________________________” had fell on Europe. The curtain separated ______________________-controlled countries from the rest of the world.
In _______________________ and Turkey, the government was threatening to turn _______________________________. The United States did not want this.
This is when the United States began a policy called “___________________________________.” This policy was meant to stop countries from becoming _____________________________.
In Greece and Turkey, the United States gave money to help the ___________________________ leaders fight the Communists there.
“____________________________” would be an important policy throughout the Cold War for the United States.
“Containment” was a policy first used by President Truman, so it is also known as the “____________________ ______________________.”
The United States was afraid that Europe’s terrible economy would lead to the rise of __________________________ in many countries.
So in order to “contain” Communism in Europe, the ________________________ Plan was introduced. The Marshall Plan gave _________________________ to Europe to rebuild their economies.
This would provide money for _______________________ reforms to stop Communism.
In June of ___________, the first major crisis of the Cold War took place. The Soviet Union began blockading all of the roads and railways leading to _____________ _________________.
The Soviets hoped to cut off American ________________ supplies and troops from entering, and basically take over all of ______________________.
In response, the Western Allies (U.S., Great Britain, France) began what was known as the “_________________________ ______________________.”
The plan was to provide West Berlin with all of the necessary food and supplies by __________________ into West Berlin and dropping off them off.
The _________________________ refused to believe that this plan would actually work.
But by the spring of 1949, there were ________________________ supplies being sent into West Berlin than there were before through ____________________ and ___________________.
This was a huge ________________________________ for the Soviets. America had won the first major crisis of the Cold War.
So, the Soviets finally stopped the _________________________ of West Berlin.
East Germany (controlled by the USSR) had strict _________________________ on people moving to West Germany.
But despite the restrictions, during the 1950s, ________________________ people escaped East Germany and moved to West Germany. Most of these people escaped by passing through ____________________.
In order to stop people from escaping, the Soviet Union erected the ______________________ ____________ in _________________. This was meant to keep people from escaping from East Germany to West Germany.
After the wall was built, almost all ______________________________ from East to West Germany stopped. The wall worked.
1949 – The Cold War Escalates
A series of events in _______________ made the Cold War ______________________ – or get worse.
First, the United States formed ________________ – ______________________________________________________ ________________________________.
This organization was a system of ________________________ that were directed at preventing the Soviet Union from becoming too powerful.
Also in 1949, the Soviet Union tested their first ____________________ bomb. This frightened people in the United States and led to the U.S. accelerating the creation of its first “__________________________________.”
Also during 1949, a ____________________ war broke out in ____________________ between the Nationalists and the ___________________________. America supported the Nationalists.
But, the _________________________________ won, and China became a Communist country. This worried many who felt China was the first of many countries who could turn Communist.
Mao Tes-tung (__________________________________) was the leader of the Communist forces in China. He became the head of the Chinese government.
When World War II ended, _________________________ was divided between North Korea, which was __________________________, and South Korea, which was ______________________________.
In ____________________, North Korea ___________________________ South Korea. President Truman believed that the Soviet Union was behind the invasion. He urged the United Nations to stop it.
The United Nations supported “__________________________________” but not an all-out war to defend South Korea. So, the United States sent troops.
When U.S. troops gained the advantage and crossed the ______________________________ into North Korea, China intervened in the war and sent troops. The Chinese pushed the U.S. troops back below the 38th parallel.
The public no longer supported the war when this happened. So, a peace was signed and Communism was “______________________________” to North Korea.
About _____________________________ American troops died in the Korean War.
In 1955, the Soviet Union organized the “___________________________________.” This was a treaty organization meant to counter NATO.
Then, in _________________, the Soviets launched the first satellite into Earth’s orbit. It was called _____________________________.
Sputnik shocked the world. The United States was determined to match the Soviet Union’s space technology, this was the start of the “______________________________.”
The United States passed the ______________________________________________________, which invested more money in math and _____________________ in order to win the space race and arms race.
American began using _______________________ _______________________ and schools began doing nuclear bomb test drills.
The Red Scare: 1940s and 1950s
The (2nd) Red Scare came as Americans were scared because of the Soviet _________________ _______________, the Korean War, and the fall of __________________ to Communism.
The Truman Administration told Americans that the Cold War was a battle of good (_______________________) vs. _____________________ (Communism).
They released _____________________________ about the evils of the Soviet Union. This led Americans to look for enemies within the country.
_______________________________ took advantage of the fear of Communism. They had not won a presidential election since ____________________ and they were desperate.
They began accusing the Democrats of being “_____________________ on Communism.”
Senator ____________________ ______________________ would be the leader of the Republicans who criticized the Democrats.
McCarthy began accusing countless people within the government of being Communists or ____________ for the Soviet Union.
He used the strategy of “________________________” – meaning that it was a lie so crazy that people would never believe that someone could make it up. (originally ________________________ idea)
Then, public hearings were ____________________________ in ________________ for the people that McCarthy had accused.
In these hearings, McCarthy appeared to Americans to be a ______________________.
This caused the public to reject McCarthy. The hearings found that there were some Soviet spies within the government, but the vast majority of people were _________________________.
During the 1950s, Communist forces under the leadership of _____________________ __________________ overthrew the government in Cuba.
Immediately after taking office, Castro began to have a close relationship with the ____________________ Union.
He also began Communist ___________________________ in Cuba. He took over American businesses and brought them under the control of the government.
The fact that Cuba had fallen to Communism and was so close the United States scared many Americans.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
The _______________________ ________________________ ____________________ (_____________) came up with a plan during Dwight Eisenhower’s presidency on how to deal with Cuba.
The CIA plan was to train Cubans __________________ (Cubans in America who escaped or were expelled from Cuba) to invade Cuba and start a _____________________________.
The CIA believed that once the Cubans began invading, _________________ _____________________ would join them in overthrowing Castro.
The Cubans were being trained for the invasion when President ______________________________________________ took office.
Kennedy approved the invasion. So, in ____________________ of __________________, the Cuban exiles tried to invade. It was a miserable failure.
This was a major defeat for the United States in the Cold War. _______________________________ lived on in Cuba.
“Cuban Missile Crisis”
In the Fall of _______________, American spy planes photographed _________________________ __________________________ sites begin built in _______________________.
Castro and the Soviet leader, Nikita ________________________________, had a secret plan to start arming Cuba with nuclear missiles.
With Cuba being only ___________ miles from the U.S., it would be easy for a nuclear attack to be launched from there.
President _______________________ was determined to stop any nuclear missiles from coming to Cuba.
So, he ordered a _______________________ of Cuba to prevent Soviet ships from coming with nuclear missiles.
He demanded that the Soviets ___________________________ all weapons sites in Cuba. He never expected the Soviets to agree.
Instead, Kennedy was ready for __________________. For _____________ days, American ships blockaded Cuba, and America and the Soviet Union inched closer to war.
Finally, the tensions ended and an ____________________________ was signed.
The Cuba Missile Crisis was the closest the two countries ever came to war, and the closest the world has ever come to _________________________ __________________________.
As a result of the crisis, a permanent ________________________ was installed between the United States and the Soviet Union in order to prevent ____________________ __________________.
Also as a result of the crisis, both countries signed a _____________________ test __________________ treaty.
Cold War in the Middle East
During the 1950s, the ______________ helped the “_______________________________” overthrow the government of Iran and become __________________.
The Shah was an oppressive __________________________, but the U.S. supported him because it created a ______________________ country near the Soviet Union.
The Shah’s government was later overthrown in the _________________. As a result, ____________ Americans were taken hostage in Iran for more than a year, until they were finally released.
In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded _____________________________. In order to “_________________________” Communism, the United States supported one of the groups who fought against the Soviets.
These rebels won the war over the Soviet Union, but they would later turn into a terrorist group called _________ _________________________.
Al Qaeda is the group who was responsible for the attacks on America on _______________________________________.
French Control of Vietnam
From the late 1880s until the _______________________, Vietnam was a colony of ______________________.
After _____________________________, however, a group of nationalists called the _________________ ___________________ wanted to fight to end French control of Vietnam.
They were led by a man named _________ _____________ _________________, who was supportive of ______________________________ ideas.
Presidents Truman and Eisenhower sent aid, ________________________, and money to help the French, but they were defeated badly.
In the last battle, the Viet Minh dealt the French a devastating blow. _______________________ French soldiers died. After this, the French signed a peace which gave Vietnam independence.
The Geneva Accords
In 1956, ________________________, France, Great Britain, the _________________ ____________________, and the United States met to discuss what to do with _________________________.
“_________________________________________” was the final agreement of this meeting. This said that Vietnam would be split at the ____________ parallel into 2 zones: North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
The accords said that in 1956, ____________________________ would be held and North and South Vietnam would be ______________________________ into one country.
The government would be based on who the people voted for. _______ ________ __________ would probably be elected because he was popular in Vietnam.
So, the United States did not support holding elections because Ho Chi Minh was a _____________________________.
The Viet Cong
The ___________________ Vietnamese government went against the ___________________ ___________________ and did NOT hold elections, since they knew Ho Chi Minh would win.
President ____________________________ supported this decision. The “_______________________ theory” was the reason for Eisenhower’s support.
Domino theory said that if one country falls to Communism, it will start a _________________ _____________________ of other countries becoming Communist too.
As a result, a group called the ___________________ ___________________ (who were led by Ho Chi Minh) developed to try and overthrow South Vietnam.
The United States began supplying military aid and ____________________ ___________________ to the government of South Vietnam to fight the Viet Cong.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
When President Kennedy took office, he steadily __________________________ the number of military advisers sent to South Vietnam.
Then, President ________________________ B. ___________________________ took office in November of ______________ following Kennedy’s assassination.
Then, in 1964, the _____________________ of _______________________ ___________________ occurred. This was when three ____________________ Vietnamese torpedo boats shot at an American ship.
Later on, it was discovered that the incident was very __________________________, but it led to Congress passing the Gulf of Tonkin _____________________________.
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allowed President Johnson to _____________________ ___________________ to help South Vietnam WITHOUT the approval of ____________________________.
Congress never made a _____________________ _______________________ of war against Vietnam.
The War Escalates
As President Johnson sent more and more troops, there was still no __________________. The Viet Cong would not go away. So, Johnson continued to send more troops. By 1967, there were ______________American troops in Vietnam.
Johnson wanted to send more troops so he did not appear “____________________ on Communism” as Republicans had said he was.
Americans’ opposition to the war grew. People felt the __________________ was unfair because the rich found ways around it.
Thousands of Americans took to the streets to _______________________ against the war. These protests appeared on ___________________________ nightly.
The Tet Offensive
But the protests became more and more ________________________. This caused the protestors to lose public support.
The media coverage led America to become divided into war “____________________” and “____________________.”
Then, in January of 1968, the Viet Cong launched the “______________ ___________________________.” This was a series of _________________________ attacks on American soldiers.
The Tet Offensive was very successful for the __________________ ____________________. It was shown on American television, and it led to most of the country to begin to oppose the war.
The war was a miserable _________________________ for Lyndon Johnson. So, in a speech on national television, Johnson announced he would not run for _______-________________________.
Richard _______________________ was elected in 1968. He began a policy of ___________________________________, which meant the Vietnamese were going to fight the war themselves.
But, he also invaded ____________________________, where many Viet Cong were. This angered anti-war protestors.
At ______________ _________________ University, four college students were shot and killed by National Guardsmen as they protested the invasion of Cambodia. This was called “The ___________________________________________________.”
Nixon then started a policy of “__________________________” – which meant relaxing of tensions. There were several _________________________ signed during détente to relax the Cold War.
In 1973, Nixon announced that an agreement had been made with North Vietnam and American soldiers were __________________________ ___________________.
In 1975, the capital of South Vietnam, __________________________, fell to the North Vietnamese. The policy of “____________________________” failed in Vietnam as the entire country was Communist.
Distrust of the Government
________________________ Americans died in Vietnam, and the war was a failure.
“_____________________________________________” were released during the war. These showed that the government was actually lying to the public and to Congress about the war.
Furthermore, the _____________ ______________ _______________________, the use of Agent Orange, and _____________________ led to distrust between Americans and the government.
This is called the “_________________________ ________________.”