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Chapter 4 Early Empires
Fall of Sumer 3,000-2,000 B.C.

  • Sumer city states were independently run by a king

  • Often city states would fight with one another

  • This made Sumer weak and vulnerable to outside forces.

Your summary of key points: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Empires in the order they controlled Mesopotamia:
Akkadian Empire: 2, 350 B.C.

  • Sargon of Akkad-powerful leader who took control of Mesopotamia

  • He created the first empire

  • The empire lasted 200 years then fell apart because of outside attacks.

Babylonian Empire: 2,000 B.C.

  • The Amorites invaded the Akkadian Empire and made the city of Babylon their capital city.

  • Hammurabi- an Amorite king, ruled with a code of laws/rules for people to obey.

  • The code of laws were written in cuneiform and posted near the temple.

  • The code listed rights and punishments and were called the Code of Hammurabi.

  • The code established the idea that societies need laws.

Assyrian Empire: 850-650 B.C.

  • A powerful army with iron swords/tipped spears, advanced weaponry.

  • They used ladders and dug tunnels to break into cities.

  • Many feared them because they slaughtered and burned the cities they attacked

  • Exile- they forced people to move from their homelands.

  • They were a huge empire: conquered Syria, Babylonia, Egypt, and Palestine.

  • Ruler= Ashurabanipal

  • Cruel.

New Babylonian Empire (Chaldeans)

  • The Medes and the Chaldeans (2 Assyrian enemies) joined forces to defeat the Assyrians.

  • City of Babylon was their capital city.

  • Nebuchadnezzar II- Chaldean ruler who built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

  • Empire fades with weak rulers after Nebuchadnezzar

  • Internal conflicts about religion divided the Chaldeans.

  • Cyrus of Persia conquered the land.

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